Skip to main content

Full text of "An universal military dictionary, in English and French; in which are explained the terms of the principal sciences that are necessary for the information of an officer"

See other formats


-"..  -  ■_  -   -.    -    '• 




cs   *  ' 

,  : 


II     •        I 

IHINGS  AS  THEY  Alii-:. 
I  itnrn'i  Poems 

/  -   «• 











Author  of  the  Regimental  Companion  ;   Comprehensive  View  ;  Poems,  dedicated,  by 
Permission,  to  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  of  Wales,  &c.  &c. 

Malheur  anx  apprentifs  dont  les  sens  egares 
Veulent,  sans  s'appliquer,  franchir  tous  les  degres  : 
Temeraires,  craignez  le  sort  qui  vous  menace  ! 
Phaeton  pent  seul  par  sa  funeste  audace  : 
Si  vous  guidez  trop  tot  le  Char  brillant  de  Mars, 
Songez  que  tout  l'Etat  doit  courir  vos  hasards. 

King  of  Prussia's  Art  of  Wak. 



Printed  for 







THE    DUKE    OF   YORK, 


Je  n'ai  point  le  sot  amour-propre  de  voir  mieux  qu'un  autre  ;  si   chacun  avoit 
la  meme  franchise,  il  vous  tiendroit  le  meme  langage. 

Precis  de  la  ViePubliquedu  Due  D'Otrante.— p.  65. 


I  continue  to  inscribe  this  Work  to  your  Royal  Highness, 
because,  under  your  auspices,  the  British  army  has  arrived  at  a  state  of 
discipline  and  regulation,  by  which  success  abroad  has  been  obtained, 
and  tranquillity  at  home  secured. 

The  Army  stands  indebted  to  you  for  the  confirmation  and  im- 
provement of  that  system  which  Frederick  the  Great  of  Prussia  first 
reduced  to  practice,  and  which  has  been  ably  carried  into  execution 
by  the  united  efforts  of  those  officers  who  have  acted  under  your 

Victories  gained  in  the  field  may  reflect  the  greatest  honour  upon 
men  that  have  gallantly  fought  the  battles  of  their  Country ;  but 
victories,  after  all,  are  little  more  than  the  fruits  and  consummation 
of  those  well  digested  principles  by  which  the  arduous  science  of 
war  is  managed,  and  without  which  no  army  can  be  well  conducted, 
or  finally  triumphant.  Even  he,#  who  but  lately  astonished  every 
quarter  of  the  civilized  globe  by  his  military  exploits  and  political 
daring,  might  still  have  stood  at  the  head  of  a  great  nation,  had  he 
been  governed  by  something  less  intoxicating  than  mere  success. 

That  soldiers  are  necessary  in  every  state,  the  wildest  theorist  must 
acknowledge ;  and  the  good  or  bad  direction  of  their  energies  alone 
makes  them  a  curse  or  a  blessingr  to  community. 

Five  and  twenty  years  hard  experience  in  a  neighbouring  country 
must  have  convinced  mankind,  that  mere  abstract  reasoning  is  not 
sufficient  to  cope  with  the  vices  and  frailties  of  human  nature.  The 
dissolution  of  one  frame  of  government  may  be  effected  by  arms,  but 
unless  arms  be  resorted  to  for  the  support  of  another,  anarchy  must 

*  Bonaparte. 



follow  until  the  old  system  be  restored,  or  a  better  one  substituted 
in  its  room  :  so  that  whether  we  have  recourse  to  Alfred's  antiquated 
plan  of  national  defence,  to  a  militia  as  it  now  exists,  or  to  a  regular 
army,  the  consequences  must  be  the  same.  The  whole  reasoning,  in 
fact,  is  neither  more  nor  less  than  a  distinction  without  a  difference. 
The  same  may  indeed  be  said  of  Party,  which  has  been  truly  called, 
the  madness  of  many  for  the  gain  of  a  few. 

These  are  truths  as  unquestionable,  as  that  the  necessity  for  criminal 
jurisprudence  is  rendered  indispensible  by  the  depravity  of  human 
nature.  In  the  hands  of  a  wicked  despot,  an  army  becomes  a  devour- 
ing locust,  and  a  creature  of  ruin  and  desolation  ;  in  those  of  a 
man  whose  highest  object  is  the  welfare  of  his  country,  it  is  the 
palladium  of  the  best  rights  and  interests  of  a  nation;  and  it  is  not 
flattery  to  say,  that  you  have  studiously  endeavoured  to  render  it  so. 
Even  the  honour  and  honesty  of  its  component  parts  have  been  kept 
in  sight;  and  every  species  of  fraud  on  the  industrious  tradesman  has 
been  discountenanced  by  the  restrictive  vigilance  of  your  rules.* 

Under  circumstances  by  no  means  encouraging  to  any  writer,  I 
have  attempted  to  add  my  mite  to  the  general  stock  of  military  know- 
ledge. That  1  have,  in  some  degree,  succeeded,  is  shewn  by  the  wide 
circulation  of  the  work,  and  most  especially  by  the  gratifying  man- 
ner in  which  you  have  done  me  the  honour  to  receive  it.f  The  path 
I  have  been  doomed  to  tread  has  been  lowly,  but  not  wholly  destitute 
of  merit,  or  unfruitful  to  the  service ;  and  although  thousands  may 
have  eclipsed  me  by  the  brilliancy  of  their  career  in  arms,  I  have 
the  hardihood  to  assert,  that  few  have  done  more,  in  zeal  and  assi- 
duity, to  second  those  views  which  have  reflected  so  much  honour  upon 

*  In  order  to  secure  the  profession  of  arms  from  the  contaminating  touch  of 
fraud,  and  to  convince  officers  of  every  rank  and  description,  that  the  slightest  de- 
viation from  honesty  will  be  noticed  at  Head-Quarters,  it  is  an  admitted  prin- 
ciple with  His  Royal  Highness  the  Commander  in  Chief,  the  Right  Honourable 
the  Secretary  at  War,  and  the  Right  Honourable  the  Master-General  of  the  Ord- 
nance, to  receive  remonstrances  from  the  lowest  tradesman,  and  to  put  defaulters 
under  suspension  and  stoppage  of  pay  until  the  debt  be  discharged.  In  very 
gross  cases  dismissal  from  the  service  may  take  place.  This  is  as  it  ought  to 
be;  for  why  should  a  man,  with  honour  on  his  lips,  indulge  dishonest  views  in  his 
heart,  under  the  cloak  of  professional  impunity  ? 

t  Extract  from  an  Official  Letter  sent  to   the  Author   on  his  presenting   the 

second  edition  : 

Horse- Guards,   2lst  January,  1804. 
'  I  am  also  directed  to  inform  you,  that  His  Royal  Highness  very  much  applauds 
viiir  zeal,  which   has  induced  you  to  allot  so  much  of  your  time  to  the  study  of 
military  subjects;  and  he  considers  the  several  treatises  which  you  have  presented 
to  the  public,  to  have  been  very  beneficial  to  the  service.' 

Addressed,  (Signed)         W.  H.  CLINTON. 

Charles  James,  Esq. 

Albany,  Piccadilly. 

X  See  Hints  to  Lord  Rawdon,  now  the  Earl  of  Moira,  published  by  Faulder,  in 
1700;  Comprehensive  View,  in  1796;  and  the  7th  edition  of  the  Regimental 
Companion;  and  Military  Dictionary,  originally,  published  in  ISO'.',  by  T.  Egerton, 



Daring  your  administration  of  the  Forces,  not  only  the  officer,  but 
the  private  soldier,  has  been  raised  from  a  comparative  state  of  indi- 
gence and  degradation  into  one  of  comfort  and  respectability  among 
his  fellow  citizens ;  their  wives,  widows,  and  children  have  been 
relieved  ;*  and  even  the  higher  orders  of  the  profession  have  been 
placed  in  a  condition  of  honourable  independence.  Emulation  has 
received  an  additional  incentive  by  honorary  marks  of  distinction,  and 
the  unavoidable  calls  of  life  have  been  answered  by  a  fair  appeal  to 
national  justice  and  liberality.  The  soldier  of  fortune  and  the  unpro- 
tected officer,  with  grey  hairs  and  crippled  limbs,  are  no  longer  left  to 
vegetate  upon  a  miserable  half-pay  with  nominal  rank  ;*f  and  although 
they  may  remain  without  regiments,  they  are  still  above  the  want  of 
those  means  which  are  required  for  the  support  of  their  respective 
stations.  And  this  has  been  done  upon  the  best  of  all  good  princi- 
ples, that  of  justice  to  the  individual  and  economy  to  the  public  ;  for 
as  regiments  become  vacant  they  are  filled  up  according  to  seniority,^ 
and  are  given  to  such  meritorious  officers  as  have  distinguished  them- 
selves on  actual  service.  In  the  distribution  of  military  pensions  the 
same  regard  has  been  paid  to  the  public  purse;  for  as  officers  recover, 
and  become  enabled  to  return  to  the  full  exercise  of  their  functions, 
they  are  examined  by  the  Medical  Board,  and  the  allowance  drops. 
The  Date  obohtm  JBetisario  is  no  longer  a  matter  of  reproach  to 
Englishmen  ;  while  a  profligate  expenditure  of  their  means  for  the 
exclusive  benefit  of  the  army,  ceases  to  be  a  just  object  of  com- 
plaint. The  interior  economy  of  corps  has  been  equally  benefited 
by  the  wisdom  of  your  arrangements.  Troops  and  companies 
have  obtained  effective  officers  by  the  abolition  of  nominal  captains 
in  the  several  field  officers.  The  Colonel's  company,  instead  of 
being  left,  as  it  formerly  was,  to  the  sole  direction  of  an  ensign,  (for  the 
adjutant  was  usually  its  lieutenant,)  is  now  under  the  immediate  com- 
mand of  a  captain  and  two  subalterns  ;  and  the  gay  and  thoughtless  gre- 
nadier or  light-infantry  paymaster  has  been  replaced  by  an  unassuming 
man  of  conduct  and  calculation.  Nor  have  the  superior  departments 
or  the  army  been  less  fortunate  under  your  influence  and  personal  di- 
rection. Not  only  the  General  Staff  has  been  improved  and  new-mo- 
delled by  you,  but  all  its  minor  branches  have  been  made  to  corre- 
spond with  the  exigencies  of  real  service.  You  have  destroyed  that 
system  of  plurality  which  once  prevailed  in  the  army,  and  which  is  so 
destructive  in  every  well-regulated  state,  civil,  military  or  ecclesiastical. 
We  no  longer  see  vested  in  the  same  person  the  contradictory  duties  of 
captain-lieutenant,  adjutant,  paymaster,  quarter-master,  and  chaplain  by 

*  See  the  Regulations  respecting  the  provision  for  the  widows  and  children, 
and  the  security  of  the  effects  of  deceased  officers  and  soldiers. 

t  For  particulars  respecting  the  melancholy  situation  of  a  General  Officer  of 
this  description,  before  the  allowance  took  place,  see  the  Preface  to  the  last  edi- 
tion of  the  Regimental  Companion. — Ab  uno  disce  oinnes. 

I  The  Royal  Branches  are,  of  course,  an  exception  to  the  rule;  and  this  excep- 
tion is  no  more  than  one  of  the  scarce  feathers  in  the  prerogative. 

a  a 


proxy,*  for  the  shameless  purpose  of  throwing  into  one  pocket  the 
accumulated  pay  and  allowances  of  those  situations  without  the  possi- 
bility of  lining  justice  to  any.  In  a  moral  point  of  view,  the  condition 
of  the  British  army  has  been  such  as  to  cause  it  to  be  respected  abroad, 
and  esteemed  at  home.  Even  the  French,  under  the  severe  mortifica- 
tion of  defeat,  do  not  refuse  their  tribute  to  the  general  good  beha- 
viour of  our  men  and  officers. 

With  practical  knowledge  of  the  field  and  undaunted  assiduity  in 
office,  Your  Royal  Highness  has  done  that  for  the  Army  which  the 
late  Mr.  1*111,  at  his  outset  in  life,  and  every  wise  man  besides,  has 
endeavoured  to  do  for  the  state  at  large  ;  you  have  not  only  reformed 
its  abuses,  but  you  have  raised  the  long  tried  valour  of  its  soldiers 
into  acknowledged  skill  and  reputation  ;  you  have  wisely  dismissed 
all  parade  and  imposing  grandeur,  to  receive  officers  and  common 
citizens — for  your  situation  embraces  the  concerns  of  both  classes — 
as  one  honest  man  would  receive  another;  you  have  not  done,  as 
many,  most  unfortunately  for  the  country,  sometimes  do — you  have 
not  heard  through  the  ears,  or  seen  through  the  eyes  of  others  ;  you 
have  personally  listened  to,  and  patiently  considered,  the  different 
statements  that  have  been  laid  before  you;  and  thereby  enabled  every 
man  of  zeal  and  ability  to  offer  his  contribution  to  the  public  service. 

It  is  well  known,  that  one  of  the  boldest  and  the  wisest  manoeuvres 
in  naval,  or  military,  tactics,  was  first  suggested  by  a  civilian,  and 
afterwards  successfully  practised  by  Lord  Rodney  in  1 782,  and  by 
Lord  Nelson  during  the  late  war.  It  was  also  imitated  by  Bonaparte; 
— I  mean  that  of  cutting  the  enemy's  line  asunder. f  Let  it  not  then 
be  said  that  books  and  writings  are  useless  to  the  service,  or  that  no 
notice  ought  to  be  taken  of  those  men  who  devote  their  time  and 
health  to  Theory  and  Research. 

Animal  courage  most  unquestionably  deserves  its  eulogy ;  but 
something  also  is  due  to  genius,  skill  and  conduct,  especially  in  a 
nation  where  courage  springs  from  the  cradle,  and  accompanies  every 
true-born   Briton  to  the  grave. 

W  hen  the  army  was  first  placed  in  your  hands,  you  found  it  little 
better  than  an  Augaean  stable,  choked  by  undue  promotions,  and 
reeking  with  the  Sale,  Exchange  and  Purchase  of  Commissions  ;  you 
found  Colonels,  with  their  schoolboy  habits  still  about  them,  standing 
nt  the  head  of  battalions,  and  Ensigns  emerging  from  the  Nursery  into 
troops  and  companies.  These  evils  were  obviated  by  your  judicious 
regulations,  in  which,  while  seniority  was  duly  respected,  the  path  to 
promotion  was  not  closed  against  superior  merit.  You  have  happily 
steered  between  the  two  extremes  of  an  overweening  adherence  to 
mere  rule  and  regulation,  and  an  indiscriminate  deviation  from  all  sys- 
tem ;|  and  after  having  borne  the  attacks  of  Calumny  in  its  grossest 

*  See  a  Desultory  Sketch  of  the  Abuses  in  the  Militia,  addressed  to  the  Earl  of 
Moira  in  t794  ;  published  by  John  Bell,  Oxford-street. 
t  See  Clerk's  Naval  Tactics. 
t  See  the  Seventeenth  Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  Military  Inquiry. 


sense,  and  been  vindicated  by  Recantation  in  its  purest  spirit,  you  re- 
main in  your  dignified  station  under  the  best  of  all  pretensions,  that 
of  doing  reell. 

This,  Sir,  is  the  unaltered  language,  and  these  are  the  uninvited  sen- 
timents of  a  plain  individual-,  whose  emoluments  from  the  service  have 
always  been  little,  and  whose  rank  is  less ;  who  is  not  bribed  to  flatter 
you,  or  any  other  distinguished  personage,  either  by  a  sense  of  past,  or  a 
hope  of  future,  favour  ;  and  who  thus  adds  his  slender  testimony  to 
that  of  the  army  at  large,  in  acknowledging,  that  from  the  General 
Officer  down  to  the  widow  and  orphan  child  inclusive,  the  happy 
effects  of  your  interference  continue  to  be  felt. 

totamijue  diffusa  per  artus 

Mens  agitat  niolem,  et  magno  se  corpore  miscet. — ArinoiL. 

I  have  the  honour  to  be, 
Your  Royal  Highness's 

Very  obedient,  humble  Servant, 

London,  November,  18l6. 


Although  this  Edition  has  considerably  exceeded  the  proposed  limits 
of  the  Author's  plan,  and  contains  more  technical  terms  than  are  to  be 
found  in  the  original  undertaking,  it  is  nevertheless  so  far  reduced  as  to 
be  rendered  more  portable,  and  so  far  abridged  as  to  be  less  elaborate  in 
its  explanation,  and  more  copious  in  its  terms. 

Many  words  have  been  added  in  this  impression  which  are  not  to  be 
found  in  any  work  extant;  and  it  is  no  small  gratification  to  the  Author 
to  see  the  utility  of  his  original  introduction  of  foreign  phrases  sanc- 
tioned by  events,  in  continental  warfare,  that  have  raised  the  character  of 
the  British  army  to  the  highest  pinnacle  of  glory.  More  than  fourteen 
years  have  elapsed,  since  he  first  ventured  to  give  the  explanation  of 
military  terms  in  general,  with  the  admixture  of  French  words.  The 
propriety  of  this  introduction  is   now    unquestionable. 

Without  pretending  to  know  more  than  his  neighbours,  or  to  be  endowed 
with  deeper  sagacity  than  others,  the  Author  was  well  aware,  from  an  early 
view  of  the  French  Revolution,  and  a  mature  consideration  of  its  course, 
that  the  military  spirit  of  France  would  either  over-run  Furope,  and  lodge 
some  of  her  moveable  legions  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  or  be  forced 
back  by  the  awakened  energies  of  the  Continent  upon  her  own  distracted 
bosom  ;  in  either  of  which  unavoidable  consequences,  a  knowledge  of  the 
French  language  must  be  useful,  and  indeed  necessary,  to  the  British 
officer.  One  of  these  consequences  has  taken  place  :  and  Great  Britain 
possesses  the  exclusive  glory  of  seeing  that  power  by  which  her  very 
existence,  as  an  independent  nation,  had  been  repeatedly  menaced, 
placed  under  the  guardian  wing  of  a  British  Chief,  whose  skill,  courage, 
and  good  fortune  are  unexampled  in  history.* 

Of  the  execution  of  the  Work  itself,  either  in  its  original  state,  subse- 
quent augmentation,  or  present  abridgement,  the  Author  can  only  say, 
that  far  from  being  satisfied  himself,  he  has  done  his  best  to  satisfy 
others.  He  has  endeavoured  to  reduce  the  subject  matter  of  two 
volumes  into  a  more  portable  impression,  without  losing  the  smallest 
portion  of  its  military  cast  and  tenour;  and  by  discharging  a  redundancy 
of  explanation,  he  has  obtained  room  for  several  fresh  words.  Some 
entire  new  matter  has  also  been  admitted  ;  particularly  that  connected 
with  the  most  important  sieges  which  have  occurred  since  the  invention 
of  gunpowder;  and  likewise  the  consequences  that  have  ensued  from 
those  operations.  The  list  of  battles,  which  has  appeared  in  former 
editions,  is  now  given  with  additional  matter,  and  fresh  illustration.  The 
Author  is  free  to  confess,  that  after  having  discovered  many  contradictory 
dates  in  recent  publications,  he  has  been  enabled  to  correct  them  by  a 
reference  to  that  well  executed  and  invaluable  collection  of  mint-medals 
in  which  the  principal  events  of  the  reign  of  Bonaparte,  or  Napoleon  the 
1st,  are  minutely  described  ;  and  in  imitation  of  which  a  series  is  in  pro- 
gress here  to  preserve  the  memory  of  the  several  contests  in  which  the 
Duke  of  Wellington   has  proved  victorious.     Not  that  any  metal,  or  com- 

*  To  shew  that  the  Author's  opinion  of  the  energy  and  stability  of  Great  Britain 
has  been  uniformly  the  same,  see  the  Dedication  to  the  4th  edition  of  his  Poems, 
originally  written  in  1792. 


position,  can  be  sufficiently  lasting  to  vie  with  the  living  record  of  his 
transactions,  which  must  pass  down  from  the  lips  of  one  generation  to 
those  of  another  ;  for  he  may  indeed  exclaim,  in  the  words  of  the  Roman 
Pott,  Exegi  mommentum  are  peramuu! 

Although  in  the  prosecution  of  this  volume,  the  Author  has  been  left 
to  his  own  labour  and  researches,  and  that  too  during  a  period  of  ex- 
traneous occupation,  he  is,  nevertheless,  called  upon  by  his  own  feelings 
to  say,  that  were  he  permitted  to  indulge  his  sense  of  the  prompt  and 
friendly  manner  in  which  he  has  been  assisted  through  the  list  of  Sieges, 
by  an  intelligent  officer  of  Engineers,  an  unreserved  acknowledgement 
would  be  truly  gratifying.  This  tribute  must,  therefore,  remain  with  no 
other  direction  to  its  object  than  may  be  found  in  the  following  French 
inscription  :   A  cehii  qui  s'y  reconnoitra  ! 

The  Author  can  only  repeat  here  what  he  has  said  in  the  last  edition, 
that  to  render  this  work  (what  it  ought  to  be)  a  national  Military  Encyclo- 
paedia, the  Professors  at  Woolwich  and  Sandhurst  should  not  only  afford 
their  theoretical  contribution,  but  officers  of  known  ability  and  experience, 
who  are  provided  for  in  the  several  departments,  should  add  their  practical 

An  office,  or  circumscribed  department,  at  a  moderate  expense  to  the 
public,  might,  indeed,  be  established  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  com- 
munications, of  translating  foreign  military  works,  and  of  digesting  the 
different  Acts  of  Parliament  which  relate  to  the  army.  This  Office,  or 
Literary  Board,  would  be  subordinate  to  the  Commander  in  Chief  and  to 
the  Secretary  at  War;  under  whose  immediate  sanction  and  direction 
works  of  a  military  tendency,  as  well  as  official  rules  and  regulations, 
could  be  arranged  in  a  short  and  conspicuous  manner.  Long  subsequent 
to  the  publication  of  the  Regimental  Companion,  a  collection  of  Official 
Rules  and  Regulations  was  given  by  authority  ;  but  this  collection  con- 
tains no  more  than  the  bare  existing  rule  without  suggestion  or  illustration  ; 
and  it  is  published  so  seldom,*  that  innumerable  alterations  occur  between 
the  appearance  of  one  edition  and  the  promulgation  of  another;  so  that 
the  officer  is  frequently  at  a  loss  through  the  want  of  official  reference. 
I  shall  not,  1  trust,  be  accused  of  egotism,  when  I  have  the  presumption  to 
arrogate  to  myself  some  slight  merit  in  having  struggled  through  many 
difficulties  to  bring  the  Companion  and  the  present  work  into  notice.  The 
former,  for  a  fair  and  candid  reason,f  was  not  sanctioned  by  the  Com- 
mander in  Chief,  but  it  had,  and  still  has,  the  distinguished  countenance 
of  His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent. 

To  those  persons  whose  chief  study,  and  perhaps  whose  chief  delight, 
consists  in  a  malignant  pursuit  after  errors  only,  the  Author  must  ob- 
serve, that  "  //  cannot  be  expected  that  he  should  please  others,  since  he  has 
not  been  able  to  please  himself." 

Si  quid  novisti  rectius  istis, 

Candid  us  imperti  :   si  iion,  his  utcre  mecum. 

London,  2£)th  November,  1 8 1 6". 

6  For  the  correctness  of  this  remark,  I  appeal  to  the  Comptrollers  of  Army 

t  When  the  Author  first  requested  permission  to  dedicate  the  Regimental 
Companion  CO  Hit  Royal  Highness  the  Commander  in  Chief,  Colonel  (now  Lieut. 
General)  Brownrigg,  who  was  then  Military  Secretary,  told  him,  that  as  the  work 
would  contain  desultory  observations  which  might  be  misconstrued  into  Rules 
and  Regulations,  the  sanction  of  Head-Quarters  could  not  be  given.  This  ob- 
jection, however,  was  waved  with  respect  to  the  Military  Dictionary. 




A  BAB,  a  sort  of  militia  among  the 
^*-  Turks. 

ABACOT,  IV.  a  cap  of  state. 
ABACUS,  (abaque,  Fr.)  in  architec- 
ture, the  upper  member  of  the  capital 
of  a  column,  serving  as  a  kind  of  crown- 
ing, both  to  the  capital  and  the  whole 
column.  It  is  usually  square  in  the 
Tuscan,  Doric,  and  Ionic  orders;  and 
sloping,  on  the  sides,  or  faces,  in  the 
Corinthian  and  Composite  capitals.  Vi- 
truvius,  and  others  after  him,  who  give 
the  history  of  the  orders,  say  that  the 
abacus  was  originally  intended  to  repre- 
sent a  square  tile  laid  over  an  urn,  or 
rather  a  basket.     See  Acanthus. 

ABAJOUR,  Fr.  a  sky  light;  also  a 
*mall  sloping  aperture  which  is  made  in 
walls  for  the  purpose  of  receiving  light 
from  above,  such  as  is  seen  in  prisons 
and  subterraneous  buildings. 

To  ABANDON,  (abandonner,  Fr.)  to  I 
leave  a  place  to  the  mercy  of  an  enemy, 
by  suddenly  retiring  from  it.     Hence  to  j 
abandon  a  fortress,  &c. 

ABATE,  in  horsemanship.     A  horse 
is  said  to  abate,  or  take  down,  his  cur- 
tets,   when,  working  upon    curvets,    he  | 
puts  his  'two  hind  legs  to   the  ground  j 
both   at  once,  and   observes   the  same 
exactness  in  all  his  times. 

ABATIS,  Fr.  trees  cut  down,  and  so 
laid  with  their  branches,  &c.  turned  to- 
wards the  enemy,  as  to  form  a  defence 
for  troops  stationed  behind  them.  They 
are  made  either  before  redoubts,  or 
other  works,  to  render  the  attacks  diffi- 
cult, or  sometimes  along  the  skirts  of  a 
wood,  to  prevent  the  enemy  from  getting 
possession  of  it.  In  this  case  the  trunks 
serve  as  a  breast-work,  behind  which  the 
troops  arc  posted,  and  for  that  reason 


!  should  be  so  disposed,  that  the  parts 
may,  if  possible,  flank  each  other. 

ABBUTTALS,  the  buttings  and 
boundings  of  a  piece  of  land  expressing 
on  what  other  lands,  streets,  highways, 
&c.  the  several  extremes  thereof  abutt 
or  terminate. 

To  ABDICATE,  (abdiquer,  Fr.)  to 
give  up  voluntarily  any  place  of  trust,  as 
to  abdicate  the  crown.  The  French  use 
the  word  abdiquer  in  the  same  manner 
that  we  do  to  resign;  hence  abdiquer  le 
commandement  dtune  armce,  d'une  com- 
pagnie,  to  resign  the  command  of  an 
army,  of  a  company. 

ABLECTI,  in  military  antiquity,  a 
choice  or  select  part  of  the  soldiery  in 
the  Roman  armies,  picked  out  of  those 
cal  led  ext raor dinar ii. 

ABOARD,  (abord,  Fr.)  in  the  ship. 
On  hoard  is  frequently  used  to  signify 
the  same;  but  the  term  is  evidently  a 
corruption  of  its  original  import  and 
etymology.  A  signifies  in.  Thus,  aloft 
is  derived  from  a,  in,  and  luft,  air,  in  the 
air;  along,  in  the  same  track.  So  that 
instead  of  saying,  the  troops  are  on 
board,  it  should  be,  the  troops  are 

ABOIS,  IV.  a  term  used  among  the 
French  to  signify  extreme  distress. 
Thus  an  army  which  is  hemmed  in  on  all 
sides  in  a  fortress  or  camp,  and  is  in 
want  of  provisions,  &c.  is  said  to  be  aux 
abois.  The  word  comes  from  aboi/er,  to 
bark;  perhaps  the  term  at  bay  is  de- 
rived from  it,  as  the  stag  at  bay. 

ABOI-VENTS,   Fr.  in    fortification, 
small  lodgments  constructed  in  acovered 
way,  or  in  any  other  part  of  a  fortified 
place,  to    protect  soldiers  from  the  in- 
clemency of  the  weather. 

A  R  R 

(   2   ) 

A  B  S 

A  DOLL  A,  in  military  antiquity,  a 
warm  kind  of  garment,  generally  lined 
or  doubled,  used  both  by  the  Greeks 
and  Romans,  chiefly  out  of  the  city,  in 
following  the  camp* 

ABONNEMENT,  Fr.  an  engage- 
ment entered  into  by  a  country,  town, 
corporation,  &c.  tor  the  purpose  of  sup- 
plying the  exigencies  of  the  state  in 
time  of  war,  or  of  granting  provisions, 
&c.  to  an  army. 

ABORD,  Fr.  attack,  onset. 
D'ABORD,  Fr.  at  first;  in  the  be- 

S'ABOUCHER,  Fr.  to  parley. 
ABOUT,  a  technical  word  to  express 
the  movement,  by  which  a  body  of 
troops  changes  its  front  or  aspect,  by 
facing  according  to  any  given  word  of 

Right-Avovr,  is  when  the  soldier,  by 
placing  the  toe  of  the  right  foot  on  a 
line  in  contact  with  the  heel  of  the  left, 
makes  a  pivot  of  the  latter,  and  com- 
pletely changes  the  situation  of  his  per- 
son, by  a  semi-circular  movement  to  the 

Left-AhovT,  is  when  the  soldier,  by 
placing  the  heel  of  his  right  foot  on  a 
line  with  the  great  toe  of  the  left, 
changes  the  situation  of  his  person,  by  a 
semi-circular  movement  to  the  left. 
When  troops  are  under  arms,  they  are 
sometimes  put  to  the  left-about,  in  order 
to  prevent  the  clashing  of  the  pouches, 
which  frequently  occurs  in  the  semi-cir- 
cular movement  to  the  right.       • 

ABOUT,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  that  part 
of  a  piece  of  wood  which  is  between  one 
of  the  ends  of  the  piece  and  a  mortoise. 

ABREAST,  a  term  formerly  used  to 
express  any  number  of  men  in  front. 
At  present  they  are  determined  by  files. 
ABREUVOIR,  Fr.  a  watering  place; 
any  spot  dug  for  the  purpose  of  retain- 
ing water.  This  must  always  be  at- 
tended to  when  a  regular  camp  is  first 

Abreivotr,  Fr.  in  masonry,  the 
joint,  or  juncture,  of  two  stones;  or  the 
interstice,  or  space,  which  is  left  be- 
tween, to  be  filled  up  with  mortar  or 

Abreuvoir  also  signifies  small 
trenches  which  are  made  in  stone  quar- 
ries to  carry  off  the  water. 

ABRI,  Fr.  shelter,  cover.  Fire,  a 
Vabri,  to  be  under  cover,  as  of  a  wood, 
hillock,  &c. 

ABRIS,  Fr.  places  of  shelter. 

ABSCISSA,  in  military  mathematics, 
signifies  any  part  of  the  diameter  or 
axis  of  a  curve,  contained  between  its 
vertex  or  some  other  fixed  point,  and 
the  intersection  of  the  ordinate. 

In  the  parabola,  the  abscissais  a  third 
proportional  to  the  parameter  and  the 

In  the  ellipsis,  the  square  of  the  ordi- 
nate is  equal  to  the  rectangle  under  the 
parameter  and  abscissa,  lessened  by  an- 
other rectangle  under  the  said  abscissa, 
and  a  fourth  proportional  to  the  axis, 
the  parameter,  and  the  abscissa. 

In  the  hyperbola,  the  squares  of  the 
ordinates  are  as  the  rectangles  of  the 
abscissa  by  another  line,  compounded  of 
the  abscissa  and  the  transverse  axis. 

But  it  must  be  remembered,  that  the 
two  proportions  relating  to  the  ellipsis 
and  hyperbola,  the  origin  of  the  abscissa, 
or  point  from  whence  they  began  to  be 
reckoned,  is  supposed  to  be  the  vertex 
of  the  curve,  or,  which  amounts  to  the 
same  thing,  the  point  where  the  axis 
meets  it;  for  if  the  origin  of  the  abscissa 
be  taken  from  the  centre,  as  is  often 
done,  the  above  proportions  will  not  be 

ABSENT,  a  term  used  in  the  British 
army.  It  forms  a  part  of  the  regimental 
reports  and  general  returns,  to  account 
for  the  deficiency  of  any  given  number 
of  officers  or  soldiers;  and  is  usually 
distinguished  under  two  principal  heads, 
|  viz. 

Absent  with  leave,  (avoir  conge,  ou 
itre  permis  d'a/ler  en  semestre,  Fr.)  offi- 
cers with  permission, or  non-commission- 
ed officers  and  soldiers  on  furlough; 
excused  parade  or  field  duty. 

Absent  without  leave,  (itre  absent, 
ou  s'ubscntcr  sans  permission,  Fr.)  Men 
who  desert  are  frequently  returned  ab- 
sent without  leave,  for  the  specific  pur- 
pose of  bringing  their  crime  under  regi- 
mental cognizance,  and  to  prevent  them 
from  being  tried  capitally  for  desertion, 
according  to  the  Mutiny  Act. 

ABSOLUTE  Gravity,  in  philosophy, 
is  the  whole  force  by  which  a  body, 
shell,  or  shot,  is  impelled  towards  the 
centre.     See  Gravity. 

Absolute  Number,  in  Algebra,  is  the 
known  quantity  which  possesses  entirely 
one  side  of  the  equation.  Thu»,  in  the 
equation,  .r.r  -f-  lOr,  —  64,  the  number 
64,  possessing  entirely  one  side  of  the 
equation,  is  called  the  absolute  number, 
and  is  equal  to  the  square  of  the  un- 

A  C  A 

(   *  ) 

A  C  C 

known  root  x,  added  to  10  x,  or  to  10 
times  .r. 

ABUTMENT,  that  which  abuts  or 
supports  the  ends  of  any  thing. 

ACADEMY,  in  antiquity,  the  name 
of  a  villa  situated  about  a  mile  from  the 
city  of  Athens,  where  Plato  and  his  fol- 
lowers assembled  for  conversing  on  phi- 
losophical subjects;  and  hence  they  ac- 
quired the  name  of  Academics. 

The  term  Academy  is  frequently  used 
among  the  moderns  for  a  regular  society, 
or  company,  of  learned  persons,  insti- 
tuted under  the  protection  of  a  prince, 
for  the  cultivation  and  improvement  of 
arts  or  sciences.  Some  authors  con- 
found ucademy  with  university ;  but, 
though  much  the  same  in  Latin,  they 
are  very  different  things  in  English.  An 
university  is,  properly,  a  body  composed 
of  graduates  in  the  several  faculties;  of 
professors,  who  teach  in  the  public 
schools;  of  regents  or  tutors,  and  stu- 
dents who  learn  under  them,  and  aspire 
likewise  to  degrees :  whereas  an  academy 
was  originally  not  intended  for  teaching, 
or  to  profess  any  art,  but  to  improve  it ; 
it  was  not  for  novices  to  be  instructed 
in,  but  for  those  who  were  more  know- 
ing, for  persons  of  distinguished  abilities 
to  confer  in,  and  communicate  their 
lights  and  discoveries  to  each  other,  for 
their  mutual  benefit  and  improvement. 
The  first  ucademy  we  read  of,  was  esta- 
blished by  Charlemagne,  at  the  motion 
of  Alcuin  ;  it  was  composed  of  the  chief 
wits  of  the  court,  the  emperor  himself 
being  a  member. 

Royal  Military  Academy.  We  have 
in  England  two  royal  academies,  one  at 
Woolwich,  and  one  at  Portsmouth. 
The  first  was  established  by  his  late 
Majesty  King  George  II.  by  warrants 
bearing  date  the  30th  day  of  April,  and 
the  18th  day  of  November,  1711,  en- 
dowed and  supported  for,  the  instructing 
of  the  people  belonging  to  the  military 
branch  of  the  ordnance,  in  the  several 
parts  of  mathematics  necessary  to  qualify 
them  for  the  service  of  the  artillery,  and 
the  business  of  engineers.  The  lectures 
of  the  masters  in  theory  were  then  duly 
attended  by  the  practitioner-engineers, 
officers,  serjeants,  corporals,  private  men, 
and  cadets.  At  present  the  gentlemen 
educated  at  this  academy  are  the  sons  of 
the  nobility  and  military  officers.  They 
are  called  gentlemen  cadets,  and  are  not 
admitted  under  14,  and  not  above  16 
years  of  age.    They  are  taught  writing. 

arithmetic,  algebra,  Latin,  French,  ma- 
thematics, mechanics,  surveying,  level- 
ling, and  fortification,  together  with  the 
attack  and  defence;  gunnery,  mining, 
laboratory-works,  geography,  perspec- 
tive, fencing,  dancing,  &c.  The  master- 
general  of  the  ordnance  is  always  cap- 
tain of  the  company  qf  gentlemen  cadets. 
One  second  captain  and  two  subalterns 
constantly  do  duty  with  the  cadets,  on 
the  common;  and  there  is  the  sam« 
number  with  those  in  the  arsenal. 

The  academy  at  Portsmouth  was 
founded  by  George  I.  in  172'2,  for  teach- 
ing the  branches  of  the  mathematics, 
which  more  immediately  relate  to  navi- 

ACANTHUS,  in  architecture,  an  or- 
nament in  the  Corinthian  and  Compo- 
site orders,  being  the  representation  of 
the  leaves  of  the  plant  in  the  capitals  of 
them.  Acanthus  is  the  name  of  a  thorn, 
or  thistle,  which  is  called,  in  English, 
bear's  breech,  and  goat's  horn. 

ACANZI?  in  military  history,  thq 
name  of  the  Turkish  light  horse,  that 
form  the  van-guard  of  the  Grand  Si"- 
nior  s  army  on  a  march. 

ACCELERATED  Motion  on  oblique 
or  inclined  planes.     See  Motion. 

Accelerated  Motion  of  Pendulums. 
See  Pendulums. 

Accelerated  Motion  of  Projectiles. 
See  Projectiles. 

ACCELERER,  Fr.  to  hasten  on;  t» 
press  forward. 

Accelerer  tin  siege,  Fr.  to  carry 
the  trench  under  the  main  body  of  a 
fortified  place,  in  order  to  take  it  by  a 
prompt  assault. 

Accelerer  une  marcke,  Fr.  to  mak* 
extraordinary  exertions  in  advancing  a- 
gainst  an  enemy  with  rapidity;  to  make 
a  forced  march. 

ACCENDONES,  in  military  anti- 
quity, a  kind  of  gladiators,  or  supernu- 
meraries, whose  office  was  to  excite  and 
animate  the  combatants  during  the  en- 

ACCENSI,  in  antiquity,  were  officers 
attending  the  Roman  magistrates;  their 
business  was  to  summon  the  people  to 
the  public  games,  and  to  assist  the  pra> 
tor  when  he  sat  on  the  bench. 

Accensi,  in  military  antiquity,  was 
also  an  appellation  given  to  a  kind  of  ad- 
jutants appointed  by  the  tribune  to  as- 
sist each  centurion  and  decurion.  Ac- 
cording to  Festus,  they  were  supernu- 
merary soldiers,  whose  duty  it  was  to 

A  C  C 

t     *    ) 

A  C  T 

•Mend  their  leaders,  and  supply  the 
places  or  those  who  were  either  killed 
or  wounded.  Livy  mentions  them  us 
■{regular  troops,  hut  little  esteemed. — 
Nilmasius  tells  us,  they  were  taken  out 
of'  the  fifth  class  of  the  poor  citizens  of 

ACCESSIBLE,  ( 'accessible,  Fr.)  that 
which  may  be  approached.  We  say,  in 
a  military  style,  that  place,  or  that  for- 
tress, is  accessible  from  the  sea,  or  land, 
i.  e.  it  may  be  entered  on  those  sides. 

ACCLAMATIONS,  Fr.  shouts  of 
joy,  &c.  usually  given  by  troops  under 
arms,  amidst  the  discharge  of  cannon, 
&c.  on  the  surrender  of  a  place:  or  in 
testimony  of  some  great  event:  we  use 
the  term  cheers. 

ACCLIVITY,  in  a  military  sense,  is 
the  steepness  or  slope  of  any  work,  in- 
clined to  the  horizon,  reckoned  upwards. 
Some  writers  on  fortification  use  accli- 
vity as  6ynonimous  to  talus;  though 
talus  is  commonly  used  to  denote  all 
manner  of  slopes. 

ACCOMPANIMENT,  something  at- 
tetrdant  on,  or  added  to,  another  by 
way  of  ornament,  or  for  the  sake  of 

ACCONTIUM,  in  ancient  military 
writers,  a  kind  of  Grecian  dart  or  jave- 
lin, somewhat  resembling  the  Roman 

ACCOTEMENT,  Fr.  an  upsetting; 
among  paviors,  a  space  of  ground  which 
is  between  the  border  of  a  road  and  the 
ditch;  a  sort  of  footpath  by  which  the 
road  is  widened.  Dcs-Accotement  sig- 
nifies the  reverse,  or  having  both  sides 
uncovered,  or  not  upset. 

Put;  or  Personal  ACCOUNT,  an  ac- 
count which  is  kept  by  army  agents,  spe- 
cifyiug  the  several  sums  of  money  which 
have  been  received  or  disbursed  for  an 
officer  under  the  heads  of  subsistence 
and  allowances. 

Clothing  Account,  an  account  which 
is  kept  by  army  agents,  stating  the  sums 
of  money  which  have  been  received  or 
disbursed  for  a  colonel  on  account  of 
die  clothing  of  his  regiment. 

ACCOUNTANT  (Public).  Every 
officer,  be  his  rank  and  situation  ever  so 
high  or  low,  becomes  a  public  account- 
ant the  instant  he  is  entrusted  with 
the  receipt  and  distribution  of  public 
property;  and  until  he  receive  his 
quietus,  he  and  his  heirs  remain  amena- 
ble to  the  crown — nullum  tempus  oc- 
•uriit  Jle^i. 

ACCOUTREMENTS,  in  a  military 
sense,  signify  habits,  equipage,  or  furni- 
ture, of  a  soldier,  such  as  buffs,  belts, 
pouches,  cartridge  boxes,  &c.  Accou- 
trements should  be  made  of  stout, 
smooth  buff,  as  well  for  the  service  to  he 
expected  from  them,  as  for  their  supe- 
rior look  above  the  spongy  kind,  which 
is  always  stretching,  and  difficult  to 
clean.  The"  bull  belts  are  about  2 J 
inches  broad,  with  two  buckles  to  fix 
them  to  the  pouch.  Pouches  are  mad* 
of  the  stoutest  blackened  calf-skin, 
especially  the  outside  Haps,  which  are 
of  such  a  substance  as  to  turn  the  se- 
verest rain.  Cartridge-boxes  are  made 
as  light  as  possible,  with  3ti  holes  in 
each,  to  hold  so  many  cartridges.  The 
bayonet-belt  is  also  2\  inches  broad, 
and  better  worn  over  the  shoulder  than 
about  the  waist. 

ACCULER  une  armie,  une  troupe, 
Fr.  to  drive  an  army  or  body  of  men 
into  such  a  situation  that  they  must 
either  fight  or  surrender;  also  to  come 
to  close  action. 

ACEREIt,  Fr.  to  mix  steel  with  iron; 
thus  the  point,  or  edge,  of  a  tool  is  said 
to  be  bien  act  re,  well  steeled,  when  the 
mixture  of  steel  is  pure. 

ACIIARNEMENT,  IV.  the  rage  and 
frenzy  to  which  soldiers  are  subjected 
in  the  heat  of  an  engagement;  a  thirst 
for  blood  and  carnage. 

ACLIDES,  in  Roman  antiquity,  a 
kind  of  missive  weapon,  with  a  thong 
fixed  to  it,  whereby  it  might  be  drawn 
hack  again.  Most  authors  describe  the 
aclides  as  a  dart  or  javelin  ;  but  Scaliger- 
makes  it  somewhat  of  a  round  and  glo- 
bular shape,  with  a  wooden  stein  to  poise 
it  by. 

ACOLUTIII,  in  military  antiquity, 
was  a  title  in  the  Grecian  empire  given 
to  the  captain  or  commander  of  the  7"«- 
rangi,  or  body  guards,  appointed  for  the 
security  of  the  emperor's  palace. 

ACKOTERIA,  (acrolircs,  Fr.)  in 
architecture,  small  pedestals,  usually 
without  bases,  placed  on  pediments, 
and  serving  to  support  statues. 

Sometimes  acroteria  is  used  to  signify 
those  sharp  pinnacles,  or  spiral  battle- 
ments, which  stand  in  ranges  about  fiat 
buildings,  with  rails  and  balustrades. 

ACTIAN  games,  in  antiquity,  were 
games  instituted,  or  at  least  restored, 
by  Augustus,  in  memory  of  the  famous 
victory,  at  Actiuui,  over  Mark  Au« 

A  D  J 

(     5     ) 


Actian  years,  in  chronology,  a  series 
of  years,  commencing  with  the  epocha 
of  the  battle  of  Actium,  otherwise  called 
the  aera  of  Augustus. 

ACTION,  {action,  Fr.)in  the  military 
art,  is  an  engagement  between  two  ar- 
mies, or  any  smaller^  body  of  troops,  or 
between  different  bodies  belonging  there- 
to. The  word  is  likewise  used  to  signify 
some  memorable  act  done  by  an  officer, 
soldier,  detachment,  or  party. 

Action  of  the  mouth,  in  a  horse,  the 
agitation  of  the  tongue  and  the  mandi- 
ble  of  a  horse,  which,  by  champing  upon 
the  bridle,  keeps  his  mouth  fresh. 

ACTIVITE,  Fr.     See  Activity. 

Eire  en  Activite,  Fr.  to  be  in  force, 
or  have  existence,  as  a  law,  rule,  or 
order ;  also  to  be  on  service. 

ACTIVITY,  in  a  military  sense,  de- 
notes laboriousness,  attention,  labour, 
diligence,  and  study. 

ACTS  of  hostility,  (actes  d'hostilite, 
Fr.)  certain  overt  acts  by  sea  or  land, 
which  tend  to  a  declaration  of  war  be- 
tween two  countries;  or  to  a  renewal  of 
it,  after  a  truce  had  been  agreed  upon. 

ACULER,  from  the  French,  signifies, 
in  the  manege,  that  a  horse,  working 
upon  volts,  does  not  go  far  enough  for- 
wards, at  every  motion,  so  that  his 
shoulders  embrace,  or  take  in,  too  little 
ground,  and  his  croupe  comes  too  near 
the  center  of  the  volt.  A  horse  is  said 
to  have  petite,  when  the  horseman  does 
not  turn  his  hand,  and  put  him  on  with 
the  calf  of  the  inner  leg. 

ACUTE  angle.    See  Angle. 

ADACTED,  applies  to  stakes,  or 
piles,  driven  into  the  earth  with  large 
malls  shod  with  iron,  as  in  securing 
ramparts  or  ponloens. 

ADAPTER,  Fr.  in  architecture,  to 
fit  an  ornament  to  any  particular  ob- 

ADDICE,  a  sort  of  axe  which  cuts 
horizontally.  It  is  commonly,  or  cor- 
ruptly, called  an  adze. 

ADDOSSER,  Fr.    .fieeADOssER. 

AQ^jkthe  shaft,  or  entrance  into  a 
mine^ap^ssage  underground,  by  which 
miners  approach  the  part  they  intend  to 
sap.    §ee  Gallery. 

ADJUTANT-GENERAL,  an  officer 
of  distinction,  who  aids  and  assists  the 
general  in  his  laborious  duty:  he  forms 
tb^"  several  details  of  duty  of  the  army, 
with  the  brigade  majors,  and  keeps  an 
exact  state  of  each  brigade  and  regi- 
ment, with  a  roll  of  the  lieutenant-ge- 

nerals, major-generals,  colonels,  lieute- 
nant-colonels, and  majors.  He  every 
day  at  head  quarters  receives  orders 
from  the  general  officer  of  the  day,  and 
distributes  them  to  the  majors  of  bri- 
gades, from  whom  he  receives  the  num- 
ber of  men  they  are  to  furnish  for  the 
duty  of  the  army,  and  informs  them  of 
any  detail  which  may  concern  them. 
On  marching  days  he  accompanies  the 
general  to  the  ground  of  the  camp.  He 
makes  a  daily  report  of  the  situation  of 
all  the  posts  placed  for  the  safety  of  the 
army,  and  of  any  changes  made  in  their 
posts.  In  a  day  of  battle  the  adjutant- 
general  sees  the  infantry  drawn  up, 
after  which  he  places  himself  by  the 
general  to  receive  orders.  In  a  siege  he 
visits  the  several  posts  and  guards  of  the 
trenches,  and  reports  their  situation, 
and  how  circumstanced;  he  gives  and 
signs  all  orders  for  skirmishing  parties, 
(if  time  permit,)  and  has  a  serjeaut  from 
each  brigade  to  carry  any  orders  which 
he  may  have  to  send. 

ADJUTANT,  an  officer  who  eases 
the  major  of  part  of  the  burthen  of  his 
duty,  and  performs  it  in  his  absence. 
He  receives  orders  from  the  brigade  ma- 
jor, if  in  camp ;  and  when  in  garrison, 
from  the  town  major.  After  he  has  car- 
ried them  to  his  colonel  or  officer  com- 
manding the  regiment,  he  then  assembles 
the  serjeant-major, drum-major,  and  rite- 
major,  with  a  serjeant  and  corporal  of 
each  company,  who  write  the  orders  to 
shew  to  their  respective  officers.  If  con- 
voys, parties,  detachments,  or  guards,  are 
to  be  furnished,  he  gives  the  number 
which  each  company  is  to  furnish,  and 
hour  and  place  for  the  assembling :  he 
must  keep  an  exact  roster  and  roll  of 
duties,  and  have  a  perfect  knowledge  of 
all  manoeuvres,  &c. 

ADMINISTRATION  interieure  des 
Corps,  Fr.  the  interior  economy  or  in- 
ternal management  of  regiments;  such 
as  the  clothing,  capping,  accoutring,  pay- 
ing the  men  their  allowances,  &c. 

ADMINISTRER,  Fr.  to  furnish;  to 

Administrer  des  munitions,  Fr.  to 
supply  a  town  or  army  with  the  neces- 
sary means  of  attack  and  defence. 

ADMIRAL,  the  commander  in  chief 
of  a  tleet,  squadron,  &c.  When  on  shore, 
he  is  entitled  to  receive  military  ho- 
nours, and  ranks  with  generals  in  the 

ADOS,  Fr.  a  bank  of  earth  which 

A  F  F 

(     6     ) 


is  raised  against    a  wall   that  is  much 

\  DOSSER,  Fr.  to  place  one  thing 
behind  anotlu  p. 

ADOUBER,       l  Fr.     to    stop    up 

li  \DOUBER,  S  chasms  or  holes  in 
a  fountain,  machine,  &c. 

ADOUCIS8EMENT,  in  architec- 
ture, the  junction  of  one  body  with 
another;  also  tlie  reducing  two  bodies 
to  the  same  surface,  or  making  them 

ADVANCE.     See  Pay  in  Advance. 

ADVANCED  signifies  some  part  of 
an  army  in  front  of  the  rest,  as  in  ad- 
vanced guards,  which  always  precede  the 
line  of  march  or  operations  of  a  body  of 
troops;  again,  as  when  a  battalion,  or 
guns  of  a  second  line  are  brought  up  in 
front  and  before  the  first  line.  This 
term  also  applies  to  the  promotions  of 
officers  and  soldiers. 

t  Fosse  \    See  Fortifi- 

Advanced   %  Ditch  \        cation. 
(Guard.  See  Guard. 

ADVANCEMENT,  in  a  military 
sense,  signifies  honour,  promotion,  or 
preferment,  in  an  army,  regiment,  or 

ADVANTAGE  G round,  a  ground 
that  gives  superiority,  or  an  opportunity 
of  annoyance  or  resistance. 

ADVICE  Boat,  a  vessel  employed  for 

ADVOCATE  General.  See  Judge 

I  \  EATORES,  in  military  antiquity, 
the  musicians  in  an  army;  including 
those  who  sounded  the  trumpets,  horns, 
li/ui,  bueeitUBf  ike. 

AFFAIR,  in  the  military  acceptation 
of  the  word,  means  any  action  or  engage- 

Affair  of  Honour,  a  duel. 

AFFAIRE  de  poste,  Fr.  any  engage- 
ment fought  hy  an  army  for  the  purpose 
of  securing  some  object  of  importance ; 
as  the  key  of  a  country,  &c. 

AFFAISSEMENT  d'un  outrage  de 
fortification,  Fr.  the  sinking  or  lowering 
of  any  part  of  a  fortification,  either 
through  time,  or  by  pressure,  &c. 

Ah'h'AyiERunc armcc,  Fr.  to  prevent 
an  army  from  receiving  provisions,  &c. 
and  thereby  starve  it  out.  une  place,  Fr.  to  besiege  a 
place  so  closely  as  to  starve  the  garrison 
and  inhabitants.    See  Blockade. 

AFFIDAVIT,  in  military  law,  signi- 
fies an  oath  taken  before  some  person 

who  is  properly  authorized  to  administer 
it;  as  first,  when  a  soldier  is  enlisted, 
when  it  is  styled  an  attestation  ;  second- 
ly, by  all  officers  appointed  for  a  court- 
martial;  thirdly,  by  the  commissaries,  or 
muster-masters,  Ike. 

AFFIDE,  Fr.  a  man  that  is  trusted; 
one  in  the  confidence  of  another. 

AFFLEURER,  Fr.  to  place  two 
things  upon  the  same  level. 

AFFOIBLIR,  Fr.  to  weaken;  hence 
aff'oiblir  un  ennemi,  to  weaken  an 

AFFRONTER  les  perils,  Fr.  to  face 
all  dangers;  not  to  be  intimidated  by  the 
sword,  ball,  or  even  death  itself. 

S'AFFRONTER,  Fr.  to  engage  one 
another  rudely.  Lcs  deux  armies  s'af- 
fronte rent,  the  two  armies  came  to  close 
action,  and  fought  hand  to  hand. 

Affronter,  Fr.  to  encounter  or  at- 
tack boldly. 

AFFUT,  the  French  name  for  a  gun- 
carriage,  and  for  which  we  have  no  pro- 
per name;  the  only  distinction  from  all 
other  carriages  is,  that  it  belongs  to  a 
gun.     See  Carriage. 

AGA,  in  the  Turkish  army,  is  the 
same  as  a  general  with  us. 

AGE.  A  young  man  must  he  14 
years  old  before  he  can  become  an  officer 
in  the  line,  or  be  entered  as  a  cadet  at 

Persons  may  be  enlisted  for  soldiers 
from  17  to  45.  After  the  latter  age, 
every  inhabitant  is  exempted  from  serv- 
ing in  the  British  militia. 

By  a  late  regulation,  growing  boys 
may  be  enlisted  under  16  years  of  age. 
These  recruits  are  chiefly  intended  for 
the  East-India  service. 

The  Romans  were  obliged  to  enter 
themselves  in  the  army  at  the  age  of  17 
years;  at  45  they  might  demand  their 
dismission.  Amongst  the  Lombards,  the 
age  of  entry  was  between  18  and  19; 
among  the  Saxons,  at  13. 

AGE  of  a  horse.  The  age  of  a  horse 
is  discovered  by  several  outward  cha- 
racters, but  principally  by  his  teeth; 
which  see.  We  also  refer  the  curious 
to  Af.  de  SolleyseVs  Complete  Horseman, 
for  particular  remarks  on  this  important 

AGEMA,  in  the  ancient  military  art, 
a  kind  of  soldiery  chiefly  in  the  Macedo- 
nian artryes.  The  word  is  Greek,  and  li- 
terally denotes  vehemence,  to  express 
the  strength  and  eagerness  of  this  corps. 
Some  authors  will  have  agema  to  denote 


(     7     ) 

A  G  G 

a  certain  number  of  picked  men,  an- 
swering to  a  legion  among  the  Romans. 

AGENCY,  a  certain  proportion  of 
money  which  is  ordered  to  be  subtract- 
ed from  all  the  pay  and  allowances  of 
the  British  army,  for  transacting  the  busi- 
ness of  the  several  regiments  compos- 
ing it. 

AGENDA,  Fr.  a  term  used  among 
the  French,  signifying  a  minute  detail  of 
every  thing  that  is  required  in  the  inte- 
rior economy  of  a  regiment,  troop,  or 

AGENT,  a  person  in  the  civil  depart- 
ment of  the  army,  between  the,paymas- 
ter-general  and  the  paymaster  of  the 
regiment,  through  whom  every  regimen- 
tal concern  of  a  pecuniary  nature  must 
be  transacted.  He  gives  security  to  go- 
vernment, or  to  the  colonels  of  regi- 
ments, who  are  responsible  to  govern- 
ment, for  all  monies  which  may  pass 
through  his  hands  in  the  capacity  of  an 
Agent — and  by  the  Mutiny  Act  it  is 
provided,  That  if  an  agent  shall  with- 
hold the  Pay  of  Officers  or  Soldiers  for 
the  space  of  one  Month,  he  shall  be  dis- 
missed from  his  Office,  and  forfeit  100^. 
(39th  Geo.  III.  Sect.  69.) 

Half-pay  Agent,  a  person  named  or 
appointed  by  an  officer  on  half-pay,  to 
receive  his  allowances.  He  does  not 
give  any  security. 

AGENT,  Fr.  the  person  who  is  en- 
trusted with  the  interior  economy  of  a 
regiment,  troop,  or  company. 

AGGER,  in  ancient  military  writers, 
denotes  the  middle  part  of  a  military 
road,  raised  into  a  ridge,  with  a  gentle 
slope  on  each  side,  to  make  a  drain  for 
the  water,  and  keep  the  way  dry. 

Agger  is  also  used  for  the  whole 
road  or  military  way.  Where  highways 
were  to  be  made  in  low  grounds,  as 
between  two  hills,  the  Romans  used  to 
raise  them  above  the  adjacent  land,  so 
as  to  make  them  of  a  level  with  the 
hills.  These  banks  they  called  aggeres. 
Bergier  mentions  several  in  the  Gallia 
Belgica,  which  were  thus  raised  10,  15, 
or  '^0  feet  above  ground,  and  5  or  6 
leagues  long.  They  are  sometimes  call- 
ed aggeres  calceati,  or  causeways,  as 
with  us. 

Agger  also  denotes  a  work  of  for- 
tification, used  both  for  the  defence  and 
the  attack  of  towns,  camps,  &c.  in  which 
sense  agger  is  the  same  with  what  was 
otherwise  called  vallum,  and  in  later 
times,    agestum  ;  and  among  the  mo- 

derns, lines;  sometimes,  cavaliers,  fer* 
r asses,  &c. 

The  agger  was  usually  a  bank,  or  ele- 
vation of  earth,  or  other  matter,  bound 
and  supported  with  timber;  having  some- 
times turrets  on  the  top,  wherein  the 
workmen,  engineers,  and  soldiery,  were 
placed.  It  was  also  accompanied  with  a 
ditch,  which  served  as  its  chief  defence. 
The  height  of  the  agger  was  frequently 
equal  to  that  of  the  wall  of  the  place. 
Csesar  tells  us  of  one  he  made,  which 
was  30  feet  high,  and  330  feet  broad. 
Besides  the  use  of  aggers  before  towns, 
they  generally  used  to  fortify  their 
camps  with  the  same,  for  want  of  which 
precaution,  divers  armies  have  been  sur- 
prised and  ruined. 

There  were  vast  aggers  made  in  towns 
and  places  on  the  sea-side,  fortified  with 
towers,  castles,  &c.  Those  made  by 
Caesar  and  Pompey,  at  Brundusium,  are 
famous.  Sometimes  aggers  were  even 
built  across  arms  of  the  sea,  lakes,  and 
morasses;  as  was  done  by  Alexander 
before  Tyre,  and  by  M.  Anthony  and 

The  wall  of  Severus,  in  the  north  of 
England,  may  be  considered  as  a  grand 
agger,  to  which  belong  several  lesser 
ones.  Besides  the  principal  agger,  or 
vallum,  on  the  brink  of  the  ditch,  Mr. 
Horsley  describes  another  on  the  south 
side  of  the  former,  about  5  paces  distant 
from  it,  which  he  calls  the  south  agger ; 
and  another  larger  one,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  ditch,  called  the  north  agger. 
This  latter  he  conjectures  to  have  served 
as  a  military  way  ;  the  former,  probably, 
was  made  for  the  inner  defence,  in  case 
the  enemy  should  beat  them  from  any 
part  of  the  principal  vallum,  or  to  pro- 
tect the  soldiers  against  any  sudden  at- 
tack from  the  provincial  Britons. 

Agger  Tarquinii  was  a  famous  fence 
built  by  TarquiniusSuperbus,  on  the  east 
side  of  Rome,  to  stop  the  incursions  of 
the  Latins  and  other  enemies,  whereby 
the  city  might  be  invested. 

Agger  is  also  used  for  the  earth  dug 
out  of  a  ditch  or  trench,  and  thrown  up 
on  the  brink  of  it :  in  which  sense,  the 
Chevalier  Folard  thinks  the  word  to  be 
understood,  when  used  in  the  plural 
number,  since  we  can  hardly  suppose 
they  would  raise  a  number  of  cavaliers 
or  terrasses. 

Agger  is  also  used  for  a  bank  or  wall, 
erected  against  the  sea,  or  some  great 
river,  to  confine  or  keep  it  within  bounds; 

A  I  G 

(     5     ) 

A  I  R 

tn  which  sense,  agger  amounts  to  the 
same  Willi  what  the  ancients  called  tu- 
mulus and  moles;  the  Dutch,  dyke; 
and  we,  dam,  sca-ica//,  \c. 

AGIADES,  in  the  Turkish  armies, 
are  a  kind  of  pioneers,  or  rather  field 
engineers,  employed  in  fortifying  the 
camp,  &c. 

AGIR,  Fr.  to  act;  hence  agir  en 
offensive ;  agir  en  defensive ;  to  act  of- 
fensively; to  act  defensively,  or  on  the 

AGITATOR,  (Affid't,  Fr.)  a  person  in 
the  confidence  of  a  superior,  who  mixes 
with  his  fellow  subjects  or  comrades,  and 
discusses  various  matters  for  the  pur- 
pose of  discovering  their  views  and  prin- 
ciples. This  character  was  first  created 
by  Oliver  Cromwell;  and  a  similar  one 
was  much  employed  among  the  French, 
in  order  to  preserve  the  military  ascend- 
ancy of  Bonaparte. 

AGUERRI,  Fr.  an  officer  or  soldier 
experienced  in  war;  a  veteran. 

AID,  in  horsemanship.  To  aid,  as- 
sist, or  succour  a  horse,  is  to  help  him 
to  work  true.  This  is  done  by  the  gen- 
tle and  moderate  exercise  of  the  bridle, 
the  spur,  the  caveson,  the  poinson,  the 
rod,  the  action  of  the  legs,  the  mo- 
tion of  the  thighs,  and  the  sound  of  the 

AIDE-DE-CAMP,  an  officer  ap- 
pointed to  attend  a  general  officer,  in  the 
field,  in  winter  quarters,  and  in  garrison ; 
he  receives  and  carries  the  orders,  as 
occasion  requires.  He  is  seldom  under 
the  degree  of  a  captain,  and  all  aides-de- 
camp  have  10s.  a  day  allowed  for  their 
duty.  This  employment  is  of  greater  im- 
portance than  is  generally  believed  :  it  is, 
however,  often  entrusted  to  young  offi- 
cers of  little  experience,  and  of  as  little 
capacity;  but  in  most  foreign  services 
the  v  give  great  attention  to  this  article. 
Marshal  de  Puysegur  mentions  the  loss 
of  a  battle  through  the  incapacity  of  an 
aide-de-camp.  The  king  may  appoint 
for  himself  as  many  as  he  pleases,  which 
appointment  gives  the  rank  of  colonel  in 
the  army.  Generals,  being  field  mar- 
shals, have  four,  lieutenant  generals  tico, 
major  generals  one,  and  brigadier  gene- 
rals one  brigade  major. 

AIDE  du  Pare  des  Vivrcs,  Fr.  an  of- 
ficer in  France,  acting  immediately  un- 
der the  commissary  of  stores  and  provi- 

AID-MAJOR.    See  Adjutant. 

AIGREMORE,  a  term  used  by  the 

artificers  in  the  laboratory,  to  express 
the  charcoal  m  a  state  fitted  for  the 
making  of  powder. 

AIGUILLE,  an  instrument  used  by 
engineers  to  pierce  a  rock  lor  the  lodg- 
ment  ot  powder,  as  in  a  mine;  or  to 
mine  a  rock,  so  as  to  excavate  and  make 

Aiguille  de  chariot,  Fr.  the 
draught  tree  of  a  chariot. 

AIGUILLES,  Fr,  in  carpentry,  short 
upright  pieces  of  wood  used  in  the  roofs 
or  houses. 

Aiguilles,  in  hydraulics,  round  or 
square  pieces  of  wood  which  serve  to 
lift  up,  or  let  down,  a  llood-gate. 

AIGUILLETTE9,  Fr.  tagged  points, 
such  as  hang  from  the  shoulders  in  mili- 
tary uniforms,  particularly  among  the 
Russians,  Prussians,  &c. 

AILE,  Fr.  a  wing  or  flank  of  an  army 
or  fortification. 

A  ills  de  moulin  a  vent,  Fr.  the  sails 
of  a  windmill. 

AILERONS,  Fr.  the  short  boards 
which  arc  set  into  the  outside  of  a  wa- 
ter-mill's wheel;  we  call  them  ladles, 
or  aveboards.  slubes,  Fr.  signify  the 

AiLERONsalsosignify  small  buttresses, 
or  starlings,  which  are  laid  along  the 
sides  of  rivers,  or  water  courses,  in  or- 
der to  prevent  them  from  undermining 
any  particular  building.  According  to 
Belidor,  the  word  epis  is  more  appro- 

AIM,  the  act  of  bringing  the  mus- 
quet,  piece  of  ordnance,  or  any  other 
missive  weapon,  to  its  proper  line  of  di- 
rection with  the  object  intended  to  be 

AIM-FRONTLET,  a  piece  of  wood 
hollowed  out  to  fit  the  muzzle  of  a  gun, 
to  make  it  of  an  equal  height  with  the 
breech,  formerly  made  use  of  by  the 
gunners,  to  level  and  direct  their  pieces. 
It  is  not  used  at  present. 

AIR,  (air,  Fr.)  in  a  horse,  a  ca- 
dence and  liberty  of  motion,  suited  to 
the  natural  disposition  of  the  horse, 
which  makes  him  work  in  the  manege, 
and  rise  correctly. 

Am,  Fr.  air,  manner,  way,  &c.  also 
look,  countenance,  &c. 

Air  de  service,  Fr.  a  look  of  hardship, 
or  of  war  ;  weather-beaten. 

AIR-GUN,  a  pneumatic  machine  for 
exploding  bullets,  &c.  with  great  vio- 

The  common  air-gun  is.  made  of  brass, 

A  I  R 

(     9     ) 

A  L  C 

3nc]  has  two  barrels  :  the  inside  barrel  is 
of  a  small  bore,  from  whence  the  bullets 
are  exploded;  and  a  large  barrel  on  the 
outside  of  it.  There  is  likewise  a  sy- 
ringe fixed  in  the  stock  of  the  gun,  by 
which  the  air  is  injected  into  the  cavity 
between  the  two  barrels  through  a  valve. 
The  ball  is  put  down  into  its  place  in 
the  small  barrel  with  the  rammer,  as  in 
any  other  gun.  Another  valve,  being 
opened  by  the  trigger,  permits  the  air 
to  come  behind  the  bullet,  so  as  to  drive 
it  out  with  great  force.  It  this  valve  be 
opened  and  shut  suddenly,  one  charge 
of  condensed  air  may  be  sufficient  for 
several  discharges  of  bullets;  but  if  tire 
whole  air  be  discharged  on  one  single 
bullet,  it  will  drive  it  out  with  uncom- 
mon force.  This  discharge  is  effected  by 
means  of  a  lock  placed  here,  as  usual 
in  other  guns;  for  the  trigger  being 
pulled,  the  cock  will  go  down  and  drive 
the  lever,  which  will  open  tl  £  valve,  and 
let  in  the  air  upon  the  bullet  s  but  as  the 
expansive  power  of  the  condensed  air 
diminishes  at  each  discharge,  its  force  is 
not  determined  with  sufficient  precision 
for  the  purposes  of  war.  Hence  it  has 
been  Ion"  out  of  use  among  military 

In  the  air-gun,  and  all  other  cases 
where  the  air  is  required  to  be  condensed 
to  a  very  great  degree,  it  will  be  neces- 
sary to  have  the  syringe  of  a  small  bore, 
viz.  not  exceeding  half  an  inch  in  dia- 
meter ;  because  the  pressure  against  every 
square  inch  is  about  15  pounds,  and 
therefore  against  every  circular  inch 
about  12  pound?.  If  therefore  the  sy- 
ringe he  one  inch  in  diameter,  when  one 
atmosphere  is  injected,  there  will  be  a 
resistance  of  12  pounds  against  the  pis- 
ton ;  and  when  ten  are  injected,  there 
will  be  a  force  of  120  pounds  to  be  over- 
come; whereas  ten  atmospheres  act 
against  the  circular  half-inch  piston 
(whose  area  is  only  \  Dart  so  bi^j  with 
only  a  force  equal  to  30  pounds;  or  40 
atmospheres  may  be  injected  with  such 
a  syringe,  as  well  as  10  with  the  other. 
In  short,  the  facility  of  working  will  be 
inversely  as  the  squares  of  the  diameter 
of  the  syringe. 

AIR-SHAFTS,      in      mining.       See 

AIRE,  Fr.  any  smooth  or  even  spot 
of  ground  upon  which  one  treads. 

Aire,  Fr.  in  geometry,  the  area  or 
inside  of  any  geometrical  figure. 

Aire,  Fr.  in  architecture,  the  space 
between  the  walls  in  a  building. 
AIKEE,  Fr.  a  barn-floor; 
A I  tt  I E  R,  IV.  to  fumigate. 

A  IS,  Fr.  board,  plank. 

Afs  d'entrevouj:,  Fr.  boards  or  planks 
which  cover  the  space  between  the  raft- 
ers, or  beams,  in  a  building. 

AISCEAU,  Fr.  a  chip-axe,  or  one 
handed  plane  axe,  with  which  carpenters 
hew  their  limber  smooth. 

ATSCETTE,  Fr.  a  small  planing  axe. 

AISSE,  Fr.  a  linch  pin. 

AISSIEU,  IV.  axle-tree,  axis.  It  is 
also  called  fi/mpan  or  (tuubour,  round 
which  a  rope  may  be  wound  for  the  pur- 
pose of  drawing  up  any  load  affixed  to 

AJUTAGE,  (ajutage,  FrJ  in  hy- 
draulics, part  of  the  apparatus  of  an  ar- 
tificial  fountain  ;  being  a  sort  of  jet  cPeait, 
or  kind  of  tube  fitted  to  the  mouth  or 
aperture  of  a  vessel,  through  which  the 
water  is  to  lie  played,  and  thrown  into  a 
particular  form  or  figure. 

AJUTAGES,  Fr.  pipes  for  water- 

ALAISE,  Fr.-  in  carpentry,  a  thin 
piece  of  wood  which  is  used  to  linish  the 
wooden  pannels  of  a  door.  It  is  also 

ALARM  is  a  sudden  apprehension 
upon  some  report,  which  makes  men  run 
to  their  arms  to  stand  upon  their  guard; 
it  implies  either  the  apprehension  of  be- 
ing suddenly  attacked,  or  the  notice  given 
of  such  an  attack  being  actually  made  ; 
generally  signified  by  the  firing  of  a  can- 
non, the  beat  of  a  drum,  &c. 

Alarm-I-W,  in  the  field,  is  the 
ground  appointed  by  the  quarter-master 
general  for  each  regiment  to  march  to, 
in  case  of  an  alarm. 

Alar m- Post,  in  a  garrison,  is  the 
place  allotted  by  the  governor  for  the 
troops  to  draw  up  in,  on  any  sudden 

J'a/se-ALARMS,  are  stratagems  of  war, 
frequently  made  use  of  to  harass  an 
enemv,  by  keeping  them  perpetually  un- 
der arms.  They  are  often  conveyed  by 
false  reports,  occasioned  by  a  fearful  or 
negligent  sentinel.  A  vigilant  officer  will  makS  a  false  alarm,  to  try  if 
his  guards  are  strict  upon  duty. 

A  i  ARM-i'.W/,  the  bell  rung    upon  any 
sudden  emergency,  as  a  lire,  mutiny,  ap- 
proach of  an  enemv,  or  the  like,  called 
i>v  the  French,  Tocsin. 


(    to    ) 


ALCANTARA,  kuightsof,  a  Spanish 
military  order,  who  gained  great  honour 
during  the  wars  villi  the  Moors. 

ALDER, an  aquatic  tree  well  known; 
still  much  esteemed  for  such  parts  ot 
works  as  lie  continually  under  water. 

Vitruvius  tells  us,  that  the  morasses 

about    Ravenna,    in   Italy,  were    piled 

with  alder  timber,  in  order  to  build  upon. 

The  Rialto  at  Venice  is  built  upon 

piles  of  this  wood. 

ALERT,  originally  derived  from  the 
French  word  alerte,  which  is  formed  of 
a  and  airte.  The  French  formerly  said 
airte  for  air;  so  that  alerte  means  some- 
thing continually  in  the  air,  and  always 
ready  to  be  put  in  action.  A  general  is 
said  to  be  alert  when  he  is  particularly 

To  be  kept  upon  the  Alert  is  to  be  in 
continual  apprehension  of  being  sur- 
prized. Alerte,  among  the  French,  is  an 
expression  which  is  used  to  put  soldiers 
upon  their  guard.  It  is  likewise  used  by 
a  post  that  may  be  attacked  in  the  night, 
to  give  notice  to  the  one  that  is  destin- 
ed to  support  it;  and  by  a  sentry  to  give 
warning  when  any  part  of  the  enemy  is 

ALETTE,  Fr.    in   architecture,  the 
side  of  a   pier   between   two   arcades : 
alettes  also  signify  jaumbs,  or  piedroits. 
ALGARIE,  Fr.  a  catheter  which  sur- 
geons use  to  draw  off  the  urine. 

ALGEBRA,  the  science  of  numbers 
in  general,  in  which,  by  general  marks 
for  numbers,  and  others  for  operations 
with  them,  the  properties  of  numbers 
are  demonstrated,  and  questions  relative 
to  them  are  solved  in  an  easy  and  concise 
manner.  This  science  has  been  rendered 
obscure  by  an   affectation  of  mystery, 
and    the    supposition,     that     numbers 
might  be  less  than  nothing,  and  impos- 
sible.    But  as  number  is  delinite  in  it- 
self, and  one  of  the  clearest  ideas,  when- 
ever such  a  mysterious  expression  oc- 
curs, it  must  be  owing  to  the  negligence 
of  the  person  using  it,  not  to  any  fault 
in  the  science.     The  study  of  this  easy 
branch  of  knowledge  might  he  recom- 
mended to  officers  in  genera!,  from  the 
example  set  them  by  Descartes,  the  great 
philosopher  of  France,  who  when  a  young 
man,  and  encamped  neai  an  university, 
solved  a  difficult  problem,  which  est  r- 
cised  the  ulents  of  their  deepest  stu- 
dents.    To  officers  in  the  ordnance  de- 
partment the  knowledge  of  Algebra  is 
indispeusably     necessary.      See     Mr. 

Fiend's  very  able  publication   on  this 

ALIDADE,  Fr.  a  small  instrument 
which  is  used  in  making  the  grooves  of 
a  rillc  barrel  equal;  a  cross-staff;  also 
the  index  of  a  nocturnal  or  sea  qua- 

ALIEN",  in  law,  implies  a  person 
born  in  a  foreign  country,  not  within 
the  king's  dominions,  in  contradistinc- 
tion to  a  denizen,  or  natural-born  sub- 

Alien-Office.  See  Office. 
ALIGN  EMENT  implies  any  thing 
straight:  for  instance,  the  alignement  of  a 
battalion  means  the  situation  of  a  body 
of  men  when  drawn  up  in  line.  The 
alignement  of  n  camp  signifies  the  rela- 
tive position  of  the  tents,  &c.  so  as  to 
form  a  straight  line  from  given  points. 

ALiE,  in  the  ancient  military  art,  the 
two  wings  or  extremes  of  an  army  ranged 
in  order  of  little. 

ALIQUANT,  (aliquante,  Fr.)  parts 
of  a  number,  which,  however  repeated, 
will  never  make  up  the  number  exactly; 
as,  3  is  an  aliquant  of  10,  thrice  3  being 
9,  four  times  3  making  12. 

ALIQUOT,  (  aliquot  cs,  Fr.)  aliquot 
parts  of  any  number  or  quantity, such  as 
will  exactly  measure  it  without  any  re- 
mainder; as  three  is  an  aliquot  part  of 
12,  because  being  taken  four  times,  it 
will  just  measure  it.  Thus  also,  the 
aliquot  parts  of  18  are  2,  3,  6,  9. 

ALLEGIANCE,  in  law,  implies  the 
obedience  which  every  subject  ought  to 
pay  to  his  lawful  sovereign. 

Oath  of  Ar.LEGfANCE  is  that  taken 
by  the  subject,  by  which  he  acknow- 
ledges the  king  his  lawful  sovereign.  It 
is  also  applied  to  the  oath  taken  hy  o(li- 
cers,  non-commissioned  officers,  and  sol- 
diers in  pledge  of  their  fidelity  to  the 
monarch,  prince,  or  state,  under  which 
they  ser\e. 
ALLEG1ANT,  loyal. 
ALLER  a  I'ennemi,  Fr.  to  meet  the 
enemy;  to  march  against  him. 

ALLEZER,  Fr.  to  cleanse  the  mouth 
of  a  cannon  or  other  piece  of  ordnance, 
and  to  increase  the  bore,  so  as  to  pro- 
duce its  determined  calibre. 

ALLEZOIR,  Fr.  a  frame  of  timber 
firmly  suspended  in  the  air  with  strong 
cordage,  on  which  is  placed  a  piece  of 
ordnance  with  the  muzzle  downwards. 
In  this  situation  the  bore  is  rounded  and 
enlarged  by  means  of,  an  instrument 
which     has    a   very    sharp    and   strong 

A  L  M 

(   11   ) 

A  M  A 

edge  made  to  traverse  the  bore  by  men 
or  horses,  and  in  an  horizontal  direc- 

ALLEZURES,  Fr.  the  metal  taken 
from  the  cannon  by  boring. 

ALLIAGE,  a  term  used  by  the 
French,  to  denote  the  composition  of 
metals  used  for  the  fabrication  of  can- 
non and  mortars,  &c. 

ALLIANCE,  Fr.  in  a  military  sense, 
signifies  a  treaty  entered  into  by  sove- 
reign princes  and  states,  for  their  i  j- 
tual  safety  and  defence.  In  this  sense 
alliances  may  be  divided  into  such  as 
are  offensive,  where  the  contracting 
parties  oblige  themselves  jointly  to  at- 
tack some  other  power;  and  into  such 
as  are  defensive,  whereby  the  contract- 
ing powers  bind  theinse  ves  to  stand  by, 
and  defend  one  another,  in  case  of  being 
attacked  by  any  other  power. 

Alliances  are  variously  distinguished 
according  to  their  object,  the  parties  in 
them,  &c.  Hence  we  read  of  equal,  un- 
equal, triple,  quadruple,  grand,  offensive, 
defensive  alliances,  ccc. 

ALLODIAL,  independent;  not  feu- 
dal. The  Allodu  of  the  Romans  were 
bodies  of  men  embodied  on  any  emer- 
gency, in  a  manner  similar  to  our  volun- 
teer associations. 

ALLOGNE,  the  cordage  used  with 
floating  bridges,  by  which  they  are 
guided  from  one  side  of  a  river  to  the 

ALLONGE,  Fr.  a  pass  or  thrust  with 
a  rapier  or  small  sword;  also  a  long  rein 
used  in  the  exercising  of  horses. 

ALLONGER,  Fr.  to  lengthen. 

ALLOWANCE,  a  sum  paid  monthly 
or  otherwise,  as  the  case  may  be,  for 
services  rendered,  &c.  The  French  use 
the  word  truitement  in  this  sense.  They 
also  say  Allouunce,  from  Allouer,  to 

ALLOY  is  the  mixture  of  metals 
that  enter  into  the  composition  of 
the  metal  proper  for  cannon  and  mor- 

ALLY,  ia  a  military  sense,  implies 
any  nation  united  to  another,  under  a 
treaty,  either  offensive  or  defensive,  or 

ALMADIE,  a  kind  of  military  canoe, 
or  small  vessel,  about  24  feet  long, 
made  of  the  bark  of  a  tree,  and  used  by 
the  negroes  of  Africa. 

Almadie  is  also  the  name  of  a  long- 
boat used  at  Calcutta,  near  30  feet  long, 
and  generally  six  or  seven  broad. 

ALTIMETRY,  the  taking  or  mea- 
suring altitude,  or  heights. 

ALTITUDE,  height  or  distance  from 
the  ground  measured  upwards,  and  may 
be  either  accessible  rii  inaccessible. 

ALTrTmr.  qfjigure  is  the  distance  of 
ir*  vertex  from  its  base,  ox  the  length  of 
u  perpendicular  let  fall  from  the  vertex 
to  the  base. 

Altitude  of  a  shot  or  shell  is  the 

.  pendicular  height  of  the  vertex  of  the 
cuive  in  which  it  moves  above  the  hori- 
zon.    See  Gunnery  and  Projectiles. 

Aititude,  in  optics,  r9  Usually  consi- 
dered as  the  angle  subtended  between  a 
Ime  drawn  through  the  eye,  parallel  to 
the  horizon,  and  a  visual  ray  emitted 
from  an  object  of  the  eye. 

Altitude,  in  cosmography,  is  the 
perpendicular  height  of  an  object,  or  its 
distance  from  the  horizon  upwards. 

Altitudes  are  divided  into  accessible 
and  inane-txible. 

Accessible   Altitude  of  an  object  is 

:  hat  whose  base  you  can  have  access  to, 

.  e.   measure  the  nearest  distance  be- 

weeu  your  station  and   the  foot  of  the 

object  on  the  ground. 

Inaccessible  Altitude  nf  an  object  is 
that  when  the  foot  or  but  torn  of  it  can- 
iot  be  approached,  by  reason  of  some 
impediment;  such  as  water,  or  the  like. 
The  instruments  chiefly  used  in  measur- 
ing altitudes,  are  the  quadrant,  theo- 
dolite, geometric  quadrant,  or  line  of 
shadows,  ike. 

Altitude  of  the  eye,  in  perspective, 
is  a  right  line  let  full  from  the  eye,  per- 
pendicular to  the  geometrical  plane. 

Altitude  of  motion,  a  term  used  by 
some  writers,  to  express  the  measure  of 
any  motion,  computed  according  to  the 
line  of  direction  of  the  moving  force. 

AMARRER  sur  la  culasse  d'un  canon, 
Fr.  to  tie  or  lash  to  the  breech  of  a  gun, 
in  order  to  inflict  bodily  chastisement, 
or  to  answer  any  other  put  pose. 

A  MAS,  Fr.  stores. 

AMAZON,  one  of  those  women  who 
inhabited  the  country  so  called.  They 
ire  said  to  have  composed  a  nation  of 
themselves,  exclusive  of  males,  and  to 
have  derived  their  name  from  their  cut- 
ting off  one  of  their  breasts,  that  it  might 
not  hinder  or  impede  the  exercise  of 
their  arms.  This  term  has  often  by 
modern  writers  been  used  to  signify  a 
bold  daring  woman,  whom  the  delicacy 
of  her  sex  does  not  hinder  from  engag- 
ing in  the  most  hazardous  attempts. 

A  M  M 

(    a   ) 

A  M  O 

Tlic  last  and  former  wars  with  France 
have  furnished  us  with  several  instances 
of  females  who  have  uudergone  the  fa- 
tigue of  a  campaign  with  alacrity,  and 
run  the  hazards  of  a  battle  with  the 
greatest  intrepidity. 

AMBIT,  the  compass  or  circuit  of 
any  work  or  place,  as  of  a  fortification 
or  encampment,  &c. 

AMBJ  1  [ON,  in  a  military  sense,  sig- 
nifies a  desire  or  greater  posts,  or  pre- 
ferment. Every  gentleman  in  the  army 
or  oavy  ought  to  have  a  spirit  of  ainbi- 
tion  to  arrive  at  tlie  very  summit  of  the 

.A.MIjI.EE  OU  emblee,  Fr.  main  force, 
or  assault. 

AMBLING,  a  motion  in  a  horse 
between  the  gallop  and  trot. 

AMBULANT,  Fr.  changing  situa- 
tion according  to  circumstances;  hence 
Hopital  ambulant, i\\\  hospital  which  fol- 
lows the  army;  Chirurgien  ambulant,  a 
surgeon  who  follows  the  line  of  action. 

AMBUSCADE,  a  snare  set  for  the 
enemy,  either  to  surprize  him  when 
marching  without  precaution;  or  by 
posting  yourself  advantageously,  and 
drawing  hmi  on  by  different  stratagems, 
to  attack  himvtith  superior  force. 

AMBUSH,  a  place  of  concealment 
for  soldiers  to  surprize  an  enemy,  by 
falling  suddenly  upon  him. 

AME,  a  French  term,  similar  in  its 
import  to  the  word  chamber,  as  applied 
to  cannon,  i\:c. 

AMENDE  Honorable,  among  the 
Trench,  signifies  an  apology  for  some 
injury  done  to  another,  or  satisfaction 
given  for  an  offence  committed  against 
the  rules  of  honour  or  military  etiquette; 
and  was  also  applied  to  an  infamous 
kind  of  punishment  inflicted  upon  trai- 
tors, parricides,  or  sacrilegious  persons, 
in  the  following  manner:  the  offender 
being  delivered  into  the  hands  of  the 
hangman,  his  shirt  is  stripped  off,  a  rope 
put  about  his  neck,  and  a  taper  in  his 
Land;  then  he  is  led  into  court,  where 
he  must  beg  pardon  of  Cod,  the  king, 
the  court,  and  his  country.  Sometimes 
the  punishment  ends  here;  but  at  other 
times  it  is  only  a  prelude  to  death,  or 
banishmeut  to  the  gullies. 

AMMUNITION  implies  all  sorts  of 
powder  and  ball,  shells,  bullets,  car- 
tridges, grape-shot,  tin  and  case-shot, 
carcasses,  grenades,  &c. 

Ammunition,  fixed  and  unfixed. — 
The  fixed  comprises  loaded  shells,  car- 

casses, and  cartridges,  filled  with  pow- 
der; also  shot,  fixed  to  powder,  for  the 
convenience  of  loading  qaick,  and  pre- 
venting mistakes  in  using  the.  charges  of 
powder  for  filing  the  different  natures  of 
round  and  case-shot,  for  held  service; 
but  this  latter  practice  has  of  late  years 
been  discontinued,  owing  to  the  great 
danger  there  is  in  mixing  the  powder 
with  the  shot,  when  travelling,  and  from 
the  ammunition  fixed  ill  this  manner  not 
being  proper  to  deposit  in  magazines. 
Ball  and  blank  cartridges  for  the  troops, 
of  different  descriptions,  to  suit  the  na- 
tures of  arms,  are  also  termed  fixed  am- 

Unfixed  ammunition  means  round] 
case,  and  grape-shot,  or  shells,  not  tilled 
with  powder. 

Ammunition  for  the  navy  is  all  un- 
fixed, at  the  time  it  is  sent  on  board 
shift,  except  it  may  be  the  hantlgrenades; 
and  when  on  board,  the  gunner  receives 
directions  to  keep  a  certain  number  of 
cartridges,  filled  with  powder,  for  im- 
mediate service. 

Ammunition,  or  gun-ponder,  may 
be  prohibited  to  be  exported,  at  the 
king's  pleasure,  by  Car.  II.  cap.  4.  sect. 


Arms,  utensils  of  war,  or  gun-powder, 
imported  without  licence  from  his  ma- 
jesty, are  to  be  forfeited  with  treble  the 

value.  Such  licence  obtained,  except 
for  the  furnishing  his  majesty's  public 
stores,  is  to  be  void,  and  the  offender  to 
incur  a  premunire,  and  be  disabled  to. 
bold  any  office  from  the  crown. 

Am. mi  mi  ion  bread,  such  as  is  con- 
tracted for  by  government,  and  served 
in  camp,  garrison,  and  barracks. 

Ammunition  shoes,  stockings,  shirts, 
storks,  6ic.  such  of  those  articles  as  are 
served  out  to  the  private  soldiers  by  go- 
vernment.    See  Half  Mountings. 

Ammunition-?^  <,'(>«  is  generally  a 
four-wheel  carriage  with  shafts;  the  sides 
are  railed  in  with  staves  and  raves,  and 
lined  with  wicker  work,  so  as  to  carry 
bread  and  all  sorts  of  tools.  It  is  drawn 
by  four  horses,  and  loaded  with  1200 
pounds  weight.     See  Wagon. 

AMMUNITlON-carf,  a  two-wheel  car- 
riage with  shafts;  the  sides  of  which,  as 
well  as  the  fore  and  hind  parts,  are  in- 

AMNESTY,  (umnistic,  Fr.)  an  act  of 
oblivion;  a  general  pardon. 

AMOISE,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  a  piece 
of  wood  which  is  laid  between  two  half- 

A  N  B 

(    is    ) 


beams  of  timber  to  support  the  rafters 
in  a  roof. 

AMORCE,  an  old  military  word  for 
fine-grained  powder,  such  as  is  some- 
times used  for  the  priming  of  great 
guns,  mortars,  or  howitzers;  as  also  for 
small  arms,  on  account  of  its  rapid 
inflammation :  a  port  fire,  or  quick 

AMORCES,  Fr.  in  masonry,  bricks 
or  stones  which  serve  to  unite  a  wall  of 
some  extent,  but  which  is  not  com- 
pleted all  together. 

AMDRTIR,  Fr.  to  deaden;  as 
Amortir  un  coup  de  feu,  to  deaden  a 
shot  from  a  fire-arm. 

AMORTISSEMENT,    ou    eouronne 

ment,  Fr.  a  piece  of  architecture,  or  or-   an  army 

ANCHOR,  (ancre,  Fr.)  a  heavy  iron 
composed  of  a  long  shank,  having  a 
ring  at  one  end,  to  which  the  cable  is 
fastened,  and  at  the  other  branching  out 
into  two  arms  or  flukes,  tending  up- 
wards with  barbs  or  edges  on  each  side: 
its  use  is  to  hold  the  ship,  by  being  fixed 
to  the  ground.  There  are  ten  parts  be- 
longing to  an  anchor,  viz.  the  shank,  the 
eye,  the  ring,  the  nuts,  the  crown,  the 
arms,  the  palms,  the  flukes,  the  bill,  and 
the  stock. 

ANCHORS,  in  architecture,  a  sort  of 
carving  which  resembles  an  anchor,  or 
arrow  head. 

ANCIENT,  a  term  used  formerly  to 
express  the  grand  ensign  or  standard  of 

nament  of  sculpture,  which  diminishes 
as  it  rises,  to  terminate  some  decora- 

AMPLITUDE  de  parabole,  Fr.  in 
artillery,  the  horizontal  range  of  a  shell, 
from  its  departure  out  of  a  mortar  to 
the  spot  on  which  it  drops. 

AMPLITUDE  of  the  range  of  a  pro- 
jectile.    See  Projectile. 

AMPOULETTE,an  old  military  term 
used  by  the  French  to  express  the  stock 
of  a  musket,  &c. 

AMUSETTE,  a  species  of  offensive 
weapon  which  was  invented  by  the  cele- 
brated Marshal  Saxe.  It  is  fired  oft*  in 
the  same  manner  as  a  musquet,  but  is 
mounted  nearly  like  a  canon.  It  was 
found  of  considerable  use  during  the 
late  war,  especially  among  th?  French, 
who  armed  their  horse  artillery  with  it ; 
and  found  it  superior  to  the  one  adopted 
by  the  Prussians.  The  ball  with  which 
it  is  loaded  is  from  one  pound  and  a 
half  to  two  pounds  weight  of  lead. 

ANABASII,  in  antiquity,  were  expe- 
ditious couriers,  who  carried  dispatches 
of  great  importance,  in  the  Roman 

ANACLETICUM,  in  the  ancient  art 
of  war,  a  particular  blast  of  the  trum- 
pet, whereby  the  fearful  and  flying  sol- 
diers were  rallied  and  recalled  to  the 

ANALOGY,  in  geometry,  ike.  the 
comparison  of  several  ratios  together; 
and  is  the  same  as  proportion. 

ANALYSIS,  (ana/i/se,  Fr.)  a  separa- 
tion of  a  compound  body  into  the  seve- 
ral parts  of  which  it  consists. 

ANBURY    is    a   kind    of    wen,    or 

ANCILE,  in  antiquity,  a  kind  of 
shield,  which  fell,  as  was  pretended, 
from  heaven,  in  the  reign  of  Numa 
Pompilius;  at  which  time,  likewise,  a 
voice  was  heard,  declaring,  that  Rome 
would  be  mistress  of  the  world  as  long 
as  she  should  preserve  this  holy  buckler. 

Authors  are  much  divided  about  its 
shape:  however,  it  was  kept  with  great 
care  in  the  temple  of  Mars,  under  the 
direction  of  twelve  priests;  and  lest  any 
should  attempt  to  steal  it,  eleven  others 
were  made  so  like  it,  as  not  to  be  dis- 
tinguished from  the  sacred  one.  These 
Ancilia  were  carried  in  procession  every 
year  round  the  citv  of  Rome. 

AN  CONES  are  the  corners,  or  coins 
of  walls,  crossbeams,  or  rafters.  Vi- 
tmvius  calls  the  consols,  ancones. 

ANCRE,  Fr.  an  iron  brace. 

ANDABATjE,  in  military  antiquity, 
a  kind  of  gladiators,  who  fought  hood- 
winked, having  a  sort  of  helmet  that 
covered  the  eyes  and  face.  They  fought 
mounted  on  horseback,  or  out  of  cha- 

St.  ANDREW,  or  the  Thistle,  a  mi- 
litary order  of  knighthood  in  Scotland; 
the  motto  is,  Nemo  vie  impune  lucessit. 
The  occasion  of  instituting  this  order  is 
variously  related  by  different  authors 
John  Lesley,  bishop  of  Ross,  reports, 
that  the  night  before  the  battle  betwixt 
Atheistane,  king  of  England,  or  rather 
Northumberland,  and  Hungus,  king  of 
the  Picts,  a  bright  cross,  in  the  fashion 
of  that  whereon  St.  Andrew  suffered 
martyrdom,  appeared  in  the  air  to  Hun- 
gus; he  having  gained  the  victory,  bore 
the  figure  of  that  cross  at  all  times  after 

spungy  wart,  growing  upon  any  part  of  in  bis  ensigns  and  banners;  from  which 
2  horse's  body,  full  of  blood. 

time  all  succeeding  kings  of  Scotland 


(     U     ) 

A  N  G 

liavc  religiously  observed  the  same  bear- 
ing. Others  assert,  that  this  extraordi- 
nary appearance  was  nc^t  to  Hungus,  but 
to  the  Scots,  whom  Achaius,  king  of 
Scotland,  sent  to  his  assistance.  This 
victory  is  said  to  have  been  obtained  in 
the  year  819,  (though,  according  to 
Buchanan,  Achaius  died  nine  years  be- 
forehand that  Hungus  and  Achaius  went 
bare-footed  in  solemn  procession  to  the 
kirk  of  St.  Andrew,  to  return  thanks  to 
God  and  his  apostle,  promising,  that 
they  and  their  posterity  would  ever  use 
in  their  ensigns  the  cross  of  St.  Andrew, 
which  custom  prevailed  among  the  Picts, 
and  continues  among  the  Scots  unto 
this  day;  and  that  both  these  kings  in- 
stituted an  order,  which  they  named  the 
order  of  St.  Andrew. 

Others,  who  allow  that  Achaius  in- 
stituted this  order,  give  the  following 
account  of  its  origin:  Achaius  having 
formed  that  famous  league,  offensive 
and  defensive,  with  Charlemagne,  against 
all  other  princes,  found  himself  thereby 
so  strong,  that  lie  took  for  his  device 
the  Thistle  and  the  Rue.  which  he  com- 
posed into  a  collar  of  his  order,  and  for 
his  motto,  Pour  inn  defense,  intimating 
thereby,  that  he  feared  not  the  powers 
of  foreign  princes,  seeing  he  leaned  on 
the  succour  and  alliance  of  the  French. 
And  though  from  hence  may  be  inferred, 
that  these  two  plants,  the  Thistle  and 
the  Rue,  were  the  united  symbols  of  one 
order  of  knighthood,  yet  Menenius  di- 
vides them  into  two,  making  one  whose 
badge  was  the  thistle,  whence  the  knijjhts 
were  so  called,  and  the  motto,  Nemo  me 
impune  htcessit  ;  another  vulgarly  called 
Sertumruto;  or  the  Garland  of  Rue;  the 
collar  of  which  was  composed  of  two 
branches  or  sprigs  thereof,  or  else  ol 
several  of  its  leaves:  at  both  these  col- 
lars hung  one  and  the  same  jewel,  to 
wit,  the  figure  of  St.  Andrew,  bearing 
before  him  the  cross  of  his  martyrdom. 
But  though  the  thistle  has  been  ac- 
knowledged for  the  badge  and  symbol 
of  the  kingdom  of  Scotland,  even  from 
the  reign  of  Achaius,  as  the  rose  was  of 
England,  and  the  lily  of  France,  the 
pomegranate  of  Spain,  &c.  yet  there  are 
some  who  refer  the  order  of  the  thistle 
to  later  times,  in  the  reign  of  Charles 
VII.  of  France,  when  the  league  of 
amity  was  renewed  between  that  king- 
dom and  Scotland,  by  which  the  former 
received  great  succour  from  the  latter, 
at  a  period  of  extraordinary   distress. 

Others  again  place  the  foundation  still 
later,  even  as  low  as  the  year  1500;  but 
without  any  degree  of  certainty. 

The  chief  and  principal  ensign  of  this 
order  is  a  gold  collar,  composed  of 
thistles,  interlinked  with  annulets  of 
gold,  having  pendent  thereto  the  image 
of  St.  Andrew,  with  his  cross,  and  this 
motto,  Nemo  me  impune  lucessit. 

Knights  of  St.  Andrew  is  also  an 
order  instituted  by  Peter  the  Great,  of 
Muscovy,  in  1698;  the  badge  of  which 
is  a  golden  medal,  on  one  side  whereof 
is  represented  St.  Andrew's  cross;  and 
on  the  other  are  these  words,  Czar  Pierre, 
monurque  de  toute  la  Russie.  This  medal, 
being  fastened  to  a  blue  ribbon,  is  sus- 
pended from  the  right  shoulder. 

ANGARIA,  in  ancient  military  wri- 
ters, means  a  guard  of  soldiers  posted 
in  any  place  for  the  security  of  it.  Vide 
Vegetius,  lib.  i.  c.  3.  lib.  ii.  c.  19.  lib. 
iii.  c.  8. 

Angaria,  in  civil  law,  implies  a  ser- 
vice by  compulsion,  as  furnishing  horses 
and  carriages  for  conveying  corn  or 
other  stores  for  the  army. 

ANGE,  a  term  used  by  the  French  to 
express  chain  shot. 

ANGEL  SHot.     See  Chain  Shot. 
Angel    Bed,  an    open    bed  without 
bed-posts,  such  as  may  be  seen  in  the 
wards  of  gaols,  hospitals,  &c. 

ANGELOT,  a  gold  coin,  which  was 
struck  at  Paris  when  that  capital  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  English;  and  so  called 
from  its  representing  the  figure  of  an 
angel,  supporting  the  arms  of  England 
and  France;  also  a  musical  instrument 
resembling  a  lute. 

ANGLE,  in  geometry,  is  the  incli- 
nation of  two  lines  meeting  one  another 
in  a  point. 

The  measure  of  an  angle  is  the  arch 
of  a  circle  whose  center  is  the  angular 
point,  and  radius  any  distance  in  ilie 
lines  forming  the  angle,  and  by  which 
the  arc  is  intercepted.  As  many  degrees, 
tSx.  as  are  contained  in  that  arch,  so 
many  degrees,  &c.  the  angle  is  said  to 
consist  of. 

Angles  are  either  right,  acute,  or 

A  right  Angle  is  that  formed  by  a 
line  falling  perpendicularly  on  another; 
or  that  which  subtends  an  arc  of  90  de- 
grees. All  right  angles  are  equal  to  each 

An  acute  Angle  is  that  which  is 
less  than  a  right  angle,  or  90°. 

A  N  G  (   is   )  A  N  G 

An  obtuse  Angle   is  that  which  is  i  the  diameter  of  a  circle  makes  with  the 
greater  than  a  right   angle ;  or    whose  circumference, 
measure  exceeds  90°.  Angle  of  incidence  is  that  which  the 

Adjacent  Angles  are  such  as  have  the]  line  of  direction  of  a  ray  of  light,  &c, 

same  vertex,  and  one  common  side.  The 
sum  of  the  adjacent  angles  is  always 
equal  to  two  right  angles  (13  Eucl.  1), 
and  therefore,  if  one  of  them  be  acute, 
the  other  will  be  obtuse  ;  and  the  con- 
trary: whence,  if  either  of  them  be 
given,  the  other  is  also  given,  it  being 
the  complement  of  the  former  to  180°. 

Homologous  or  like  Angles,  in  similar 
figures,  are  such  as  retain  the  same  order, 
reckoning  from  the  first  in  both  figures. 

Vertical  Angles  are  the  opposite 
angles  made  by  two  lines  cutting  or 
crossing  each  other.  When  two  lines 
cut  or  cross  each  other,  the  vertical  an- 
gles are  equal.  (15  Eucl.  1.) 

Alternate  Angles  are  the  angles 
formed  by  a  straight  line  falling  on  two 
parallel  straight  lines,  so  that  each  angle 
shall  have  a  common  leg,  but  the  other 
legs  are  on  opposite  sides  of  this  com- 
mon leg.  These  alternate  angles  are 
always  equal.  (29  Eucl    1.) 

A  rectilinear  or  right-lined  Angle 
is  made  by  straight  lines,  to  distinguish 
it  from  the  spherical  or  curvilinear  angle. 

Angles  of  contact  are  angles  formed 
by  a  curve  with  its  tangent,  which  may 
be  considered  as  true  angles,  and  should 
be  compared  with  one  another,  though 
not  with  right-lined  angles,  as  being  in- 
finitely smaller. 

Angle  of  elevation,  in  gunnery,  is 
that  which  the  axis  of  the  hollow  cylin- 
der, or  barrel  of  the  gun,  makes  with  a 
horizontal  line.     See  Elevation. 

Angles  oblique  are  those  which  are 
greater  than  right  angles. 

Sp/tericul  Angle  is  an  angle  formed 
by  the  intersection  of  two  great  circles 
of  the  sphere.  A  spherical  angle  is 
measured  by  the  arc  of  a  great  circle, 
intercepted  between  the  legs,  or  the  legs 
produced,  whose  pole  is  in  the  vertex  of 
the  angle. 

Angle  lunular  is  an  angle  formed  by 
the  intersection  of  two  curves,  the  ont 
concave  and  the  other  convex. 

Mixed-line  Angle  is  that  compre- 
hended between  a  light  line  and  a  curv- 
ed line. 

Curved-line  Angle  is  that  inter- 
cepted between  two  curved  lines  meet- 
ing each  other  in  one  point,  in  the  same 

Angle  of  a  semi-circle  is  that  which 

makes  at  the  point  where  it  first  touches 
the  body  it  strikes  against,  with  a  line 
erected  perpendicular  to  the  surface  of 
that  body. 

Angle  of  incidence,  in  projectiles,  is 
the  angle  which  the  line  of  direction  of 
the  projectile  makes  with  the  surface  of 
the  obstacle  on  which  it  impinges.  The 
force  or  effect  of  a  shot  striking  a  wall, 
or  other  obstacle,  in  an  oblique  direc- 
tion, is  to  its  force,  if  it  had  struck  the 
same  obstacle  in  a  perpendicular  direc- 
tion, as  the  angle  of  incidence  is  to  the 
radius.  Hence  the  impulsive  forces  of 
the  same  shot,  fired  in  different  direc- 
tions, are  to  each  other,  as  the  respec- 
tive angles  of  incidence  of  these  direc- 
Angle  of  interval,  between  two  places, 
is  that  formed  by  two  lines  directed 
from  the  eye  to  those  places. 

Angle  of  reflection  is  the  angle  inter- 
cepted between  the  line  of  direction  of 
a  body  rebounding  after  it  has  struck 
against  another  body,  and  a  perpendicu- 
lar erected  at  the  point  of  contact. 

Angle  at  the  center,  in  fortification, 
is  the  angle  formed  at  the  middle  of  the 
polygon,  by  lines  drawn  from  thence  to 
the  points  of  the  two  adjacent  bastions. 

Angle  of  the  curtain,  )  that  which  is 

Angle  of  the  flank,  j  made  by,  and 
contained  between  the  curtain  and  the 

Angle  of  the  polygon,  that  which  is 
made  by  the  meeting  of  the  two  sides  of 
the  polygon,  or  figure  in  the  center  of 
the  bastion. 

Angle  of  the  triangle  is  half  the  an- 
gle of  the  polygon. 

Angle  of  the  bastion,  or  |  that  which 

Flanked  Angle,  )  is  made  by 

the  two  faces,  being  the  utmost  part  of 
the  bastion  most  exposed  to  the  enemy's 
batteries,  frequently  called  the  point  of 
the  bastion. 

Diminished  Angle,  only  used  by 
some  foreign  engineers,  and  more  espe- 
cially the  Dutch,  is  composed  of  the  face 
of  the  bastion,  and  the  exterior  side  of 
the  polygon. 

Angle  of  the  shoulder,  i  is  formed  by 

Angle  of  the  epaule,  $  one  face,  and 
one  flank  of  the  bastion. 

Angle  of  the  tenaille,    }  is   made  by 

Angle  rentrant,  J  two  lines  fi- 

A  X  G 

(     10     ) 

A  N  I 

chant,  that  is,  the  laces  of  the  two  bas- 
tions extended  till  they  meet  in  an  an- 
gle  towards  the  curtain,  and  is  thai 
which  always  carries  its  point  towards 
the  out-works. 

AngLI  of  the  flunk  exterior  is  that 
which  i»  before  the  cent<  r  of  the  curtain, 
formed  by  the  prolongation  of  the  laces 
of  the  bastion,  or  by  both  the  fichant 
lines  of  defence,  intersecting  each  other 
on  planning  a  fortification. 

A  NCI  E  <if  tin  flunk  hilt  rior  is  formed 
by  tlu  flanked  line  of  dt  fence  and  the 
curtain  ;  being  that  point  where  the  line 
of  di  t'ence  falls  upon  the  curtain. 

Angle  of  the  line  <>f  defence  is  that 
angle  made  by  the  flank  and  the  line  of 

Angle  of  the  face  is  formed  by  the 
angle  of  the  face  and  the  line  of  de- 
fence produced  till  they  intersect  each 

Angle  of  the  base  interior  is  the  half 
of  the  angle  of  the  figure,  which  the  in- 
terior polygon  makes  with  the  radius, 
when  they  join  each  other  in  the  cen- 
ter; intersecting  the  center  of  the  gorges 
of  each  bastion. 

Angle  of  the  base  exterior  is  an  angle 
formed  by  lines  drawn  from  the  center 
of  the  figure  to  the  angle  of  the  exterior 
polygon,  cutting  the  center  of  the  gorges 
of  each  bastion. 

Angle  of  the  gorge  is  that  angle 
formed  by  the  prolongation  of  the  cur- 
tains intersecting  each  other,  in  the  cen- 
ter of  the  gorge,  through  which  the  ca- 
pital line  passes. 

ANGLE  of  the  ditch  is  formed  before 
the  center  of  the  curtain,  by  the  out- 
ward line  of  the  ditch. 

Angle  of  the  mole  is  that  which  is 
made  before  the  curtain  where  it  is  in- 
t(  rsected. 

Flanked  Angle.  Sec  Angle  of  the 

Salient  Angle,  )  is  that  angle   which 

Angle  tortant,  S  points  outwards,  or 
towards  the  country;  such  is  the  angle 
of  the  counterscarp  before  the  point  of 
a  bastion. 

.Entering- Angle,  or  ;  an  angle  point- 

Angle  rentrant,  S  ing  inwards,  as 
the  salient  angle  points  outwards;  such 
is  the  angle  of  the  counterscarp  before 
the  curtain. 

Angle  of  the  counterscarp,  made  by 
two  sides  of  the  counterscarp  meeting 
before  the  center  of  the  curtain. 

Angle  at  the  circumference  of  a  cir- 

cle,  is  an  angle  formed  by  two  chords  in 
the  circumference  of  a  circle. 

Angle  of  /.'/<  circumference  is  the 
mixed  angle  formed  by  an  arch,  drawn 
from  one  gorge  to  another. 

He-entering  Angle.  See  Entering 
Am.  i.e. 

Angle  qf  the  complement  of  the  line 
of  defence  is  the  angle  formed  by  the 
intersection  of  the  two  complements 
with  each  other. 

ANGLES  of  a  lalta/ion  a;e  made  by 
the  last  men  at  the  extremity  of  the 
ranks  and  tile-. 

Front  Angles,  the  two  last  men  of 
the  front  rank.  . 

Rear  Angles,  the  two  last  men  of 
the  rear  rank. 

Dead  Angle  is  a  re-entering  angle, 
consequently  nut  defended. 

Flank-forming  Angle.  When  the 
flank,  as  in  Ozanaih's  method,  passes 
when  produced  through  the  center  of 
the  polygon,  the  angle  formed  l>v  that 
line  and  the  oblique,  or  great  radio?,  a 
called  by  him  the  flank-forming  angle. 
In  the  Dutch  construction,  it  is  the 
angle  formed  by  a  di  mi-gorge  and  a 
ri^ht  line  drawn  to  the  adjacent  epaule 
from  that  extremity  thereof,  which  is  in 
the  angle  of  the  gorge  or  center  of  the 

ANGLET,  l'r.  an  anklet,  a  corner; 
also  a  small  right-angled  cavity;  a  term 
in  architecture. 

ANGON,  in  ancient  military  history, 
was  a  kind  of  dart  of  a  moderate  length, 
having  an  iron  bearded  head  and  cheeks; 
in  use  about  the  fifth  century.  This  sort 
of  javelin  was  much  used  by  the  French. 
The  iron  head  of  it  resembles  a  fleur- 
de-lis;  and  it  is  the  opinion  of  some 
writers,  that  the  arms  of  France  arc  not 
fleurs-de-lis,  but  the  iron  point  of  the 
angon  or  javelin  of  the  ancient  French. 

ANGULAR,  in  a  general  sense,  de- 
notes something  relating  to,  or  that  has 

lb  ANIMATE,  in  a  military  sense, 
is  to  encourage,  to  incite,  to  add  fresh 
impulse  to  any  body  of  men  who  are  ad- 
vancing against  an  enemy,  or  to  prevent 
them  from  shamefully  abandouing  their 
colours  in  critical  situations.  Soldiers 
may  be  encouraged  and  incited  to  gal- 
lant actions  not  only  by  words,  but  by 
the  looks  and  gestures  of  the  oflicers, 
particularly  of  their  commanding  one. 
ft  is  by  the  latter  alone,  indeed,  that 
any  of  these  artificial  means   should  be 


(   n  ) 

A  P  O 

irsorted  to;  for  silence,  steadiness,  and 
calmness  are  the  peculiar  requisites  in 
tlte  character  of  subordinate  oti':cers. 

ANIMOSITY,  (animosite,  Fr.)  ha- 
tred, grudge,  quarrel,  contention. 

AN  LACE,  a  falchion  or  sword,  shaped 
like  a  scythe. 

ANNA,  Ind.  the  sixteenth  of  a  rupee; 
the  lowest  nominal  coin  in  India,  equal 
to  about  2d.  English. 

ANNALS,  a  species  of  military  his- 
tory, wherein  events  are  related  in  the 
chronological  order  they  happened.  They 
differ  from  a  perfect  history,  in  being  only 
a  mere  relation  of  what  passes  every  year, 
as  a  journal  is  of  what  passes  every  day. 

ANNELET,  }  fcr/irce/e/,Fr.)fromara- 

ANNULET,  S  nulus,  a  ring,  a  small 
square  member  of  the  Doric  capital,  un- 
der the  quarter-round,  &c. 

Annulets  are  used  in  architecture  to 
signify  narrow  fiat  mouldings.  An  an- 
nulet is  the  same  member  which  M. 
Mauclerc,  from  Vitruvius,  calls  a  fillet; 
and  Pulladio  a  listel  or  cincture;  and 
M.  Brown,  from  Scamozzi,  a  supercili- 
um,  tinea,  eye-brow,  square  and  rabbit. 

ANNUNCIADA,  an  order  of  mili- 
tary knighthood  in  Savoy,  first  insti- 
tuted by  Amadeus  I.  in  the  year  1409; 
their  collar  was  of  15  links,  interwoven 
one  with  another,  and  the  motto  F.  E. 
R.  T.  signifying  Fortitude  ejus  Rhodum 
tenuit.  Amadeus  VIII.  changed  the 
image  of  St.  Maurice,  patron  of  Savoy, 
which  hung  at  the  collar,  for  that  of  the 
Virgin  Mary;  and  instead  of  the  motto 
above  mentioned,  substituted  the  words 
of  the  angel's  salutation. 

ANOLYMPIADES.  See  Olympiad. 

ANOMALOUS,  irregular,  unequal, 
out  of  rank. 

ANSE  des  pieces,  Fr.  the  handles 
of  cannon.  Those  of  brass  have  two — 
those  of  iron  seldom  any — these  handles 
serve  to  pass  cords,  handspikes,  or  levers, 
the  more  easily  to  move  so  heavy  a 
body,  and  are  made  to  represent  dol- 
phins, serpents,  &c. 


ANTA,  (antes,  Fr.)  in  architecture, 
is  used  by  M.  Le  Clerc,  for  a  kind  of 
shaft  of  a  pilaster,  without  base  or  capi- 
tal, and  even  without  any  moulding. 
Belidor  calls  them  angular  pilasters, 
which  are  placed  in  the  corners  of  build- 
ings adorned    with   orders  of  architec- 


ANTvE,  pilasters  adjoining  to  a  wall. 
ANTEMURAILLE,  Fr.  in  the  an- 

cient military  art,  denoted  what  now  thft 
moderns  generally  call  the  out-works. 

ANTES,  square  pilasters,  which  the 
ancients  placed  at  the  corners  of  their 

To  ANTEDATE,  (antidater,  Fr.)  to 
date  a  letter,  &c.  before  the  time.  Hence 
to  antedate  a  commission. 

ANTESTATURE,  in  ancient  fortifi- 
cation, signifies  an  intrenchment  of  pa- 
lisades or  sacks  of  earth  thrown  up  in 
order  to  dispute  the  remainder  of  a  piece 
of  ground. 

ANTHONY,  or  Knights  of  St.  An- 
thony, a  militarv  order  instituted  by 
Albert,  duke  of  Bavaria,  Holland,  and 
Zealand,  when  he  designed  to  make  war 
against  the  Turks  in  1382.  The  knights 
wore  a  collar  of  gold  made  in  the  form 
of  a  hermit's  girdle,  from  which  hung  a 
stick  like  a  crutch,  with  a  little  bell,  as 
they  are  represented  in  St.  Anthony's 

ANTICIIAMBER,  ( antichumbre,  Fr.) 
an  apartment  in  a  house  before  the 
principal  chamber;  a  lobby  or  outer 
room  of  a  large  or  noble  house,  where 
servants,  strangers,  or  petitioners  wait 
till  the  lord  or  master  of  the  house  is  at 
leisure  to  he  spoken  to.  The  French 
say  Chauffer  Vantichambre,  to  dance  at- 

ANTIPAGMENTS,  ornaments,  or 
garnishings  in  carved  work  set  upon  the 

ANTIQUO-OTraterH,  a  term  used  iu 
speaking  of  old  Gothic  churches,  to  dis- 
tinguish them  from  those  of  the  Greeks 
and  Romans. 

APERTURE,  the  opening  of  any 
thing;  or  a  hole,  cleft,  or  vacant  place 
in  some  solid  or  continuous  substance. 
In  architecture,  doors,  windows,  stair- 
cases, chimnies,  outlets  and  inlets  for 
light,  smoke,  Sec.  are  termed  aper- 

Aperture,  in  geometry,  is  used  for 
the  space  left  between  two  lines,  which, 
mutually  incline  towards  each  other,  to 
form  an  angle. 

APOPHYGE,  in   architecture,    that 
part  of  a  column   where  it    begins   to 
spring  out  of  its  base,  and  shoot  upwards. 
|  The  French  call  it  ichappe,  conge. 

The  apopbyge,  in  its  original,  was  no 
more  than  the  ring  or  ferril,  heretofore 
fastened  at  the  extremities  of  wooden 
pillars,  to  keep  them  from  splitting, 
which  was  afterwards  imitated  in  stone- 

A  P  P 

(    i»    )' 

A  P  P 

APPANAGE,  Fr.  train,  retinue. 

APPAREIL,  Fr.  height  or  thickness 
of  a  stone  in  the  quarry;  also,  in  archi- 
tecture, the  method  of  cutting  stones 
and  laving  them. 

Pierre  A  PP A  RELLLEE,  Fr.  a  stone 
eat  to  the  measure  given. 

APPAREILLES,Fr.  are  those  slopes 
:  liit  lead  to  the  platform  of  the  bastion. 
See  FoOTIFIC  vi  ion. 

W'PARKILLEUR,  Fr.  an  architect 
who  superintends  the  workmen  in  the 
construction  of  fortifications,  sluices,  &C. 
a  marker  of  stones  to  be  cut. 

APPEAL  might  formerly  have  been 
made,  by  the  prosecutor  or  prisoner, 
from  the  sentence  or  jurisdiction  of  a 
regimental  to  a  general  court-martial. — 
At  present  no  soldier  has  a  right  to  ap- 
peal, except  in  cases  where  his  immedi- 
ate subsistence  is  concerned. 

APPEL,  Fr.  a  roll  call,  a  beat  of 
drum  for  assembling;  a  challenge. 

Appel,  in  fencing,  a  smart  beat  with 
your  blade  on  that  of  your  antagonist 
on  the  contrary  side  to  that  you  have 
engaged,  generally  accompanied  with  a 
stamp  of  the  foot,  and  used  for  the  pur- 
pose of  procuring  an  opening. 

APPENTIS,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  a  shed. 
See  Hangar. 

APPOINTE.  This  word  was  appli- 
cable to  French  soldiers  only,  during  the 
monarchy  of  France,  and  meant  a  man 
who,  for  his  long  service  and  extraordi- 
nary bravery,  received  more  than  com- 
mon pay.  There  were  likewise  instances 
in  which  officers  were  distinguished  by 
being  styled  officios  appoint  is.  They  were 
usually  rewarded  by  the  king. 

The  word  appoint  c  was  originally  de- 
rived from  its  being  said  that  a  soldier 
was  appointed  among  those  who  were 
to  do  some  singular  act  of  courage,  as  by 
going  upon  a  forlorn  hope,  &c.  ike. 

APPOINTMENT,^  a  military  sense, 
is  the  pay  of  the  army;  it  likewise  ap- 
plies to  warlike  habiliments,  accoutre- 
ments, &c. 

APPREHEND,  in  a  military  sense, 
implies  the  seizing  or  confining  of  any 
person.  According  to  the  Articles  of 
War,  every  person  who  apprehends  a  de- 
serter, and  attests  the  fact  duly  before  a 
magistrate,  is  entitled  to  receive  twenty 

APPROACHES.  All  the  works  are 
generally  so  called  that  are  carried  on  to- 
wards a  place  which  is  besieged ;  such  as 
the  first,  second,  and  third  parallels,  the 

trenches,  epaulements  with  and  without 
trenches,  redoubts,  places  of  arms,  saps, 
galleries, and  lodgments.  See  these  words 
more  particularly  under  the  head  FOR- 

This  is  the  most  difficult  part  of  a 
siege,  and  where  most  lives  are  lost.  The 
ground  is  disputed  inch  by  inch,  and 
neither  gained  nor  maintained  without 
the  loss  of  men.  It  is  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  make  your  approaches 
with  great  caution,  and  to  secure  them 
as  much  as  possible,  that  you  may  not 
throw  away  the  lives  of  your  soldiers. 
The  besieged  neglect  nothing  to  hinder 
the  approaches;  the  besiegers  do  every 
thing  to  carry  them  on;  and  on  this 
depends  the  taking  or  defending  the  place. 

The  trenches  being  carried  to  their 
glacis,  you  attack  and  make  yourself 
master  of  their  covered-way,  establish  a 
lodgment  on  their  counterscarp,  and  ef- 
fect a  breach  by  the  sap,  or  by  mines 
with  several  chambers,  which  blow  up 
their  intrenchments  and  fougades,  or 
small  mines,  if  they  have  any. 

You  cover  yourselves  with  gabions, 
fascines,  barrels,  or  sacks;  and  if  these 
are  wanting,  you  sink  a  trench. 

You  open  the  counterscarp  by  saps  to 
make  yourself  master  of  it;  but,  before 
you  open  it,  you  must  mine  the  flanks 
that  defend  it.  The  best  attack  of  the 
place  is  the  face  of  the  bastion,  when  by 
its  regularity  it  permits  regular  ap- 
proaches and  attacks  according  to  art. 
If  the  place  be  irregular,  you  must  not 
observe  regular  approaches,  but  proceed 
according  to  the  irregularity  of  it;  ob- 
serving to  humour  the  ground,  which 
permits  you  to  attack  it  in  such  a  man- 
ner at  one  place,  as  would  be  useless  or 
dangerous  at  another;  so  that  the  engi- 
neer who  directs  the  attack  ought  exactly 
to  know  the  part  he  would  attack,  its 
proportions,  its  force  and  solidity,  in 
the  most  geometrical  manner. 

Approaches,  in  a  more  confined 
sense,  signify  attacks. 

Counter  Approaches  are  such  trench- 
es as  are  carried  on  by  the  besieged, 
against  those  of  the  besiegers. 

APPRENTI,  Fr.  apprentice. 

In  France  they  had  apprentices  or 
soldiers  among  the  artillery,  who  served 
for  less  pay  than  the  regular  artillery- 
men, until  they  became  perfect  in  their 
profession,  when  they  were  admitted  to 
such  vacancies  as  occurred  in  their  re- 
spective branches. 

A  R  A 

(     19    ) 


APPROXIMATION,  (approxima  ■ 
tion,  Fr.)  in  arithmetic  or  algebra,  is  a 
continued  approaching  still  nearer  and 
nearer  to  the  root  or  quantity  sought, 
without  ever  expecting  to  have  it  exactly. 

APPUI,  with  horsemen,  the  stay  up- 
on the  horseman's  hand,  or  the  recipro- 
cal sense  between  the  horse's  mouth 
and  the  bridle  hand ;  or  the  horse's 
sense  of  the  action  of  the  bridle  in  the 
horseman's  hand.  Horses  for  the  army 
ought  to  have  a  full  appui,  or  firm  stay 
upon  the  hand. 

A  full  Appui,  in  horsemanship,  a 
firm  stay  without  resting  very  heavy, 
and  without  bearing  upon  the  horse- 
man's hand. 

A  more  than  full  Appui,  upon  the 
hand,  is  when  the  horse  is  stopped  with 
some  force;  but  still  so  that  he  does 
not  force  the  hand.  This  appui  is  good 
for  such  riders  as  depend  upon  the  bri- 
dle, instead  of  their  thighs. 

Appui,  (point  d'appui,  Fr.)  any  par- 
ticular given  point  or  body,  upon  which 
troops  are  formed,  or  by  which  they  are 
marched  in  line  or  column. 

Alter  a  /'Appui,  Fr.  to  go  to  the  as- 
sistance of  any  body ;  to  second,  to  back. 

Hauteur  (/'Appui,  Fr.  breast-height. 

APPUYER,  Fr.  to  sustain,  to  "sup- 
port. Hence,  une  urmee  appuyte  d'un 
hois,  d'un  marais;  an  army  which  has  a 
wood  or  a  marsh  on  either  of  its  flanks. 

Appuyer  also  signifies  to  force  any 
thing  into  an  object ;  as,  appuyer  I'eperon 
(i  uncheval,  to  drive  the  spurinto  ahorse. 

APPRELLE,  Fr.  horse-tail. 

APRON,  in  gunnery,  a  square  plate 
of  lead  that  covers  the  vent  of  a  cannon, 
to  keep  the  charge  dry,  and  the  vent 
clean  and  open. 

AQUEDUCT,  a  channel  to  convey 
water  from  one  place  to  another.  Aque- 
ducts, in  military  architecture,  are  ge- 
nerally made  to  bring  water  from  a 
spring  or  river  to  a  fortress,  Ike. ;  they 
are  likewise  used  to  carry  canals  over 
low  grounds,  and  over  brooks  or  small 
rivers  :  they  are  built  with  arches  like  a 
bridge,  only  not  so  wide,  and  are  cover- 
ed above  by  an  arch,  to  prevent  dust  or 
dirt  from  being  thrown  into  the  water. 
See  Muller's  Practical  Fortification. 

The  Romans  had  aqueducts  which  ex- 
tended 100  miles.  That  of  Louis  XIV. 
near  Maintenon,  which  carries  the  river 
Bute  to  Versailles,  is  7000  toises  long. 
.  ARAIGNEE,  Fr.  in  fortification.  See 

something  done  af- 
ter the  manner  of 


the  Arabians. 

Arabesk,  grotesque,  and  moresqve,  are 
terms  applied  to  such  paintings,  orna- 
ments of  friezes,  &c.  on  which  there  are 
no  human  or  animal  figures;  but  which 
consist  wholly  of  imaginary  foliages, 
plants,  stalks,  &c. 

The  terms  are  derived  from  the  Arabs, 
Moors,  and  other  Mahometans,  who 
use  these  kinds  of  ornaments,  because 
their  religion  forbids  them  to  make  any 
images  or  figures  of  men,  or  of  other 

ARABIAN  horse,  a  horse  supposed 
to  be  of  high  value,  but  not  so  useful  as 
the  common  English  breed. 

ABASEMENT,  Fr.  in  masonry,  the 
last  course  of  stone  or  brick  upon  a  wall 
of  an  equal  height. 

ARASER,  Fr.  to  carry  the  different 
courses  of  stone  or  brick  to  an  equal 

ARASES,  Fr.  stones  or  bricks  which 
are  larger  or  smaller  than  those  of  the 
other  courses,  and  are  used  to  make  any 
given  height. 

ARBALET,  in  the  ancient  art  of  war, 
a  cross-bow,  made  of  steel,  set  in  a  shaft 
of  wood,  with  a  string  and  trigger,  bent 
with  a  piece  of  iron  fitted  for  that  pur- 
pose, and  used  to  throw  bullets,  large 
arrows,  darts,  &c.  Also  a  mathemati- 
cal instrument  called  a  Jacob's  Staff,  to 
measure  the  height  of  the  stars  upon  the 

ARBALETE  a  jalet.  Fr.  a  stone  bow. 

ARBALETRIER,  Fr.  a  cross-bow- 

Arbaletrier  d'une  galiere,  Fr. 
that  part  of  a  galley  where  the  cross- 
bowmen  were  placed  during  an  engage- 

ARBORER,  Fr.  to  plant,  to  hoist. 
Arborer  I'etendart,  to  plant  the  stand- 

ARBRE,  Fr.  tree;  in  mechanics,  the 
thickest  piece  of  timber  upon  which  all 
other  pieces  turn,  that  it  supports. 

ARC,  Fr.  a  bow;  anarch  in  building. 

Arc  en  plein  ceintre,  Fr.  in  architec- 
ture, an  arch  which  is  formed  of  a  per- 
fect half-circle. 

Arc  en  anse  de  punier,  Fr.  an  elliptic 
arch  drawn  upon  three  centers. 

Arc  biuis,  ou  de  cute,  Fr.  an  arch 
whose  piedroits  are  not  even  with  then 

Arc  rampant,  Fr.  that  which  in  an 

A  R  C 

(    to   ) 

A  R  C 

upright  wall  issomcwhatinclined  towards 
a  gentle  slope. 

Arc  en  (nlut,  Fr.  that  which  is  made 
to  ease  a  platband  or  an  architrave,  and 
whose  declivities  bear  upon  the  sum- 
mers. An  arch  is  also  so  called  when  il 
is  made  in  a  wall  that  slopes. 

Anc  en  tiers-point,  on  Gothique,  Fr. 
that  which  is  made  of  two  portions  of  a 
circle,  which  intersect  each  other,  at  the 
point  of  the  angle  at  top. 

Anc  ile  cloitrc,  Fr.  See  Voute  en  arc 
dc  cloitre. 

Anc  a  renters,  Fr.  an  inverse  arch 
that  is  made  to  support  the  piles  of  a 
bridge,  between  the  arches,  and  to  pre- 
vent their  falling  against  each  other, 
which  often  happens  in  loose  ground. 

ARCADE,  (arcade,  Fr.)  a  continued 
arch  ;  a  walk  arched  over. 

ARCBOUTANT,  (from  the  French 
arc  and  boater,  to  abut,)  a  flat  arch,  or 
part  of  an  arch  abutting  against  the 
reins  of  a  vault,  to  support  and  prevent 
its  giving  way. 

Arcboutant,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  any 
piece  of  timber  which  is  used  as  a  but- 
tress or  support  in  scaffolds. 

ARCBOUTER,  ou  contrcboutcr,  Fr. 
to  restrain  or  keep  in  the  bellying  of  an 
arch,  or  of  a  platband,  by  means  of  a  pile 
or  buttress. 

ARCEAU,  Fr.  an  arch.  This  term, 
however,  is  chiefly  applied  to  the  small 
arch  of  a  bridge.  Arceau  also  means  a 

ARCH,  in  military  architecture,  is  a 
vault  or  concave  building,  in  form  of  a 
curve,  erected  to  support  some  heavy 
structure,  or  passage. 

Triumphal  Arch,  in  military  history, 
is  a  stately  erection  generally  of  a  semi- 
circular form,  adorned  with  sculpture, 
inscriptions,  &c.  in  honour  of  those  he- 
roes who  have  deserved  a  triumph.  For 
a  very  able  Treatise  on  Arches,  see  Mr. 
Atwood's  late  publication;  and  under 
Parabola  see  Parabolic  arches. 

ARC  I  IE  en  plein  ccintrc,  Fr.  an  arch 
formed  by  a  perfect  semi-circle. 

Arche  elliptique,  Fr.  that  which  is 
formed  by  a  half-oval. 

Arche  surbaissie,  Fr.  that  which  is  of 
the  lowest  proportion;  called  also  en 
tnae  de  punier,  from  its  resemblance  to 
the  handle  of  a  basket. 

Arche  en  portion  de  cercle,  Fr.  that 
which  contains  less  than  a  semi-circle. 

Arcue  cxtradossiie,  Fr.  is  that,  all  the 

hendings  of  which  are  equal  in   length 
and  parallel  to  the  cintrv. 

Anc  he  d' assemblage,  Fr.  When  a 
wooden  bridge  is  made  of  one  arch,  the 
arch  is  so  called. 

ARCHED.  A  horse  is  said  to  have 
arched  legs,  when  his  knees  are  bent 
arch-wise.  This  relates  to  the  fore- 
quarters,  and  the  infirmity  is  generally 
occasioned  by  hard  riding. 

There  are  horses,  however,  which  the 
French  call  brassicourts,  or  short  fore-' 
thighs,  that  have  their  knees  naturally 

ARCHERS,  in  military  history,  a 
kind  of  militia  or  soldiery,  armed  with 
bows  and  arrows.  They  were  much  used 
in  former  times,  but  are  now  laid  aside, 
excepting  in  Turkey,  and  in  some  of  the 
eastern  countries. 

ARCHERY,  (I'art  de  tirer  de  I'are, 
Fr.)  the  art  of  shooting  with  a  bow  and 
arrow.  Our  ancestors  were  famous  for 
being  the  best  archers  in  Europe,  and 
most  of  our  victories  in  Fiance  were 
gained  by  the  long-bow.  The  statutes 
made  in  33  Hen.  VIII.  relative  to  this 
exercise,  are  worth  perusal.  It  is  for- 
bidden, by  statute,  to  shoot  at  a  stand- 
ing mark,  unless  it  be  for  a  rover,  where 
the  archer  is  to  change  his  mark  at  every 
shot.  Any  person  above  24  years  old  is 
also  forbidden  to  shoot  with  any  prick- 
shaft,  or  flight,  at  a  mark  of  eleven  score 
yards  or  under.  33  Hen.  YI1I.  chap.  9. 
The  former  was  a  provision  for  making 
good  marksmen  at  sight;  the  latter  for 
giving  strength  and  sinews. 

ARCHIPELAGO,  (archipel,  archi- 
pelage,  archipelague,  Fr.)  a  certain  ex- 
tent of  the  ocean,  which  is  intersected 
by  several  islands;  that  part  which  was 
anciently  called  the  /Egean  Sea,  having 
Romania,  Macedonia,  and  Greece,  on 
the  N.  and  W.,  Natolia  on  the  E.,  and 
the  Ionian  Sea  on  the  S.  It  con- 
tains a  vast  quantity  of  large  and  small 

Archipelago,  (Northern,)  situated 
between  Kamschatka  and  the  N.  W. 
parts  of  America. 

ARCHITECTURE,  in  a  military 
sense,  is  the  art  of  erecting  all  kinds  of 
military  edifices  or  buildings,  whether 
for  habitation  or  defence. 

Military  Architecture  instructs  us 
in  the  method  of  fortifying  cities,  sea- 
ports, camps,  building  powder  maga- 
zines, barracks,  &c.     Military  architcc- 

A  R  G 

(     21     ) 


*ure  is  divided  into  regular  and  irregu- 
lar fortification. 

Naval  Architecture,  the  art  of 
building  the  hull  or  body  of  a  ship,  dis- 
tinct from  her  machinery  and  furniture 
for  sailing,  and  may  properly  be  compre- 
hended in  three  principal  articles.  l.To 
give  the  ship  such  a  figure,  or  outward 
form,  as  may  be  most  suitable  to  the 
service  for  which  she  is  intended.  2.  To 
find  the  exact  shape  of  the  pieces  of 
timber  necessary  to  compose  such  a  fa- 
bric. 3.  To  make  convenient  apart- 
ments for  the  artillery,  ammunition, 
provisions,  and  cargo,  together  with 
suitable  accommodation  for  the  officers 
and  men. 

ARCHITRAVE,  the  master-beam, 
or  chief  supporter,  in  any  part  of  a  sub- 
terraneous fortification. 

ARCH  I  VAULT,  (archivolte,  Fr.) 
the  inner  contour  of  an  arch,  adorned 
with  mouldings,  which  goes  round  the 
faces  of  the  arch  stones,  and  bears  upon 
the  imposts.  This  contour  differs  ac- 
cording to  the  different  orders  in  archi- 

Faire  vuider  les  ARCONS,  Fr.  to 
throw  out  of  the  saddle. 

Perdre  les  Arcons,  Fr.  to  lose  one's 
seat  in  riding. 

AREA,  the  superficial  content  of  aay 
rampart,  or  other  work  of  fortification. 

ARENER,  Fr.  to  sink  under.  This 
is  said  of  a  beam  or  plank,  which  gives 
way  on  account  of  the  weight  upon  it. 

AREOMETER,  (arcomltre,  Fr.)  an 
instrument  usually  made  of  fine  thin 
glass,  which,  having  had  as  much  running 
quicksilver  put  into  it,  as  will  serve  to 
keep  it  upright,  is  sealed  up  at  the  top; 
so  that  the  stem  or  neck  being  divided 
into  degrees,  the  heaviness  or  lightness 
of  any  liquor  may  be  found,  by  the  ves- 
sel's sinking  more  or  less  into  it. 

ARESTIER,  Fr.  the  corner  side  of  a 
building.  Also  the  back  part  of  the 
blade  of  a  sword. 

Arestier  de  plomb,  Fr.  the  end  of  a 
piece  of  lead,  which  lies  under  the  top 
of  a  roof  that  is  slated. 

ARESTIERES,  Fr.  the  beds  or  lays 
of  plaster  which  tile-coveiers,  or  slaters, 
put  at  the  angles  of  the  top  of  a  roof 
that  is  tiled. 

ARCANE AU,  Fr.  the  ring  of  an 

ARGYRASPIDES,  a  part  of  the  old 
Macedonian  phalanx,  which  served  un- 
der Alexander  the  Great,  and  was  dis- 

tinguished from  the  rest  of  the  men  who 
composed  that  body,  by  carrying  silver 

ARIGOT,  Fr.  a  fife  or  flute. 

ARM,  in  geography,  denotes  a  branch 
of  the  sea,  or  of  a  river. 

Arm  is  also  used  figuratively  to  denote, 

Arm  signifies  also  any  particular  de- 
scription or  class  of  troops. 

To  Arm,  to  take  arms,  to  be  provided 
against  an  enemy. 

ARMADA,  a  Spanish  term,  signi- 
fying a  fleet  of  men  of  war,  applied  par- 
ticularly to  that  great  one  fitted  out  by 
the  Spaniards,  with  an  intention  to  con- 
quer this  island,  in  1588,  and  which  was 
defeated  by  the  English  fleet,  under  ad- 
mirals Lord  Howard  and  Sir  Francis 

ARMADILLA,  a  Spanish  term,  sig- 
nifying a  small  squadron. 

ARMATEUR,  Fr.  a  privateer. 

ARMATURA,  in  ancient  military  his- 
tory, signifies  the  fixed  and  established 
military  exercise  of  the  Romans,  nearly 
in  the  sense  we  use  the  word  exercise. — 
Under  this  word  is  understood  the 
throwing  of  the  spear,  javelin,  shooting 
with  bows  and  arrows,  &c. 

Armattjra  is  also  an  appellation 
given  to  the  soldiers  who  were  light- 
armed.  Aquinus  seems,  without  reason, 
to  restrain  armatura  to  the  ty  rones,  or 
young  soldiers. 

Armatura  is  also  a  denomination 
given  to  the  soldiers  in  the  emperor's 

ARMATURE,  Fr.  In  architecture, 
this  word  comprehends  the  bars,  iron 
pins,  stirrups,  and  all  other  iron  hold- 
fasts which  are  used  in  a  large  assem- 
blage of  carpentry. 

ARME,  Fr.  This  word  is  used  among 
the  French  to  express  any  distinct  body 
of  armed  men. 

ARME-a-feu,  Fr.  a  fire-arm;  a  gun  ; 
a  musket. 

Arme  de  trait,  Fr.  a  bow,  a  cross-bow. 

Arme  blanche,  Fr.  This  term  is  used 
among  the  French  to  signify  sword  or 

Attaquer  a  /'Arme  blanche,  Fr.  to  at- 
tack sword  in  hand,  or  with  tixed  bay- 

ARMED,  in  a  general  sense,  denotes 
something  provided  with,  or  carrying 

An  Armed  body  of  men  denotes  a 
military  detachment,  provided  with  arms 


(     22     ) 

A  R  M 

and  animunition,  ready  for  an  engage- 

Armed,  in  tlie  sea  language.  A  cross- 
bar-shot is  said  to  be  armed,  when  some 
rope-yarn,  or  the  like,  is  rolled  about 
the  end  of  the  iron  bar  which  runs 
through  the  shot. 

Armed  ship  is  a  vessel  taken  into  the 
government's  service,  and  equipped,  in 
time  of  war,  with  artillery,  ammunition, 
and  warlike  instruments  :  it  is  command- 
ed by  an  officer  who  has  the  rank  of 
master  and  commander  in  the  navy,  and 
upon  the  same  establishment  with  sloops 
of  war,  having  a  lieutenant,  master, 
purser,  surgeon,  &c. 

Passer  par  Ics  Armes,  Fr.  to  be  shot. 

Faire  les  Armes,  Fr.  to  fence. 

Aux  Armes!  Fr.  to  arms  ! 

ARMET,  Fr.  a  casque  or  helmet. 
This  term  is  grown  obsolete,  and  is  only 
found  in  old  stories  concerning  the 
knights  errant. 

Amain  ARMEE,  Fr.  with  open  force. 
Fntrer  unpays  a  main  Armee;  to  enter 
a  country  with  open  force. 

ARMEE,  Fr.    See  Army. 

Armze  navale,  Fr.  the  naval  forces. 

Armee  de  terre,  Fr.  the  land  forces. 

ARMEMENT,  Fr.  a  levy  of  troops, 
equipage  of  war,  either  by  land  or  sea. 

AR.MER  un  J'ourneau  de  mine,  Fr. 
to  close  up  a  mine,  after  it  has  been  pro- 
perly charged. 

ARMES  a  I'epreuve,  a  French  term 
for  armour  of  polished  steel,  which  was 
proof  against  the  sword  or  small  arms; 
but  its  weight  so  encumbered  the  wearer, 
that  modern  tacticians  have  wholly  re- 
jected its  use. 

Armes  <i  la  ligtre,  Fr.  light-armed 
troops,  who  were  employed  to  attack  in 
small  bodies,  as  opportunity  occurred. 
See  Riflemen,  &c. 

Armes  des  pieces  de  canon,  the 
French  term  for  the  tools  used  in  prac- 
tical gunnery,  as  the  scoop,  rammer, 
sponge,  &c. 

Armes  au  pied,  Fr.  ground  arms  ! 

Faire  les  premieres  Armes,  Fr.  to  be- 
pin  the  military  profession,  or  to  enter 
the  service. 

ARMIGER,  an  esquire  or  armour- 
bearer,  who  formerly  attended  his 
knight  or  chieftain  in  war,  combat,  or 
tournament,  and  who  carried  his  lance, 
shield,  or  other  weapons  with  which  he 

ARMILUSTRIUM,  in  Roman  anti- 
quity, a  feast  observed  among  the  Ro- 

man generals,  in  which  they  sacrificed, 
armed,  to  the  sound  of  trumpets,  and 
other  warlike  instruments. 

ARMISTICE,  a  temporary  truce,  or 
cessation  of  arms  for  a  very  short  space 
of  time  only. 

ARMORY,  a  warehouse  of  arms,  or 
a  place  where  the  military  habiliments 
are  kept,  to  be  ready  for  use. 

ARMOUR  denotes  all  such  habili- 
ments as  serve  to  defend  the  body  from 
wounds,  especially  darts,  a  sword,  a 
lance,  &c.  A  complete  suit  of  armour 
formerly  consisted  of  a  helmet,  a  shield, 
a  cuirasse,  a  coat  of  mail,  a  gantlet,  &c. 
now  almost  universally  laid  aside. 

ARMOUR-BEARER,  he  that  carries 
the  armour  of  another. 

ARMOURER,  a  person  who  makes 
or  deals  in  armour  or  arms;  also  a  per- 
son who  keeps  them  clean. 

ARMS,  (armes,  Fr.)  in  a  general  sense, 
signify  all  kinds  of  weapons,  whether 
used  for  offence  or  defence. 

Arms  may  properly  be  classed  under 
two  specific  heads — 

Arms  of  offence,  which  include  mus- 
ket, bayonet,  sword,  pistol,  &c. 

Arms  of%  defence,  which  are  shields, 
helmets,  coats  of  mail,  or  any  species  of 
repulsive  or  impenetrable  covering,  by 
which  the  body  of  a  man  is  protected. 

In  a  legal  sense,  arms  may  extend  to 
any  thing  that  a  man  wears  for  his  own 
defence,  or  takes  in  his  hand,  and  uses 
in  anger,  to  strike,  throw  at,  or  wound 
another.  It  is  supposed,  that  the  first 
artificial  arms  were  of  wood,  and  only 
employed  against  beasts;  and  that  Belus, 
the  son  of  Nitnrod,  was  the  first  that 
waged  war:  whence,  according  to  some, 
came  the  appellation  bellum.  Diodorus 
Siculus  takes  Belus  to  be  the  same  with 
Mars,  who  first  trained  soldiers  up  to 
battle.  Arms  of  stone,  and  even  of 
brass,  appear  to  have  been  used  before 
they  came  to  iron  and  steel.  Josephus 
assures  us  that  the  patriarch  Joseph 
first  taught  the  use  of  iron  arms  in 
Egypt,  arming  the  troops  of  Pharaoh 
with  a  casque  and  buckler. 

The  principal  arms  of  the  ancient 
Britons  were  hatchets,  scythes,  lances, 
swords,  and  bucklers:  the  Saxons,  &c. 
brought  in  the  halberd,  bow,  arrows, 
cross-bows,  &c.  By  the  ancient  laws  of 
England,  every  man  was  obliged  to  bear 
arms,  except  the  judges  and  clergy. 
Under  Henry  VIII.  it  was  expressly 
enjoined  on  all  persons  to  be  regularly 

A  R  M 

(    S3     ) 


instructed,  even  from  their  tender  years, 
in  the  exercise  of  the  arms  then  in  use, 
viz.  the  long  bow  and  arrows,  and  to  be 
provided  with  a  certain  number  of  them. 

By  the  common  law,  it  is  an  offence 
for  persons  to  go  or  ride  armed  with 
dangerous  weapons;  but  gentlemen, 
both  in  and  out  of  the  army,  may  wear 
common  armour,  according  to  their  qua- 
lity. The  king  may  prohibit  force  of 
arms,  and  punish  offenders  according  to 
law;  and  herein  every  subject  is  bound 
to  be  aiding.  Stat.  7.  Edward  I.  None 
shall  come  with  force  and  amis  before 
the  king's  justices,  or  ride  armed  in 
affray  of  the  peace,  on  pain  of  forfeiting 
their  armour,  and  suffering  imprison- 
ment, &c.  2  Edward  III.  c.  3.  The 
importation  of  arms  and  ammunition  is 
prohibited  by  1  Jac.  II.  c.  8.  and  by 
William  and  Mary,  stat.  2.  c.  2.  So 
likewise  arms,  cec.  shipped  after  prohi- 
bition, are  forfeited,  by  29  Geo.  I.  c.  16. 
sec.  2. 

Arms  of  parade,  or  courtesy,  were 
those  used  in  the  ancient  justs  and  tour- 
naments, which  were  commonly  unshod 
lances,  swords  without  edge  or  point, 
wooden  swords,  and  even  canes. 

Bells  of  Arms,  or  Bell  Tents,  a  kind 
of  tents  in  the  shape  of  a  cone,  where 
the  company's  arms  are  lodged  in  the 
Held.  They  are  generally  painted  with 
the  colour  of  the  facing  of  the  regiment, 
and  the  king's  arms  in  front. 

Pass  of  Arms,  a  kind  of  combat, 
when  anciently  one  or  more  cavaliers 
undertook  to  defend  a  pass  against  all 

Place  o/Arms.     See  Fortification. 

Stand  of  Arms,  a  complete  set  of  arms 
for  one  soldier. 

Arms,  in  artillery,  are  the  two  ends 
of  an  axletree.  See  Axletree,  under  the 
word  Carriage. 

JVre-ARMS  are  great  guns,  firelocks, 
carbines,  guns,  and  pistols ;  or  any  other 
machine  discharged  by  inflamed  powder. 

ARMY,  any  given  number  of  soldiers, 
consisting  of  artillery,  foot,  horse,  dra- 
goons, and  hussars  or  light  horse,  com- 
pletely armed,  and  provided  with  engi- 
neers, a  train  of  artillery,  ammunition, 
provisions,  commissariat,  forage,  &c. 
under  the  command  of  one  general, 
having  lieutenant-generals,  major-gene- 
rals, brigadier-generals,  colonels,  lieu- 
tenant-colonels, majors,  captains,  and 
subalterns.  An  army  is  composed  of 
brigades,  regiments,  battalions,  and  squa- 

drons, and  is  generally  divided  into 
three  or  more  corps,  and  formed  into 
three  lines:  the  first  of  which  is  called 
the  front  line,  a  part  of  which  forms  the 
van  guard;  the  second,  the  main  body; 
and  the  third,  the  rear  guard,  or  corps 
of  reserve.  The  center  of  each  line  is 
generally  occupied  by  the  foot;  the 
cavalry  form  the  right  and  left  wings  of 
each  line;  and  sometimes  a  squadron  of 
horse  is  posted  in  the  intervals  between 
the  battalions. 

Armies  in  general  are  distinguished 
by  the  following  appellations — 

A  covering  uryny. 

A  blockading  army. 

An  army  of  observation. 

An  army  of  reserve. 

AJlying  army. 

An  army  is  said  to  cover  a  place  when 
it  lies  encamped  or  in  cantonments,  for 
the  protection  of  the  different  passes 
which  lead  to  a  principal  object  of  de- 

An  army  is  said  to  blockade  a  place, 
when,  being  well  provided  with  heavy 
ordnance  and  other  warlike  means,  it  is 
employed  to  invest  a  town  for  the  direct 
and  immediate  purpose  of  reducing  it 
by  assault  or  famine. 

An  Army  of  observation  is  so  called 
because,  by  its  advanced  positions  and 
desultory  movements,  it  is  constantly- 
employed  in  watching  the  enemy. 

An  Army  of  reserve  may  not  impro- 
perly be  called  a  general  depot  of  troops 
for  effective  service.  In  cases  of  emer- 
gency the  whole  or  detached  parts  of  an 
army  of  reserve  are  generally  employed 
to  recover  a  lost  day  or  to  secure  a  vic- 
tory. It  is  likewise  sometimes  made 
use  of  for  the  double  purpose  of  secretly 
increasing  the  number  of  active  forces, 
and  rendering  the  aid  necessary  accord- 
ing to  the  exigency  of  the  moment,  and 
of  deceiving  the  enemy  with  respect  to 
its  real  strength. 

Flying  Army,  a  strong  body  of  horse 
and  foot,  commanded,  for  the  most  part, 
by  a  lieutenant-general,  which  is  always 
in  motion  both  to  cover  its  own  garri- 
sons, and  to  keep  the  enemy  in  conti- 
nual alarm. 

A  naval  or  sea  Army  is  a  number 
of  ships  of  war,  equipped  and  manned 
with  sailors,  mariners,  and  marines,  un- 
der the  command  of  an  admiral,  with 
the  requisite  inferior  officers  under  him. 

ARNAUTS,  Turkish  light  cavalry, 
whose  only  weapon  was  a  sabre  very 


(     24     ) 


much  curved.     Some  are  in  the  Russian 

A 11  PENT,  Fr.  a  French  acre,  which 
contains  ten  square  perches  in  length, 
upon  as  many  in  breadth. 

ARPENTAGE,  Fr.  the  art  of  sur- 
veying land,  aud  of  taking  the  plan 
of  it. 
ARPENTEUR,  Fr.  a  land  surveyor. 
ARQUEBUSE  a  croc,  an  old  fire- 
arm, resembling  a  musket,  but  which  is 
supported  ou  a  rest  by  a  hook  of  iron, 
fastened  to  the  barrel.  It  is  longer 
than  a  musket,  and  of  larger  calibre, 
and  was  formerly  used  to  tire  through 
the  loop-holes  of  antique  fortifications. 

ARQUEBUSIER,  a  French  term, 
formerly  applied  to  all  the  soldiery  who 
fought  with  fire-arms,  whether  cavalry 
or  infantry. 

D'ARRACHE-^W,  Fr.  without  in- 

ARRACHEMENT,  Fr.  the  taking 
out  particular  stones,  leaving  others  al- 
ternately, in  order  to  join  one  wall  to 

ARRAY,  order  of  battle.  See  Bat- 
tle Array. 

ARRAYERS,  officers  who  anciently 
had  the  charge  of  seeing  the  soldiers 
duly  appointed  in  their  armour. 

ARREARS,  in  the  army,  were  the 
difference  between  the  full  pay  and  sub- 
sistence of  each  officer,  which  was  di- 
rected to  be  paid  once  a  year  by  the 
agent.  This  retention  of  pay  has  been 
abolished  in  the  army  of  the  line  and  mi- 
litia; but  it  still  exists  among  his  Ma- 
jesty's horse  and  foot  guards. 

ARREST,  a  French  phrase,  similar  in 
its  import  to  the  Latin  word  retinacu- 
lum. It  consists  in  a  small  piece  of  steel 
or  iron,  which  was  formerly  used  in  the 
construction  of  fire-arms,  to  prevent  the 
piece  from  going  off.  Ce  pistolet  est  en 
arret  is  a  familiar  phrase  among  mili- 
tary men  in  France,  this  pistol  is  in 
arrest,  or  is  stopped. 

ARREST  is  the  exercise  of  that  part 
of  military  jurisdiction,  by  which  an  offi- 
cer is  noticed  for  misconduct,  or  put  in- 
to a  situation  to  prepare  for  his  trial  by  a 
general  court-marl  ial. 

ARRESTE  of  the  glacis  is  thejunc- 
tion  of  the  talus  which  is  formed  at  all 
the  angles. 

A  RRET  depont,Tr.  an  engine  that  goes 
with  a  vice,  and  hinders  a  draw-bridge, 
once  down,  from  being  pulled  up 

Arret,  Fr.  the  rest  for  a  lance. 
Arret,  Fr.  the  stopping  of  a  horse. 
Arret  d'une  epee,  Fr.   the  crest,  or 
ridge,  of  a  sword. 

ARRETE,  Fr.  in  fortification,  the 
shelving  sides  which  form  the  glacis  of 
the  covered-way,  w  here  the  salient  angles 

Arrete,  Fr,  the  edge,  or  angle,  for- 
med by  two  faces  of  any  solid,  whether 
of  timber,  stone,  or  iron. 

Vive  Arrete  de  voiite,  Fr.  the  out- 
standing edj^e  of  a  vault.     Boyer  writes 
the  word  arete. 
ARRETE,  Fr.  resolution;  decree. 
Arrete  de  comptc,  Fr.  a  settled  ac- 

ARRIERE,  Fr.  the  rear. 
Arriere  Bun,  Fr.     See  Ban n. 
ARRiERE-g«r</e,  Fr.  the  rear-guard. 
En  Arriere — murche  !    Fr.  to  the 
rear — march ! 

ARR1  ERE-rousswre,  Fr.  the  bending 
of  an  arch  or  vault  which  is  made  be- 
hind a  door  or  casement  iu  order  to 
give  more  light. 

ARR1EHE,  Fr.  in  arrears. 
S'ARRIERER,  Fr.  to  be  in  arrears; 
to  remain  behind;  not  to  advance. 
ARRIMAGE,  Fr.  stowage. 
ARRIMER,  Fr.  to  stow. 
ARRONDISSEMENT,  Fr.  district. 
ARROW,   a  missive  weapon   of  of- 
fence, slender  and  pointed,  made  to  be- 
shot  with  a  bow. 

Arrow.  See  Fortification. 
ARRUGIE,  Fr.  subterraneous  canal. 
ARSENAL  is  that  place  where  all 
warlike  instruments  are  deposited,  and 
kept  arranged  in  a  state  for  any  service, 
such  as  guns,  mortars,  howitzers,  small 
aims,  ccc.  &c.  with  quantities  of  spare 
gun-carriages,  mortar-beds,  materials, 
tools,  &c.  &c.  In  an  arsenal  of  conse- 
quence, all  the  proper  departments  con- 
nected with  the  artillery  service,  are  pro- 
vided with  suitable  buildings  and  accom- 
modations applicable  to  their  particular 
branches,  such  as  the  foundry,  for  cast- 
ing of  brass  ordnance;  the  carriage  de- 
partment, which  includes  the  wheelers, 
carpenters,  and  smiths;  the  laboratory, 
for  making  up  and  preparing  all  kinds  of 
ammunition;  as  well  as  all  other  de- 
partments requisite,  according  to  the 
extent  of  the  arsenal.  The  term  Arse- 
nal also  applies  to  a  place  where  naval 
stores  are  deposited. 

Royal  Arsenal,  a   place  at    Wool- 
wich, where  stores,  &c.  belonging  to  the 


(     25     ) 


royal  artillery  are  deposited.  It  was 
formerly  called  the  Warren. 

ART.  Military  art  may  be  divided 
into  two  principal  branches.  The  first 
branch  relates  to  the  order  and  arrange- 
ment which  must  be  observed  in  the 
management  of  an  army,  when  it  is  to 
fight,   to   march,  or  to  be  encamped. 

The  other  branch  of  military  art  in- 
cludes the  composition  and  the  applica- 
tion of  warlike  machines. 

ARTICLES  of  WAR  are  known 
rules  and  regulations  for  the  better  go- 
vernment of  the  army  in  the  kingdoms 
of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  dominions 
beyond  the  seas,  and  foreign  parts  de- 
pendent upon  Great  Britain.  They  may 
be  altered  and  enlarged  at  the  pleasure 
of  the  king;  but  they  must  be  annually 
confirmed  by  parliament  under  the  mu- 
tiny act.  And  in  certain  cases  extend 
to  civilians — as  when  by  proclamation 
any  place  shall  be  put  under  martial 
law;  or  when  people  follow  a  camp  or 
army  for  the  sale  of  merchandize,  or 
serve  in  any  menial  capacity.  It  is  or- 
dained, that  the  Articles  of  War  shall  be 
read  in  the  circle  of  each  regiment  be- 
longing to  the  British  army  every  month, 
or  oftener  if  the  commanding  officer 
thinks  proper.  A  recruit  or  soldier  is 
not  liable  to  be  tried  by  a  military  tri- 
bunal, unless  it  can  be  proved  that  the 
Articles  of  War  have  been  duly  read  to 

ARTIFICE,  among  the  French,  is 
understood  as  comprehending  every 
thing  which  enters  into  the  composition 
of  fire-works;  as  the  sulphur,  salt-petre, 
charcoal,  &c.     See  Fire-works. 

ARTIFICER  or  Artificier,  he 
who  makes  fire-works,  or  works  in  the 
artillery  laboratory,  who  prepares  the 
fuzes,  bombs,  grenades,  &c.  It  is  also 
applied  to  the  military  smiths,  collar- 
makers,  &c.  &c.  and  to  a  particular 

Artificers,  in  a  military  capacity, 
are  those  persons  who  are  employed 
with  the  artillery  in  the  field,  or  in  the 
arsenals;  such  as  wheelers,  smiths,  car- 
penters, collar-makers,  coopers,  tinmen, 
&c.     There  is  also  a  corps  of  royal  mi- 

ARTILLERY,  in  a  general  sense, 
signifies  all  sorts  of  great  guns  or  can- 
non, mortars,  howitzers,  petards,  and 
the  like;  together  with  all  the  apparatus 
and  stores  thereto  belonging,  which  are 
not  only  taken  into  the  field,  but  like- 
wise to  sieges,  and  made  use  of  both  to 
attack  and  defend  fortified  places.  See 

.Artillery,  in  a  particular  sense,  sig- 
nifies the  science  of  artillery  or  gunnery, 
which  art  includes  a  knowledge  of  sur- 
veying, levelling;  also  that  of  geometry, 
trigonometry,  conic  sections,  laws  of 
motion,  mechanics,  fortification  and  pro- 

The  artillery  service  is  divided  into  the 
following  branches,  viz. 

Royal  Regiment  of  Artillery.  It  con- 
sists at  present  of  ten  battalions  of  foot, 
exclusive  of  the  royal  horse  artillery,  and 
an  invalid  battalion  ;  but  from  the  great 
want  of  artillery-men,  in  all  our  foreign 
possessions,  as  well  as  for  field  service 
generally,  and  the  defence  of  the  bat- 
teries on  our  own  coast,  there  is  no 
doubt  but  the  necessity  of  an  addition 
to  this  corps  must  be  obvious  to  every 
one  acquainted  with  the  duties  of  the 
service;  for  it  would  be  the  means  of 
having  the  artillery  better  served,  and 
do  away  the  necessity  of  breaking  up 
the  strength  of  regiments  of  the  line,  by- 
calling  upon  them  to  furnish  additional 

Each  battalion,  including  the  invalid 
battalion,  consists  of  one  colonel-com- 
mandant, two  colonels  en  second,  three 
lieutenant-colonels,  one  major,  and  ten 
companies,  each  company  consisting  of 
one  captain,  one  second  captain,  two 
first  and  one  second  lieutenant,  and  120 
non-commissioned  officers  and  privates; 
there  is  also  an  adjutant  and  quarter- 
master to  each  battalion,  and  some  chap- 
lains for  the  different  principal  stations 
of  the  corps,  besides  a  medical  esta- 
blishment: but  it  appears  that  it  would 
be  an  advantage  to  the  field  service, 
which  is  the  most  important  part,  if  the 
companies  were  leduced  to  100  non- 
commissioned officers  and  men  each, 
which   number  would    be    sufficient    to 

litary  artificers  attached  to  the  engi-i  man  a  brigade,  on  the  present  establish- 
neei's  department,  for  the  erection  of ,  ment,  and  furnish  a  proportion  for  park 
fortifications  and  buildings  in  the  ord-  duties,  and  replacing  the  sick  and 
nance  service.  The  artificers  of  different  j  wounded,  and  would  have  the  good  ef- 
trades  necessary  to  be  employed  in  ship-  feet  of  preventing  a  genera]  mixture  of 

building,  in  the  king's   dock   yards,  also 
come  under  the  description  of  artificers. 

companies  in   the   same    brigade;    and 
other  obvious  advantages     The  princi- 


A  R  T 

(     26     ) 


pal  staff  of  the  regiment  consists  of  a 
deputy  adjutant-general  and  assistants, 
who  are  stationed  at  Woolwich,  and  act 
immediately  from  the  orders  of  the  mas- 

The  duties  of  the  invalid  battalion  arc 
confined  to  Great  Britain  only,  and  some 
of  its  dependant  islands. 

The  head-quarters  of  the  regiment  are 
at  Woolwich,  where  all  the  officers  and 
men  first  assemble,  upon  joining  the  re- 
giment, for  the  purpose  of  being  in- 
structed in  the  various  duties  of  the  pro- 
fession, previous  to  being  employed  on 
foreign  service. 

Royal  Horse  Artillery.  There  are 
twelve  troops,  in  addition  to  the  foot 
artillery,  each  troop  consisting  of  one 
captain,  one  second  captain,  three  sub- 
alterns, two  staff  serjeants,  twelve  non- 
commissioned officers,  seventy-live  gun- 
ners, forty-six  drivers,  six  artificers,  and 
one  trumpeter,  with  eighty-six  draught 
horses,  and  fifty-six  riding  horses,  and 
six  pieces  of  ordnance,  with  carriages 
for  the  conveyance  of  ammunition,  camp 
equipage,  and  stores.  The  introduction 
of  horse  artillery  into  the  service  of  this 
country  was  brought  forward  in  the 
year  1792,  by  the  Duke  of  Richmond, 
who  was  then  master-general  of  the 
ordnance,  for  the  purpose  of  acting  with 
cavalry.  There  is  a  colonel-command- 
ant, two  colonels  en  second,  four  lieu- 
tenant-colonels, and  one  major, attached 
to  it.  The  movements  of  horse  artillery 
are  made  with  great  celerity,  and  it  has 
been  found,  that  they  are  perfectly 
adapted  to  act  with  cavalry  in  the  field, 
in  their  most  rapid  movements,  and  are 
considered  as  forming  an  essential  addi- 
tion to  the  artillery  service. 

Royal  Artillery  Drivers,  (conduc- 
teurs  d'artilleric,  Fr.)  This  corps  was 
first  formed  about  twelve  years  ago,  by 
the  late  Duke  of  Richmond.  The  great 
advantage  derived  from  having  men  re- 
gularly enlisted,  and  well  trained  to  the 
service,  instead  of  men  accidentally 
picked  up  by  contractors,  soon  became 
so  evident,  that  at  present  the  whole  of 
the  field  artillery  is  furnished  with  dri- 
vers from  this  corps.  Previous  to  the 
corps  being  established,  the  horses  and 
drivers  were  provided  by  contract;  but, 
as  no  reliance  could  be  placed  on  the 
service  of  either  men  or  horses  so  pro- 
cured, it  was  found  absolutely  necessary 
to  abolish  so  uninilitary  and  destructive 

a  system.  The  artillery  horses  are  now 
kept  in  the  highest  condition  for  service, 
the  drivers  being  thoroughly  drilled  to 
the  manoeuvres  of  artillery  ;  so  that  the 
brigades,  instead  of  being  an  incum- 
brance to  an  army,  are  not  only  capable 
of  accompanying  the  troops,  but  also  of 
securing,  by  rapid  movements,  advan- 
tageous positions  in  the  field,  so  as  to 
annoy  an  enemy,  or  protect  our  own 
troops.  This  change  arises  from  the 
high  state  of  excellence  in  which  the  bri- 
gades are  equipped,  and  from  the  artil- 
lery-men being,  in  particular  cases, 
mounted  upon  the  cars  attending  the 
brigades.  The  corps  consisted,  in  1S09, 
of  one  colonel-commandant,  three  lieu- 
tenant-colonels, one  major,  nine  cap- 
tains, 54  subalterns,  two  adjutants,  eight 
veterinary  surgeons,  45  staff  serjeants, 
405  non-commissioned  officers,  360  arti- 
ficers, 45  trumpeters,  4050  drivers,  and 
7000  horses,  all  well  appointed,  and  in 
the  greatest  state  of  readiness  for  any 
service,  either  at  home  or  abroad,  for 
which  they  might  be  required.  A  con- 
siderable reduction  took  place  in  1814, 
when  four  troops  were  discharged;  the 
situation  of  major  having  been  abolished 
in  1812. 

Commissary's  Department,  under  the 
colonel-commandant  of  the  field  train, 
consists  of  commissaries,  assistant  com- 
missaries, clerks,  and  conductors  of 
stores,  as  well  as  artificers  of  different 
trades,  upon  the  civil  establishment  of 
the  Ordnance.  This  system  differs  from 
the  rules  of  the  service  with  most  of  the 
continental  powers  of  Europe,  it  being 
with  them  a  military  establishment,  and 
placed  upon  a  footing  with  the  oilcers 
of  the  army  at  large,  under  the  super- 
intendance  of  a  colonel-commandant, 
colonel-en-second,  comptrollers,  ccc.  &c. 
The  duties  of  this  department  are  of 
great  importance;  the  whole  service  of 
artillery  in  the  field  depending  upon 
their  exertions  for  the  good  arrange- 
ment made  in  the  equipment  of  the 
ordnance,  the  proportioning  the  am- 
munition and  stores  for  all  services,  as 
well  as  the  forming  all  the  depots  of 
ammunition,  not  only  for  the  artillery, 
but  also  for  the  whole  army.  The  com- 
missaries and  their  assistants  are  de- 
tached, in  common  with  the  regiment  of 
artillery,  upon  all  services.  It  is  con- 
sequently of  the  greatest  importance  that 
experienced  persons  should  be  selected 


(     27     ) 


for  these  employments,  it  being  a  work 
of  time  for  them  to  be  fully  instructed 
and  made  acquainted  with  the  artillery 
service.  On  this  account,  young  men 
should  be  early  brought  into  the  depart- 
ment, so  as  to  be  trained  up  regularly 
from  one  situation  to  another,  until 
they  become  complete  masters  of  their 

Train  of  Artillery.  This  train  is 
formed  from  the  number  of  attendants 
and  carriages  which  follow  the  artillery 
in  the  field,  such  as  commissaries, 
clerks  of  stores,  conductors  of  stores, 
wheelers,  carriage  and  shoeing  smiths, 
collar  makers,  carpenters,  coopers,  tin- 
men, &c.  &c.  with  necessary  materials 
and  tools,  carriages  conveying  reserve 
ammunition  for  the  artillery  and  troops, 
spare  stores,  intrenching  tools,  spare 
wheels,  camp  equipage,  baggage,  &c. 
&c.  All  these  are  comprehended  in 
the  term  Train  of  Artillery. 

Nearly  the  whole  of  the  field  artillery 
is  divided  into  brigades  upon  a  new 
establishment  of  five  guns  and  one  how- 
itzer to  each  brigade,  for  the  natures  of 
12  pounders  medium  and  9  pounders,  6 
pounders  heavy  and  light,  3  pounders 
heavy  and  light,  as  also  H\  inch  howit- 
zers heavy  and  light.  The  guns  and 
howitzers  are  accompanied  by  ammuni- 
tion cars,  upon  a  new  principle.  To 
every  brigade  is  a  forge  cart,  a  camp 
equipage  wagon,  and  spare  gun  carriage, 
with  spare  wheels,  and  tools  for  a 
wheeler,  collar  maker,  and  carriage 
smith.  The  proportioning  of  field  and 
battering  ordnance,  for  foreign  service, 
is  a  business  of  great  importance,  from 
the  knowledge  which  is  requisite  to  fix 
upon  all  the  numerous  articles  to  accom- 
pany the  service,  and  the  method  to  be 
pursued  in  equalizing,  arranging,  and 
disposing  of  the  guns,  ammunition,  and 
stores.  No  certain  criterion  can  ever 
be  established  as  to  the  proportion  of 
artillery  to  be  sent  upon  anv  expedition, 
as  it  must  depend  entirely  upon  the 
nature  of  the  service;  and  great  changes 
are  generally  made  to  suit  the  ideas  of 
the  officer  who  is  to  command  the  army, 
and  also  those  of  the  officer  of  artillery, 
who  may  be  selected  to  accompany  it. 
It  would  therefore  only  tend  to  mislead 
were  any  detailed  account  to  be  given. 
Two  brigades  of  field  artillery  to  a  divi- 
sion of  an  army  consisting  of  6000  men, 
may  be  considered  a  good  proportion, 
independent  of  the  reserve  park,    When 

any  proportion  of  artillery  is  required 
for  foreign  service,  the  arrangement  of 
it  is  left  to  the  commandant  of  the  field 
train,  whose  immediate  duty  is  to  make 
out  all  proportions,and  to  consider  all  de- 
mands for  artillery  and  stores  for  foreign 
service,  under  the  orders  of  the  master- 
general  and  Board  of  Ordnance.  The 
grand  depot  of  field  artillery  is  kept  at 
Woolwich,  in  a  perfect  state  of  readi- 
ness for  service.  Of  late  there  have 
been  other  depots  established  in  diffe- 
rent parts  of  Great  Britain,  under  the 
orders  of  the  master-general  and  Board 
of  Ordnance.  The  great  utility  of  an  ef- 
fective artillery  is  now  so  manifest,  that 
nothing  has  been  left  undone  to  raise 
the  British  to  the  greatest  degree  of 
perfection ;  and  the  exertions  to  pro- 
mote that  object  are  clearly  evinced  by 
the  acknowledged  superiority  of  its 
equipment  over  that  of  any  other  ser- 
vice in  Europe. 

In  the  year  1500,  an  army  of  50,000 
men  had  only  40  pieces  of  cannon  in  the 
field,  and  in  the  year  1757,  the  same 
number  of  troops  brought  200  pieces 
into  the  field,  including  mortars  and 

At  the  battle  of  Jemmappes,  which 
was  fought  between  the  French  and 
Austrians  on  the  6th  of  November,  1792, 
the  latter  had  120  pieces  of  cannon 
disposed  along  the  heights  of  Framery, 
whilst  their  effective  force  in  men  did 
not  exceed  17,000.  The  French,  on 
this  occasion,  brought  nearly  the  same 
quantity  of  ordnance,  some  indeed  of 
extraordinary  calibre,  but  their  strength 
in  men  was  considerably  more  formida- 

The  Park  of  Artillery  is  a  place 
selected  by  the  general  of  an  army,  to 
form  the  grand  depot  of  guns,  ammuni- 
tion, and  stores,  to  be  in  readiness  as 
occasion  may  require.  Attached  to  the 
park  there  are  generally  as  many  officers 
and  men  of  the  royal  artillery  as  are 
sufficient  to  man  the  reserve  guns  in  the 
park,  and  to  replace  casualties  that  may 
happen  in  the  detached  guns  and  bri- 
gades. If  a  siege  is  to  be  undertaken, 
the  number  of  officers  and  ai  tillery-men 
in  the  park  must  of  course  be  augmented. 
The  reserve  officers,  drivers  and  horses, 
the  principal  commissary  with  his  as- 
sistants and  the  several  neces:-arv  arti- 
ficers are  also  stationed  here.  To  the 
park  all  the  brigades  and  field  f.irces 
detached  with  the  army,  look  for  their 


(     *8     ) 


jesources,  and  when  any  thing  is  re- 
quisite, the  park  is  the  place  whence  all 
supplies  are  forwarded.  The  reserve 
ammunition  for  the  troops  is  also  depo- 
sited at  the  park  of  artillery,  and  sup- 
plied upon  requisition  under  the  orders 
of  the  commanding  officer  of  artillery. 
The  manner  of  forming  the  Park  is  al- 
most every  where  the  same,  except  that 
some  artillery  officers  differ  in  the  dis- 
position of  the  carriages,  &c;  however, 
the  hest  and  most  approved  method  is 
to  divide  the  whole  of  the  guns  into 
brigades  of  different  natures,  and  place 
their  ammunition  in  the  cars  or  wagons 
behind  them,  iu  one  or  more  lines,  ac- 
cording to  the  number  of  ammunition 
carriages  attached  to  the  natures  of 
ordnance.  Each  brigade  of  artillery, 
including  the  ammunition  carriage,  forge 
carts,  and  camp  equipage  waguns,  have 
a  distinct  number  to  prevent  any  mixture 
of  carriages  either  in  disembarking  or 
breaking  up  of  a  campaign.  The  ar- 
rangement necessary  to  he  made  in 
forming  a  park  of  artillery  of  any  mag- 
nitude, requires  great  exertions  and  abi- 
lities to  prevent  its  being  encumbered 
With  any  greater  quantity  of  carriages, 
ammunition  and  stoics  than  are  abso- 
lutely wanted  for  the  service,  in  case 
there  should  be  any  sudden  movement, 
yet  at  the  same  time  to  have  a  sufficiency 
for  the  purpose  of  affording  any  sup- 
plies which  the  army  may  stand  in  need 
of.  Upon  expedition  service,  where 
disembarkations  of  artillery  take  place, 
the  depot  of  reserve  carriages,  ammu- 
nition and  stores,  is  usually  formed  near 
to  the  spot  where  the  articles  are  landed 
from  the  ships,  and  a  communication  is 
kept  up  between  the  advanced  park  and 
the.  depot,  from  whence  the  articles  are 
forwarded  as  demanded  for  the  imme- 
diate exigencies  of  the  park. 

Field  Artillery  includes  every  re- 
quisite to  forward  the  operations  of  an 
army,  or  of  any  part  of  an  army  acting 
offensively  or  defensively  in  the  field. 

Encampment  of  a  Regiment  of  Ar- 
tillery. Regiments  of  artillery  are 
always  encamped,  half  on  the  right  and 
half  on  the  left  of  the  park.  The  com- 
pany of  bombardiers  (when  they  are 
formed  into  companies,  which  is  the 
case  in  almost  every  nation  excepting 
England)  always  takes  the  right  of  the 
whole,  and  the  lieutenant  colonel's  com- 
pany the  left;  next  to  the  bombardiers, 
the  cuionels,   the  majors,  &c.  so    that 

the  two  youngest  are  next  but  one  tff 
the  center  or  park:  the  two  companies 
next  to  the  park,  are  the  miners  on  the 
right,  and  the  artificers  on  the  left. 

In  the  rear  of,  ami  36  feet  from  the 
park,  are  encamped  the  civil  list,  all  in 
one  line. 

March  of  the  Artillery.  The 
matches  of  the  artillery  are,  of  all  the 
operations  of  war,  the  most  delicate; 
because  they  must  not  only  be  directed 
on  the  object  you  have  in  view,  but 
according  to  the  movements  the  enemy 
make.  Armies  geneially  march  in  three 
columns,  the  center  column  of  which 
is  the  artillery:  should  the  army  march 
iu  more  columns,  the  artillery  and  heavy 
baggage  march  nevertheless  in  one  or 
more  of  the  center  columns;  the  situa- 
tion of  the  enemy  determines  this.  If 
they  are  far  from  the  enemy,  the  bag- 
gage and  ammunition  go  before  or  be- 
hind, or  are  sent  by  a  particular  road; 
an  army  in  such  a  case  cannot  march  in 
too  many  columns.  But  should  the 
march  be  towards  the  enemy,  the  hag- 
gage  must  absolutely  be  all  in  the  rear, 
and  the  whole  artillery  form  the  center 
column,  except  some  brigades,  one  of 
which  marches  at  the  head  of  each  co- 
lumn, with  guns  loaded  and  burning 
matches,  preceded  by  a  detachment  for 
their  safety.  The  French  almost  inva- 
riably place  their  baggage  in  the  center. 

Suppose  the  enemy's  army  in  a  con- 
dition to  march  towards  the  heads  of 
your  columns:  the  best  disposition  for 
the  march  is  in  three  columns  only,  that 
of  the  center  for  the  artillery;  for  it  is 
then  easy  to  form  it  in  order  of  battle. 
Hence  it  is  equally  commodious  for  each 
brigade  of  artillery  to  plant  itself  at  the 
head  of  the  troops,  in  the  place  marked 
for  it,  in  such  a  manner,  that  the  whole 
disposition  being  understood,  and  well 
executed,  the  line  of  battle  may  be 
quickly  formed  in  an  open  country,  and 
in  the  presence  of  any  enemy,  without 
risking  a  surprize;  by  which  method 
the  artillery  will  always  be  in  a  condi- 
tion to  act  as  soon  as  the  troops,  pro- 
vided it  march  in  brigades. 

If  your  march  should  be  through  a 
country  full  of  defiles,  some  dragoons 
must  march  at  the  head  of  the  columns, 
followed  by  a  detachment  of  grenadiers, 
and  a  brigade  of  artillery;  cannon  being 
absolutely  necessary  to  obstruct  the 
enemy's  forming  into  order  of  battle. 

When  you  decamp  iu  the  face  of  the 


(     29     ) 


enemy,  you  must  give  most  attention  to 
your  rear  guard.  On  such  occasions, 
all  the  baggage,  ammunition,  provisions, 
and  artillery,  march  before  the  troops; 
your  best  grenadiers,  best  cavalry,  some 
good  brigades  of  infantry,  together  with 
some  brigades  of  artillery,  form  the  rear 
guard.  Cannon  is  of  infinite  use  for  a 
rear  guard,  when  you  are  obliged  to  pass 
a  defile,  or  a  river,  and  should  be  placed 
at  the  entry  of  such  defile,  on  an  emi- 
nence, if  there  be  one,  or  on  any  other 
place,  from  whence  the  ground  can  be 
discovered,  through  which  the  enemy 
must  march  to  attack,  the  rear  guard. 

A  detachment  of  pioneers,  with  tools, 
must  always  march  at  the  head  of  the 
artillery,  and  of  each  column  of  equi- 
page or  baasja^e. 

If  the  enemy  be  encamped  on  the 
right  flanks  of  the  march,  the  artillery, 
&c.  should  march  to  the  left  of  the 
troops,  and  vice  versa.  Should  the  ene- 
my appear  in  motion,  the  troops  front 
that  way,  by  wheeling  to  the  right  or 
left  by  divisions;  and  the  artillery, 
which  marches  in  a  line  with  the  co- 
lumns, passes  through  their  intervals, 
and  draws  up  at  the  head  of  the  front 
line,  which  is  formed  of  the  column 
that  flanked  nearest  the  enemy;  taking 
care  at  the  same  time  that  the  ban-Miie 
be  well  covered  during  the  action. 

Though  we  have  said  armies  gene- 
rally march  in  three  columns,  yet  where 
the  country  will  allow  it,  it  is  better  to 
march  in  a  greater  number;  and  let 
that  number  be  what  it  will,  the  artillery 
must  form  the  center  columns. 

Officers  of  Artillery.  The  master 
general  of  the  ordnance,  who  is  com- 
mander in  chief  of  the  artillery,  is  en- 
trusted with  one  of  the  most  laborious 
employments,  both  in  war  and  peace, 
requiring  the  greatest  ability,  applica- 
tion, and  experience.  The  officers  in 
general  should  be  great  mathematicians 
and  engineers;  *should  know  all  the 
powers  of  artillery;  the  attack  and  de- 
fence of  fortified  places;  in  a  word, 
every  thing  which  appertains  to  that 
very  important  corps. 

Honourable  Artillery  Company,  a 
band  of  infantry,  consisting  of  600  men, 
of  which  the  Prince  of  Wales  is  always 
colonel.  This  corps  forms  part  of  the 
militia,  or  citv  guard  of  London. 

ARTILLEUR,  Fr.  an  officer  belong- 
ing to  the  French  service,  who  was  for- 
merly appointed  by,  and   acted  imme- 

diately under,  the  master  general  of  the 

ARTILLIER,  Fr.  a  man  who  works 
on  pieces  of  ordnance  as  a  founder;  or 
one  who  serves  them  in  action 

Artillier,  Fr.  a  matross. 

ARTISONNE,  Fr.    \  worm-eaten,  as 

Bois  ARTISONNE,  S  wood  may  be. 

ARX,  in  the  ancient  military  art,  a 
fort,  castle,  &c.  for  the  defence  of  a  place. 

ARZEGAGES,  Fr.  batons  or  canes 
with  iron  at  both  ends.  They  were  car- 
ried by  the  Estradiots  or  Albanian  ca- 
valiers who  served  in  France  under 
Charles  VIII.  and  Louis  XII. 

AS.\PPES,oi-Aza pes, auxiliary  troops 
which  are  raised  among  the  Christians 
subject  to  the  Turkish  empire.  These 
troops  are  generally  placed  in  the  front 
to  receive  the  first  shock  of  the  enemy. 

ASCENSION,  Fr.  in  artillery,  the 
upward  flight  of  a  bomb  from  its  explo- 
sion out  of  the  mortar,  to  its  utmost 
point  of  elevation.  Descension  de  la 
bombe  signifies,  oa  the  contrary,  the 
range  which  a  bomb  takes  from  its 
highest  pitch  down  to  its  fall. 

ASCENT.     See  Gunnery. 

ASPECT  is  the  view  or  profile  of 
land  or  coast,  and  contains  the  figure 
or  representation  of  the  borders  of  any 
particular  part  of  the  sea.  These  figures 
and  representations  may  be  found  in  all 
the  ruttiers  or  directories  for  the  sea 
coast.  The  Italians  call  them  demon- 
stratione.  By  means  of  this  knowledge 
you  may  ascertain  whether  the  land 
round  the  shore  be  high;  if  the  coast 
itself  be  steep  or  sloping;  bent  in  the 
form  of  an  arc,  or  extended  in  straight 
lines;  round  at  the  top,  or  rising  to  a 
point.  Every  thing,  in  a  word,  is 
brought  in  a  correct  state  before  the 
eye,  as  far  as  regards  harbours,  bogs, 
gulphs,  adjacent  churches,  trees,  wind- 
mills, ckc.  &c. 

A  menacing  Aspect.  An  army  is 
said  to  hold  a  menacing  aspect,  when  bv 
advanced  movements  or  positions  it 
gives  the  opposing  enemy  cause  to  ap- 
prehend offensive  operations. 

A  military  Aspect.  A  country  is 
said  to  have  a  military  aspect  when  its 
general  situation  presents  appropriate 
obstacles  or  facilities  for  an  army  act- 
ing on  the  offensive  or  defensive. 

An  imposing  Aspect.  An  army  is  said 
to  have  an  imposing  aspect,  when  it  ap- 
pears stronger  than  it  really  is.  This 
appearance   is   often   assumed   for  the 


(     30     ) 

A  S  Y 

purpose  of  deceiving  an  enemy,  and 
may  not  improperly  be  considered  as 
a  principal  ruse  dc  guerre,  or  feint  in 

ASPIC,  Fr.  a  piece  of  ordnance  which 
carries  a  12  pound  shot.  The  piece  it- 
self weighs  4'250  pounds. 

ASPIRANT,  Fr.  a  midshipman;  a 
person  waiting  for  promotion ;  a  candi- 
date for  any  place,  or  employment. 

ASSAILLIR,  Fr.  to  attack;  to  assail. 
This  old  French  term  applies  equally  to 
bodies  of  men  and  to  individuals. 

ASSAULT,  a  furious  effort  to  carry  a 
fortified  post,  camp,  or  fortress,  where 
the  assailants  do  not  screen  themselves 
by  any  works.  While  an  assault  during 
a  siege  continues,  the  batteries  cease, 
for  fear  of  killing  their  own  men.  An 
assault  is  sometimes  made  by  the  regi- 
ments that  guard  the  trenches  of  a 
siege,  sustained  by  detachments  from 
the  army. 

To  give  an  Assault  is  to  attack  any 
post,  &c. 

To  repulse  an  Assault,  to  cause  the 
assailants  to  retreat,  to  beat  them  back. 

To  carry  by  Assault,  to  gain  a  post 
by  storm,  &c. 

ASSAUT,  Fr.     See  Assault. 

ASSEMBLAGE,  (assemblage,  Fr.) 
the.  joining  or  uniting  of  several  things 
together*;  also  the  things  themselves  so 
joined  or  united:  of  which  assemblages 
there  are  several  kinds  and  forms  used 
by  joiners,  a  i  with  mortuiscs,  tenons, 
dove-tails,  cVc. 

ASSEMBLfiE,  Fr.  the  assembling 
together  of  an  army;  also  a  rail  by  beat 
of  drum.     See  ASSEMBLY. 

ASSEMBLY,  the  second  beating  of 
the  drum  before  a  march  ;  at  which  the 
men  strike  their  tents,  if  encatnj  ed, 
roll  them  up,  and  stand  to  arms.  See 

ASSEOIR,ifr.  to  lay;  as  to  lay  the 
first  stones  of  a  foundation.  This  word 
is  also  used  to  signify  the  laying  of  stones 
for  a  pavement. 

ASSESSMENT,  in  a  military  sense, 
signifies  a  certain  rate  which  is  paid  by 
the  county  treason  r  to  the  receiver  ge- 
neral of  the  land-tax,  to  indemnify  any 
place  for  not  having  raised  the  militia; 
which  sum  is  to  be  paid  by  the  receiver- 
general  into  the  exchequer.  The  sum 
to  he  assessed  is  five  pounds  for  each 
man,  where  no  annual  certificate  of  the 
state-  of  the  militia  has  been  transmitted 
to  the  clerk  of  the  peace;  if  not  paid  be- 

fore June  yearly  it  may  be  levied  on  the 
parish  officers.  Such  assessment,  where 
there  is  no  county  rate,  is  to  be  raised 
as  the  poor's  rate. 

To  ASSIEGE,  (assieger,  Fr.)  an  ob- 
solete term  for  besiege. 

ASSIEGER,  Fr.  to  besiege, 

ASSIETTE,  Fr.  the  immediate  scite 
or  position  of  a  camp,  &c. 

To  ASSIGN,  to  make  over;  as,  to  as- 
sign a  certain  proportion  of  one's  pay, 
for  the  discharge  of  debts  contracted. 

ASSIGN  AT,  Fr.  paper  issued  upon 
supposed,  or  imaginary,  property.  Of 
this  description  were  the  assignats  in 
France,  at  the  commencement  of  the 
French  revolution. 

ASSIGNMENT,  appropriation  of 
one  thing  to  another  thing  or  person; 
as  the  assignment  which  is  made  by  the 
colonel  of  a  British  regiment  for  the 
off-reckonings,  which  are  to  be  issued 
on  the  clothing,  and  for  which  he  gene- 
rally pays  5  per  cent,  to  the  clothier. 

ASSOCIATION,  any  number  of  men 
embodied  in  arms  for  mutual  defence  in 
their  district,  and  to  preserve  the  pub- 
lic tranquillity  therein,  against  foreign 
or  domestic  enemies. 

ASTRAGAL.     See  Cannon. 

ASYLUM,  (asile,  Fr.)  a  sanctuary,  a 
place  of  refuge.  It  derives  its  name 
from  a  temple,  so  called  by  the  Ro- 
mans, which  was  built  bj  Romulus  for 
the  reception  of  malefactors.  It  is  now 
generally  used  to  signify  any  place  of 
refuge  or  reception.  Hence  the  York 
Asylum,  which  has  been  erected  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Duke  of  York,  and 
is  devoted  to  the  education  of  military 

ASSISE,  Fr.  a  course  of  stones  which 
is  carried  on  equally  high,  and  is  only 
broken,  or  interrupted,  by  doors  or  win- 
d  »w  s. 

Assise  de  picrre  dure,  Fr.  the  hard 
rough  stone  which  is  laid  for  the  foun- 
dation of  a  wall  reaching  up  to  the 

Assise  dc  parpain,  Fr.  a  course  of 
stones  that  crosses  a  wall. 

ASYMPTOTES,  {asymptotes,  Fr.) 
straight  lines  which  approach  nearer  and 
nearer  to  the  curve,  hut  being  indefi- 
nitely prolonged,  never  meet.  Of  ail 
the  curves  of  the  second  decree,  such  as 
conic  sections,  the  hyperbole  is  the  only 
one  that  has  asymptotes. 

Asymptotes  may  also  be  called  tangents 
to  their  curves,  at  an  infinite  distance. 


(     31     ) 


The  co?ichoicl,  cissoid,  and  logarithmic 
curve,  have  each  one  asymptote 

ATILT,  in  the.  attitude  of  thrusting 
with  a  spear,  &c.  as  was  formerly  the 
case  in  tournaments,  &c. 

ATLASSES,  in  architecture,  figures 
or  half  figures  of  men,  used  instead  of 
columns  or  pilasters,  to  support  any 
member  in  architecture,  as  a  balcony 
or  the  like.  They  are  also  called  te- 
1  am  ones. 

ATMOSPHERE,  (atmosphere,  Fr.)  a 
subtle  and  elastic  substance  which  sur- 
rounds the  earth,  which  gravitates  upon 
its  center,  and  partakes  of  all  its  motions. 

ATRE,  Fr.  hearth;  or  the  ground 
under  a  chimney. 

To  ATTACH,  to  place,  to  appoint. 
Officers  and  non-commissioned  oilicers 
are  said  to  be  attached  to  the  respective 
army,  regiment,  battalion,  tronp,  or 
company  with  which  they  are  instructed 
to  act. 

To  Attach,  in  a  pecuniary  sense,  sig- 
nifies to  prevent  the  issue  of  pay  or  al- 
lowance to  an  officer  on  full  or  half-pay, 
by  an  order  from  the  commander  in 
chief  or  secretary  at  war,  which  is  lodged 
at  the  regimental  agent's,  or  in  the  pay 

ATTACHE,  Fr.  the  seal  and  signa- 
ture of  the  colonel-general  in  the  old 
French  service,  which  were  affixed  to 
the  commissions  of  officers  after  they 
had  been  duly  examined. 

The  ratification  of  military  appoint- 
ments in  this  manlier  was  attended  with 
a  trifling  expense  to  each  individual, 
which  became  th  :  perquisite  of  the  co- 
lonel's secretary. 

ATTACK,  any  general  assault,  or 
onset,  that  is  given  to  gain  a  post,  or 
break  a  body  of  troops. 

Attack  of  a  siege  is  a  furious  as- 
sault made  by  the  besiegers  by  means  of 
trenches,  galleries,  saps,  breaches,  or 
mines,  &C.  by  storming  any  part  of  the 
front  attack.  Sometimes  two  attacks 
are  carried  on  at  the  same  time,  be- 
tween which  a  communication  must  be 
made.     See  Siege. 

False  Attacks  are  never  carried  on 
with  that  vigour  and  briskness  that  the 
others  are;  the  design  of  them  being  to 
favour  the  true  attack,  by  amusing  the 
enemy,  and  by  obliging  the  garrison  to 
do  a  greater  duty  in  dividing  their 
forces,  that  the  true  attack  may  be 
more  successful. 

Regular  Attack  is  that  which  is  car- 

ried on  in  form,  according  to  the  rules 
of  art.     See  Siege. 

To  Attack  in  front  or  flank,  in  for- 
tification, means  to  attack  the  salient 
angle,  or  both  sides  of  the  bastion.  Thi9 
phrase  is  familiarly  used  with  respect  to 
bodies  of  men  which  attack  each  other 
in  a  military  way.  The  French  say: 
En  front  el  sur  lesflancs. 

ATTACK  and  Defence.  A  part  of 
the  drill  for  recruits  learning  the  sword 
exercise,  which  is  commenced  with  the 
recruit  stationary  on  horseback,  the 
teacher  riding  round  him,  striking  at 
different  parts  as  openings  appear,  and 
instructing  the  recruit  how  to  ward  his 
several  attacks;  it  is  next  executed  in  a 
walk,  and,  as  the  learner  becomes  more 
perfect,  in  speed;  in  the  latter  instance 
under  the  idea  of  a  pursuit.  The  attack, 
and  defence  in  line  and  in  speed  form 
the  concluding  part  of  the  sword  exer- 
cise when  practised  at  a  review  of  ca- 
valry. It  is  to  he  observed,  that  although 
denominated  in  speed,  yet  when  prac- 
tising, or  at  a  review,  the  pace  of  the 
horse  ought  not  to  exceed  three  quar- 
ters speed. 

ATTEINDRE,  Fr.  to  reach;  to  get 

Atteindre  Vennemi,  Fr.  to  get  up 
with  the  enemy. 

ATTELIER,  Fr.  in  fortification,  all 
sorts  of  work  which  may  be  done  by  a 
variety  of  hands,  and  which  are  super- 
intended by  one  or  more  engineers. 

Entendre  bien  /'Attelieii,  Fr.  among 
engineers,  to  be  master  of  the  business; 
to  know  how  to  superintend  works,  and 
to  see  plans  executed. 

ATTENDANCE,  the  act  of  waiting 
on  another;  service. 

ATTENTION !  a  cautionary  word 
used  in  the  B>  itish  service  as  a  prepara- 
tive to  any  particular  exercise  or  ma- 
noeuvre. Gare-a-vous  has  the  same 
signification  in  the  French  service. 

ATTESTATION,  a  certificate  made 
by  some  justice  of  the  peace  within 
four  days  after  the  enlistment  of  a  re- 
cruit. This  certificate  is  to  bear  testi- 
mony, that  the  said  recruit  has  been 
brought  before  him  in  conformity  to 
the  55th  clause  of  the  Mutiny  Act,  and 
has  declared  his  assent  or  dissent  to 
such  enlistment;  and,  if  according  to 
the  said  act  he  shall  have  been,  and  is 
duly  enlisted,  that  the  proper  oaths  have 
been  administered  to  him  by  the  said 
magistrate,    and   that  the  2d    and   6th 

B  A  C 

(     32     ) 

B  A  C 

sections  of  the  Articles  of  War  against! 
mutiny  and  desertion  have  been  read  to 
the  said  recruit. 

AVANT,  Fr.  Foremost,  most  ad- 
vanced towards  the  enemy. 

AvANT-6ec,  Fr.  the  starling  of  a  stone] 
bridge.     Those  starlings   which   areal-j 
ways  pointed  towards  the  current  of  the 
water,  are  called  avanl-bec-d'amont,  and 
the  others  avant-bec~d,aval. 

AvAtn-chemin-couvert,  Fr.  the  ad- 
vanced covered-way  which  is  made  at 
the  foot  of  the  glacis  to  oppose  the  ap- 
proaches of  an  enemy. 

AvANT-«r«r,  Fr.  the  pile-work  which 
is  foimed  by  a  number  of  young  trees 
on  the  edge  or  entrance  of  a  river. 
They  are  driven  into  the  ground  with 
battering  rams  or  strong  pieces  of  iron, 
to  forma  level  Hour,  by  means  of  strong 
planks  being  nailed  upon  it,  which  serve 
for  the  foundation  of  a  bridge.  Boats 
are  placed  where  the  uvant-duc  ter- 
minates. The  avant-duc  is  had  re- 
course to  when  the  river  is  so  broad 
that  there  are  not  boats  sufficient  to 
make  a  bridge  across.  Avant-ducs  are 
made  on  each  side  of  the  river. 

AvAm-fosse,  Fr.  the  ditch  of  the 
counterscarp  next  to  the  country.  It 
is  dug  at  the  foot  of  the  glacis.  See 

AvANT-grtrr/e.     See  Van  Guard. 

AvANT-main,  Fr.  the  fore-hand  of  a 

Avant-<7y»'h,  Fr.  the  limbers  of  a 
field  piece,  on  which  are  placed  two 
boxes  containing  ammunition  enough 
for  immediate  service. 

AUDIT-o/fue,  an  office  at  Somerset- 
house,  where  accounts  are  audited. 

AUDITOR,  the  person  who  audits 
regimental  or  other  military  accounts. 
He  is  generally  a  field  officer. 

AL'AVENANT,  Fr.  proportionably; 
at  equal  rates. 

AVENUE,  in  fortification,  is  any 
kind  of  opening  or  inlet  into  a  fort, 
bastion,  or  out-work. 

A  UGE,  Fr.  a  trough  which  holds  water. 

AUGET,  or  Augette,  Fr.  a  wooden 
pipe  which  contains  the  powder  by 
which  a  mine  is  set  lire  to. 

AUGMENTATION,  increase  of  any 
thing.  Hence  colonel  commandant  by 
augmentation;  that  is,  colonel  of  an  ad- 
ditional battalion. 

AVIVES,  Fr.  vives;  a  disease  in 

AULNE  <lc  Paris,  a  French  mea- 
sure, containing  44  inches,  used  to  mea- 
sure sand-hags. 

AUTHORITY,  in  a  general  accepta- 
tion of  the  term,  signifies  a  right  to 
command,  and  a  consequent  right  to  be 
obeyed.  The  King  of  Great  Britain 
has,  by  the  constitution  of  the  land,  a 
perpetual  inherent  right  to  exercise  mi- 
litary authority  without  controul,  so  far 
as  it  regards  the  army.  His  Majesty 
may  appoint  or  dismiss  officers  at  his 

AUXILIARY  Troops.  Foreign  or 
subsidiary  troops  which  are  furnished  to 
a  belligerent  power  in  consequence  of  a 
treaty  of  alliance,  or  for  pecuniary  con- 
siderations. Of  the  latter  description, 
may  be  considered  the  Swiss  soldiers 
who  formerly  served  in  France,  and 
the  Hessians  who  were  employed  by 

AWARD,  the  sentence  or  determina- 
tion of  a  military  court. 

AXIS,  (axe,  Fr.)  the  line  that  passes 
through  the  center  of  a  body,  which  is 
moveable  upon  the  same,  as  in  a  cylin- 
der, cone,  or  pyramid,  and  which  is 
perpendicular  to  its  base. 

AXLE-TREE,  a  transverse  beam 
supporting  a  carriage,  and  on  the  ends 
of  which  the  wheels  revolve. 


T>AC,  Fr.  a  ferry  boat;  also  a  sort  of 
■"  box  made  of  lar»e  boards,  through 
which  water  is  passed,  and  carried  from 
one  quarter  to  another. 

BACK-notYs,  nails  made  with  flat 
shanks,  so  as  to  hold  fast,  and  not  to 
open  the  grain  of  the  wood. 

BACK-step,  the  retrograde  movement 
of  a  man  or  body  of  men  without  chang- 
ing front. 

BACKWARDS,  a  technical  word 
made  use  of  in  the  British  service  to  ex- 
press the  retrograde  movement  of  troops 


(     33     ) 

B  A  L 

from  line  into  column,  and  vice  versa. 
See  Wheel. 

BACULE,  ou  bascule,  Fr.  a  swipe,  or 
swing  gate. 

BACULOMETRY,  (bac  ulamitrie,  Fr.) 
in  geometry,  the  art  of  measuring  ac- 
cessible or  inaccessible  lines,  by  the 
help  of  one  or  more  staves. 

BACULUS  divinatorius,  that  is,  a 
divining  staff" or  rod;  a  branch  of  hazel 
tree  forked,  and  used  for  the  discovery 
of  mines,  springs,  tkc. 

BAGGAGE,  in  military  affairs,  signi- 
fies the  clothes,  tents,  utensils  of  diver* 
sorts,  and  provisions,  &c.  belonging  to 
an  armv. 

B ag c ag E-Wagons.     See  Wagons. 

BAGPIPE,  the  name  of  a  well-known 
warlike  instrument,  of  the  wind  kind, 
greatly  used  by  the  Scotch  regiments, 
and  sometimes  by  the  Irish.  Bagpipes 
are  supposed  to  have  been  introduced 
by  the  Danes;  but  we  are  of  opinion 
that  they  are  much  older,  as  there  is  in 
Rome  a  most  beautiful  bas-relievo,  a 
piece  of  Grecian  sculpture  of  the  highest 
antiquity,  which  represents  a  bag-piper 
playing  on  his  instrument  exactly  like  a 
modern  Highlander.  The  Greeks  had 
also  an  instrument  composed  of  a  pipe 
and  blown-up  skin.  The  Romans,  in  all 
probability,  borrowed  it  from  them. 
The  Italians  still  use  it  under  the  names 
of  piva  and  cornu-musa .  The  bagpipe 
has  been  a  favourite  instrument  among 
the  Scots,  and  lias  two  varieties:  the 
one  with  long  pipes,  and  sounded  with 
the  mouth  -.  the  other  with  short  pipes, 
played  on  with  the  fingers:  the  hist  is 
the  loudest  and  most  ear-piercing  of  all 
music;  is  the  genuine  Highland  pipe; 
and  is  well  suited  to  the  warlike  genius 
of  that  people.  It  formerly  roused  their 
courage  to  battle,  alarmed  them  when 
too  secure,  and  collected  them  when 
scattered;  solaced  them  in  their  long 
and  painful  marches;  and  in  times  of 
peace  kept  up  the  memory  of  the  gal- 
lantry of  their  ancestors,  by  tunes  com- 
posed after  signal  victories. 

BAGS,  in  military  employments,  are 
used  on  many  occasions :  as, 

Sand-B&Gs,  generally  16  inches  dia- 
meter, and  30  high,  filled  with  earth  or 
sand,  to  repair  breaches  and  the  embra- 
sures of  batteries,  when  damaged  by  the 
enemy's  fire,  or  by  the  blast  of  the  guns. 
Sometimes  they  are  made  less,  and 
placed  three  together,  upon  the  parapets, 
for  the  men  to  fire  through. 

Earth-Bxcs,  containing  about  a  cu- 
bical foot  of  earth,  are  used  to  raise  a 
parapet  in  haste,  or  to  repair  one  that 
is  beaten  down.  They  are  only  used 
when  the  ground  is  rocky,  and  does  not 
afford  earth  enough  to  carry  on  the  ap- 

BAGUETTE,  in  architecture,  a  small 
round  moulding  less  than  an  astragal. 
When  enriched  with  ornaments,  it  is 
called  a  chaplet. 

BAGUETTES,  Fr.  drumsticks  ;  they 
also  signify  the  switches  with  which  sol- 
diers were  formerly  punished  in  the 
French  service;  as  passer  par  (es  ba- 
guettes, to  run  the  gauntlet. 

BAHU,  Fr.  a  trunk.  According  to 
Belidor  it  also  signifies  the  rounded  pro- 
files which  are  generally  given  to  the 
paved  roads  of  an  open  country;  also 
the  rounded  edge  or  profile  of  the  but- 
tress of  a  parapet,  ccc. 

Cheval  BAHUTIER,  Fr.  a  sumpter 
horse,  or  one  that  carries  a  portmanteau. 

BAILLOQUE,  Fr.  an  ostrich  feather. 

BAJOYERS,  Fr.  the  side  walls  in  a 
sluice  or  dam.  They  are  also  called 

BALANCE,  in  mechanics,  one  of 
the  six  simple  powers  principally  used 
for  determining  the  equality,  or  diffe- 
rence, of  weights  in  heavy  bodies,  and 
consequently  other  masses  and  quan- 
tities of  matter. 

BALANCE,  Fr.  a  term  used  in  the 
French  artillery  to  express  a  machine 
in  which  stores  and  ammunition  are 

BALANCIER  June  echse,  Fr.  the 
thick  bar  of  iron  which  serves  as  a 
handle  to  shut  or  open  a  sluice  with  one 
or  two  flood-gates. 

BALATRONES,  an  ancient  name 
given  to  wicked,  lewd,  and  cowardly 
persons,  from  Servilius  Balatro,  a  de- 
bauched libertine;  whence,  according  to 
Bailey,  the  French  have  probably  de- 
rived their  Poltron,  which  see. 

BALISTA,  Lat.  an  instrument  from 
which  arrows,  darts,  and  javelins  were 
thrown  in  ancient  times. 

BALISTIQUE,  Fr.  the  art  of  throw- 
ing or  projecting  heavy  substances,  as 
shells  and  cannon-balls,  to  a  given  dis- 

BALIVEAUX,  Fr.  young  oaks  that 
are  under  40  years  growth,  and  measure 
from  12  to  21  French  feet  in  the  girth. 

BALKS,  poles  or  rafters,  over  out- 
houses or  barns;  and  among  bricklayers. 

B  A  L 

(     31     ) 

B  A  L 

great  beams,  such  as  are  used  in  making 
scaffolds.  The  word  is  also,  by  some, 
npplied  to  great  pieces  of  timber  coming 
from  beyond  seas  by  floats. 

BALL,  (balle,  Fr.)  a  round  substance, 
made  of  iron  or  lead,  put  into  heavy 
ordnance,  or  fire-arms,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  killing  or  wounding,  or  making 
a  breach. 

GWjhoh-Balls  are  of  iron,  and  mus- 
ket and  pistol  balls  are  of  lead.  Cannon 
balls  are  always  distinguished  by  their 
respective  calibres,  thus, 


^6,631  inches 






pound  ball,  the 



diameter  of 
which  is 









L  1,923,  )  of  which  there  are  ra- 
Light-]i.\Li.i>,  S  rious  sorts,  are  used  for 
various  purposes.  Their  composition  is 
mealed  powder  2,  saltpetre  l£,  sulphur 
1,  rosin  1,  turpentine  2|.  Sometimes 
they  are  made  of  an  iron  shell,  some- 
times a  stone,  filled  and  covered  with 
various  coats  of  the  above  composition, 
till  it  conglomerates  to  a  proper  size, 
the  last  coat  being  of  grained  powder. 
But  the  best  sort,  in  our  opinion,  is  to 
take  thick  brown  paper,  and  make  a 
shell  the  size  of  the  mortar,  and  fill  it 
with  a  composition  of  an  equal  quantity 
of  sulphur,  pitch,  rosin,  and  mealed  pow- 
der, which  being  well  mixed,  and  put  in 
warm,  will  give  a  clear  fire,  and  bum  a 
considerable  time. 

When  they  are  intended  to  set  fire  to 
magazines,  buildings,  &c.  the  composi- 
tion must  be  mealed  powder  10,  saltpetre 
2,  sulphur  4,  and  rosin  1;  or  rather, 
mealed  powder  43,  saltpetre  32,  sul- 
phur 10,  rosin  4,  steel  or  iron  filings  2, 
fir-tree  saw-dust  boiled  in  saltpetre  ley 
2,  birch-wood  charcoal  1,  well  rammed 
into  a  shell  for  that  purpose,  having  va- 
rious holes  filled  with  small  barrels, 
loaded  with  musket-balls;  and  lastly, 
the  whole  immerged  in  melted  pitch, 
rosin,  and  turpentine  oil. 

SwiiAc-Balls  are  prepared  as  above, 
with  this  difl'erence,  that  they  contain 
5  to  1  of  pitch,  rosin,  and  saw-dust. 
This  composition  is  put  into  shells  made 
for  (hat  purpose,  having  4  holes  to  let 
out  the  smoke.     Smoke-balls  are  thrown 

out  of  mortars,  and  continue  to  smokal 
from  25  to  30  minutes. 

Stink-BjLLLS  are  prepared  by  a  com- 
position of  mealed  powder,  rosin,  salt- 
petre, pitch,  sulphur,  rasped  horses  and 
asses  hoofs,  burnt  in  the  fire,  assa-fojti- 
da,  seraphim-gum  or  ferula,  and  bug  or 
stinking  herbs,  made  up  into  balls,  as 
mentioned  in  Light-BALLS,  agreeable  to 
the  size  of  the  mortar  out  of  which  you 
intend  to  throw  them. 

Puisu)icd-B,\Li.a.  We  are  not  sure 
that  they  have  ever  been  used  in  Eu- 
rope; hut  the  Indians  and  Africans  have 
always  been  very  ingenious  at  poisoning 
several  sorts  of  warlike  stores  and  in- 
struments. Their  composition  is  mealed 
powder  4,  pitch  6,  rosin  3,  sulphur  5, 
assa-foetida  3,  extract  of  toads  poison  12, 
other  poisonous  substances  12,  made 
into  balls  as  above  directed.  At  the 
commencement  of  the  French  Revolu- 
tion, poisoned  balls  were  exhibited  to 
the  people,  pretended  to  have  been  fired 
by  the  Austrians,  particularly  at  the 
siege  of  Lisle.  We  have  seen  some  of 
this  sort  ourselves.  They  contained 
glass,  small  pieces  of  iron,  &c.  and  were 
said  to  be  concocted  together  by  means 
of  a  greasy  composition,  which  was  im- 
pregnated with  poisonous  matter.  In 
1792  they  were  deposited  in  the  archives 
of  Paris. 

Red-hot  Balls,  balls  made  red-hot, 
upon  a  large  coal  fire  in  a  square  hole 
made  in  the  ground,  6  feet  every  way, 
and  4  or  5  feet  deep.  Some  make  the 
tire  tinder  an  iron  grate,  on  which  the 
shell  or  ball  is  laid;  but  the  best  method  is 
to  put  the  hall  into  the  middle  of  a  clear 
burning  fire,  and  when  red-hot,  all  the 
fiery  particles  must  be  swept  off.  What- 
ever machine  you  use  to  throw  the  red- 
hot  ball  out  of,  it  must  be  elevated  ac- 
cording to  the  distance  you  intend  it 
shall  range,  and  the  charge  of  powder 
must  be  put  into  a  flannel  cartridge,  and 
a  good  wad  upon  that;  then  a  piece  of 
wood  of  the  exact  diameter  of  the  piece, 
and  about  3|  inches  thick,  to  prevent 
the  hall  from  setting  fire  to  the  powder; 
then  place  the  ball  on  the  edge  of  the 
mortar,  &,c.  with  an  instrument  for  that 
purpose,  and  let  it  roll  of  itself  against 
the  wood, and  instantly  fire  it  off.  Should 
there  be  a  ditch  or  parallel  before  such  a 
battery,  with  soldiers,  the  wood  must  not 
be  used,  as  the  blast  of  powder  will 
break  it  to  piece*,  and  its  own  elasticity 
prevent  it  from  living  far;   it  would  in 

B  A  L 

C     35     ) 

B  A  L 

(hat  case  either  kill  or  wound  your  own 
people.  On  this  account  the  wad  must 
be  double,  the  second  being  damp.  It 
the  gun  lies  at  a  depression,  there  must 
be  a  wad  over  the  shot,  which  may  be 
rammed  home. 

Chain-BALLS  are  two  balls  linked 
together  by  a  chain  of  8  or  10  inches 
long,  and  some  have  been  made  with  a 
chain  of  3  or  4  feet  long;  they  are  used 
to  destroy  the  palisadues,  wooden 
bridges,  and  chevaux-de-frizes  of  a  for- 
tification. They  are  also  very  destruc- 
tive to  the  rigging  of  a  ship. 

Sta?ig-BALLs  are  generally  termed 
bar-shot,  and  by  some  called  balls  of 
two  heads;  they  are  sometimes  made  of 
two  half-balls  joined  together  by  a  bar 
of  iron  from  8  to  14  inches  long;  they 
are  likewise  made  of  two  entire  balls : 
they  answer  the  same  purpose  as  the 
before  mentioned. 

Anchor-Y$Ai.i.s  are  made  in  the  same 
way  as  the  light-balls,  and  filled  with 
the  same  composition,  only  with  this  ad- 
dition, that  these  are  made  with  an  iron 
bar  two-thirds  of  the  ball's  diameter  in 
length,  and  3  or  4  inches  square.  One 
half  is  fixed  within  the  ball,  and  the 
other  half  remains  without;  the  exte- 
rior end  is  made  with  a  grapple-hook. 
Anchor-balls  are  very  useful  to  set  fire  to 
wooden  bridges,  or  any  thing  made  of 
wood,  or  even  the  rigging  of  ships,  tkc. 
for  the  pile  end  being  the  heaviest,  flies 
foremost,  and  wherever  it  touches,  fas- 
tens, and  sets  all  on  fire  about  it. 

Message-Bxi.LS.     See  Shells. 

BALLE-d-lVu,  Fr.     See  IuYc-Balls 

BALLF.-m«t'A(ie,  Fr.  a  musket  ball, 
which  the  soldier  bites  and  indents  in 
different  places  before  he  loads  his  mus- 
ket. It  is  contrary  to  the  established 
rules  of  war  to  use  any  thing  of  the  sort. 

BALLIUM,  a  term  used  in  ancient 
military  history.  In  towns,  the  appel- 
lation of  ballium  was  given  to  a  work 
fenced  with  palisades,  and  some  times 
to  masonry,  covering  the  suburbs;  but 
in  castles,  it  was  the  space  immediately 
within  the  outer  wall. 

BALLON,  Fr.  balloon. 

Ballon,  Fr.  in  architecture,  the 
round  globe  on  the  top  of  a  pier  or 

Ballon  a  lombcs,  Fr.  a  bag  in  which 
are  placed  beds  of  smaller  bombs,  that 
are  charged  and  interlaid  with  gunpow- 
der. This  bag  is  put  into  another  co- 
vering, that  is  pitched  and  tarred,  with 

the  neck  closely  tied  up  with  pack- 
thread, in  which  a  fuse  is  fixed,  as  in 
ordinary  bombs.  These  balloons,  or 
bags  containing  bombs,  are  thrown  out 
of  mortars,  and  are  frequently  used  in 
the  attack  and  defence  of  fortified  places. 
Colonel  Shrapnel's  invention  of  the  sphe- 
rical case-shot  is  of  a  superior  kind. 

Ballon  a  eailloux,  Fr.  a  balloon  or 
bag  filled  with  stones  or  pebbles  in  the 
same  manner  as  the  above  mentioned. 

Ballon  a  grenades,  Fr.  a  balloon  or 
bag,  impregnated  with  pitch,  containing 
several  beds  of  grenades,  with  a  fuse  at- 
tached to  each. 

BALLOON,  a  hollow  vessel  of  silk, 
varnished  over  and  filled  with  inflam- 
mable air,  or  gas,  by  which  means  it  as- 
cends in  the  atmosphere.  It  has  some- 
times been  used  by  the  French  in  recon- 
noitring, particularly  at  Fleurus,  during 
the  revolutionary  war. 

Balloon  for  communicating  intelli- 
gence. This  balloon  is  5  feet  diameter, 
and  will  carry  between  4  and  albs,  weight, 
or  about  3000  printed  papers,  each  5 
inches  square.  The  balloon  by  which 
the  papers  are  carried  and  discharged 
is  12  inches  diameter.  The  fire  will 
burn  at  the  rate  of  one  minute  per  inch: 
consequently  one  round  will  be  36  inches; 
and  the  double  ring  will,  of  course,  con- 
tinue to  discharge  for  one  hour  and  12 

*  •  *  /*        I 

minutes,  and  so  on  in  proportion,  if  the 
battery  be  triple,  as  the  circle  may  go 
20  times  round  ;  by  which  means  the 
discharging  of  papers  may  be  kept  up 
for  hours:  and  to  prevent  any  possibi- 
lity of  the  fire  going  out,  it  may  be  made 
to  burn  double;  although  there  is  not 
one  chance  in  a  hundred  of  its  going 
out  by  single  fire.  By  a  simple  com- 
munication of  fire  to  the  inflammable 
air  in  the  balloon,  after  the  last  parcel 
of  papers  is  discharged,  the  whole  is  ex- 
ploded into  air.  This  balloon  was  tried 
at  the  Royal  Arsenal  in  Woolwich,  by 
order  of  the  Earl  of  Moira  jn  1S06,  and 
was  favourably  reported  upon. 

The  battery,  when  charged,  is  covered 
with  skin,  to  prevent  the  rain  or  wet 
from  affecting  the  fire, 

BALLOT,  a  little  ball  or  ticket  used 
in  giving  votes.  The  act  of  voting  by 

To  Ballot,  to  chuse  by  balls  or 
tickets,  without  open  declaration  of  the 
vote.  The  militia  of  Great  Britain  aud 
Ireland  is  drawn  for  by  ballot  in  the 
several  counties  and  parishes. 

B  A  N 

(    36     ) 


BALLOTS,  Fr.  sacks  or  bales  of 
wool,  made  use  of,  in  cases  of  great 
emergency,  to  form  parapets  or  places 
of  arms.  They  are  likewise  adapted  for 
the  defence  01  trenches,  to  cover  the 
workmen. in  saps,  and  in  all  instances 
where  promptitude  is  required. 

BALUSTER,  (balustre,  Fr.)  This 
word  is  usually,  but  corruptly,  pro- 
nounced bannister.  It  is  a  small  co- 
lumn or  pilaster  of  different  dimensions, 
viz.  from  an  inch  and  three  quarters,  to 
tour  inches  square,  or  diameter.  The 
sizes  and  forms  of  balusters  are  various, 
according  to  the  fancy  of  the  workman. 
BALUSTRADE,  {balustrade,  Fr.)  an 
assemblage  of  one  or  more  rows  of  little 
turned  pillars,  called  balusters. 

Balustrade  fcinte,  Fr.  small  pillars 
or  balusters  which  are  fixed,  half  their 
usual  height,  upon  any  ground. 

BAN  and  Arrihc  Ban,  a  French 
military  phrase,  signifying  the  convoca- 
tion of  vassals  under  the  feudal  system. 
Menage,  a  French  writer,  derives  the 
term  from  the  German  word  ban,  which 
means  publication.  Nicod  derives  it 
from  another  German  term,  which  sig- 
nifies field.  Borel,  from  the  Greek  nav, 
which  means  all,  because  the  convoca- 
tion was  general.  In  the  reign  of 
Charles  VII,  the  ban  and  arriere  ban 
bad  different  significations.  Formerly  it 
meant  the  assembling  of  the  ordinary 
militia.  After  the  days  of  Charles  VII. 
it  was  called  the  extraordinary  militia. 
The  first  served  more  than  the  latter; 
and  each  was  distinguished  according 
to  the  nature  of  its  particular  service. 
The  persons  belonging  to  the  arriere- 
ban  were  at  one  period  accoutred  and 
mounted  like  light  horse:  but  there 
were  occasions  on  which  they  served 
like  infantry, — once  under  Francis  I. 
in  1545,  and  again  under  Lewis  XIII. 
who  issued  out  an  order  in  1637,  that 
the  arriere-ban  should  serve  on  foot. 

Ban  likewise  signified,  during  the 
ancient  monarchy  of  France,  a  procla- 
mation made  by  the  sound  of  drums, 
trumpets,  and  tambourines,  either  at 
the  head  of  a  body  of  troops,  or  in 
quarters.  Sometimes  to  prevent  the 
men  from  quitting  camp,  at  others  to 
enforce  the  rigour  of  military  discipline; 
sometimes  for  the  purpose  of  receiving 
a  new  commanding  officer,  and  at  others 
to  degrade  and  punish  a  military  cha- 

BANC,  Fr.  a  bed  or  layer  of  stones 
in  the  quarry. 

Banc  decicl,  Fr.  that  bed  or  layer  of 
the  hardest  upper  stones,  which  is  sup- 
ported by  pillars,  at  intermediate  dis- 

BAND,  (banrfe,  Fr.)  in  architecture, 
is  a  general  name  for  any  fiat  low  mem- 
ber, or  one  that  is  broad,  and  not  very 
deep;  which  is  also  called  face,  from  the 
Latin  fascia,  which  Vitruvius  uses  for 
the  same  thing;  and  sometimes  fillet, 
plinth,  Ike. 

BANDELET,  (bandelette,  Fr.)  a 
little  fillet  or  band. 

BANDER,  Fr.  to  bind,  to  bend,  to 
cock.  Bander  les  yeux  a  un  trompette, 
to  blindfold  a  trumpeter.  Bander  un 
pistolet,  to  cock  a  pistol. 

Bander  also  signifies  to  unite,  to  in- 
trigue together  for  the  purposes  of  in- 

BANDERET,  Fr.  in  military  history, 
implies  the  commander  in  chief  of  the 
troops  of  the  canton  of  Bern,  in  Swit- 

BANDES,  Fr.  bands,  bodies  of  in- 

Bandes  Francoises,  Fr.  The  French 
infantry  was  anciently  so  called.  The 
term,  however,  has  of  late  become  less 
general,  and  been  confined  to  the  Prevot 
des  Bandes,  or  the  Judge  or  Provost 
Marshal  that  tried  the  men  belonging  to 
the  French  guards. 

Bandes,  Fr.  iron  hoops  or  rings. 

Sons-Ban de%  Fr.  the  iron  hoops  in  a 
mortar-carriage  on  which  the  trunnions 

Sms-Bandes,  Fr.  the  iron  bands  or 
hoops  that  cover  the  trunnions  of  can- 
nons or  mortars  when  mounted  on  their 
carriages:  they  are  usually  made  with  a 

BANDIERE,  Fr.  This  terra  is  fre- 
quently used  in  the  same  sense  with  ban- 
nitre,  banner;  especially  on  board  ship. 

Bandiere,  Fr.  line,  artnie  rangie  en 
front  de  bandiere  signifies  an  army  in 
battle-array.  This  disposition  of  the 
army  is  opposed  to  that  in  which  it  is 
cantoned  and  divided  into  several  bodies. 
line  armie  campie  front  de  Ban- 
diere, Fr.  an  army  which  is  en- 
camped with  the  regular  stand  of  co- 
lours in  front.  Hence  La  ligne  bandiere, 
the  camp-colour  line.  The  sentries 
should  not,  on  any  account,  permit  per- 
sons out  of  regimentals  to  pass  this  line. 

BANDIT  or  Banditto,  (bandit,Yr.) 
a  lawless  plunderer,  a  military  depredator. 

BANDOLEER,  in  ancient  military 
history,  a  large  leathern  belt  worn  over 


(     57 



tlie  right  shoulder,  and  hanging  under 
the  left  arm,  to  carry  some  kind  of  war- 
like weapon. 

Bandoleers  arelikewiselittle  wooden 
cases  covered  with  leather,  of  which 
every  musketeer  used  to  wear  12  hang- 
ing on  a  shoulder-helt;  each  of  them 
contained  the  charge  of  powder  for  a 
musket.  They  are  now  no  more  in  use, 
hut  are  still  to  be  seen  in  the  small  ar- 
moury in  the  Tower, 

BANDROLS.    See  Camp-Colours. 

BANDS,  properly  bodies  of  foot, 
though  almost  out  of  date.  The  term 
band  is  also  applied  to  the  body  of  mu- 
sicians attached  to  any  regiment  or  bat- 

XVaj'n-BANDS.  In  England,  the  mi- 
litia of  the  City  of  London  were  gene- 
rally so  called.  The  thud  regiment  of 
Foot,  or  the  Old  Buffs,  were  originally 
recruited  from  the  Train  Bands,  which 
circumstance  has  given  that  corps  the 
exclusive  privilege  of  marching  through 
London  with  drums  beating  and  colours 

Band  of  Pensioners,  a  company  of 
gentlemen  so  called,  who  attend  the 
King's  person  upon  all  solemn  occasions. 
They  are  120  in  number,  and  receive  a 
yearly  allowance  of  1001. 

Band  is  also  the  denomination  of  a 
military  order  in  Spain,  instituted  by 
Alphonso  XL  King  of  Castile,  for  the 
younger  sons  of  the  nobility,  who,  before 
their  admission,  must  serve  10  years, 
at  least,  either  in  the  army  or  during  a 
war;  and  are  bound  to  take  up  arms  in 
defence  of  the  Catholic  faith,  against 
the  infidels. 

JVafe-BANDS,  with  gunners,  hoops  of 
iron,  binding  the  nave  of  a  gun-carriage 
at  both  ends. 

BANNER,  the  ordnance  flag  fixed 
on  the  fore  part  of  the  drum-major's 
kettle-drum  carriage,  formerly  used  by 
the  Royal  Artillery.  At  present,  when 
a  flag  is  carried,  it  is  affixed  to  the  car- 
riage of  the  right  hand  gun  of  the  park, 
generally  a  12  pounder. 

Banner,  in  the  horse  equipage,  for 
the  kettle-drums  and  trumpets,  must  be 
of  the  colour  of  the  facing  of  the  regi- 
ment. The  badge  of  the  regiment,  or 
its  rank,  to  be  in  the  center  of  the  har- 
rier of  the  kettle-drums,  as  on  the  se- 
cond standard.  The  king's  cypher  aur! 
crown  to  be  on  the  banner  of  the  trum- 
pets, with  the  rank  of  the  regiment  in 
figures  underneath.     The  depth  of  the 

kettle-drum  banners  to  be  3  feet  6 
inches;  the  length  4  feet  8  inches,  ex- 
cluding the  fringe.  Those  of  the  trum- 
pets to  be  12  inches  in  depth,  and  IS 
inches  in  length. 

BANNERET,  Fr.  a  term  derived  from 
banniere.  This  appellation  was  attached 
to  any  lord  of  a  fief  who  had  vassals 
sufficient  to  unite  them  under  one  ban- 
nitre  or  banner,  and  to  become  chief  of 
the  troop  or  company. 

Un  Chevalier  Banneret, or  a  Knight 
Banneret,  gave  precedence  to  the  troop 
or  company  which  he  commanded  over 
that  of  a  banneret  who  was  not  a  knight 
or  chevalier;  the  latter  obeyed  the 
former,  and  the  banner  of  the  first  was 
cut  into  fewer  vanes  than  that  of  the 

BANNERET.  Knights-banneret, ac- 
cording to  the  English  acceptation  of 
the  term,  are  persons  who,  for  any  par- 
ticular act  of  valour,  have  been  knighted 
on  the  field  of  battle. 

The  late  Sir  William  Erskine,  on  his 
return  from  the  Continent  in  1764,  was 
made  a  knight-banneret  in  Hyde  Park, 
by  his  present  Majesty,  in  consequence 
of  his  distinguished  conduct  at  the  bat- 
tle of  Emsdoiff.  But  he  was  not  ac- 
knowledged as  such  in  this  country,  al- 
though he  was  invested  with  the  order 
between  the  two  standards  of  the  15th 
regiment  of  light  dragoons,  because  the 
ceremony  did  not  take  place  where  the 
engagement  happened.  Captain  Trol- 
lope  of  the  Royal  Navy  is  the  last  cre- 
ated knight-banneret.  Knights-banne- 
ret  take  precedence  next  to  knights  ot 
the  Bath. 

BANNIANS,  Ind.  a  name  signifying 
innocent  people,  and  without  guile;  a 
religious  sect  among  the  Indians,  who 
believe  in  a  transmigration  of  souls,  and 
therefore  do  not  tat  the  flesh  of  any 
living  creature,  nor  will  they  even  kill  a 
noxious  animal.  They  wear  round  their 
necks  a  stone  called  tunibesau,  about  the 
bigness  of  an  egg,  which  is  perforated, 
and  has  three  strings  run  in  it;  this 
stone,  they  say,  represents  their  great 
God;  and  on  this  account,  the  Indians 
shew  them  very  great  respect. 

BANNiAN-rf«y,  a  day  so  called  from 
the  above  sect,  on  which  no  animal  food 
is  touched. 

BANQUET.     See  Bridges. 

Banquet,  of  a  bridle,  is  that  small 
part  of  the  branch  of  a  bridle  that  is 
under  the  eye,  which  is  rounded  like  a 


(     38     ) 


small  rod,  and  gathers  and  joins  the 
extremities  of  a  hit  to  the  branch,  so 
that  the  banquet  is  not  seen,  but  is  co- 
hered by  the  cap,  or  that  part  of  the  bit 
which  is  next  to  the  branch. 

BANQUETTE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  step 
made  on  the  rampart  of  a  work  near  the 
parapet.     See  Fom  ificamon. 

BAR,  a  long  piece  of  wood  or  iron, 
used  to  keep  things  together.  Bars  have 
various  denominations  in  the  construc- 
tion of  artillery  carriages,  as  sweep  and 
cross  bars  for  tumbrils;  fore,  hind,  and 
under  cross  bars  for  powder-carts;  shaft 
bars  for  wagons,  and  dowel  bars  used  in 
mortar  beds. 

B.\R-shot.  Sec  S/a»g-BALLS,  under 
the  head  Ball. 

To  Bar  a  rein,  in  farriery,  is  to 
strike  it,  or  open  it  above  the  skin,  and 
after  it  has  been  disengaged,  and  tied 
above  and  below,  to  strike  between  the 

Bau,  (a  sea  word,)  a  rock  or  sand, 
lying  before  a  harbour,  which  ships  can- 
not sail  over,  but  upon  a  flood. 

BARAQUER  une  anuee,  Fr.  to  put 
an  army  into  cantonments. 

BARAQUES,  Fr.  small  huts  made 
with  wood  and  earth  for  the  accommo- 
dation of  soldiers  during  a  campaign. 

BARB,  the  reflected  points  </f  the 
head  of  an  arrow.     See  Baure. 

BAKBACAN,or  Barrican, a  watch- 
tower  for  the  purpose  of  descrying  an 
enemy  at  a  great  distance:  it  also  im- 
plies an  outer  defence  or  sort  of  ancient 
fortification  to  a  city  or  castle,  used  es- 
pecially as  a  fence  to  the  city  or  walls; 
also  an  aperture  made  in  the  walls  of  a 
fortress  to  fire  through  upon  the  enemy. 
It  is  sometimes  used  to  denote  a  fort  at 
the  entrance  of  a  bridge,  having  a  double 
wall  with  towers. 

BARBACANAGE,  money  given  to 
the  maintenance  of  a  barbacan. 

BARBE,  the  armour  of  the  horses  of 
the  ancient  knights  and  soldiers,  that 
were  accoutred  at  all  points. 

BARBETS  are  peasants  subject  to 
the  King  of  Sardinia,  who  abandon  their 
dwellings  when  the  enemy  has  taken 
possession  of  them.  The  King  forms 
them  into  bodies,  who  defend  the  Alp*. 
being  part  of  his  dominions. 

B\RHET-batterg,  in  gunnery,  is  when 
the  breast-work  of  a  battery  is  only  3 
feet  high,  that  the  guns  may  fire  over  it 
without  being  obliged  to  make  embra- 
sures: in  such  cases,  it  is  said  the  guns 
tire  en  barbel.    See  Batiery. 

BARDE,  Fr.  a  long  saddle  for  an  ass 
or  mule,  made  only  of  coarse  canvass 
stuffed  with  flocks. 

Javefine  de  Barde,  Fr.  a  barbed  ja- 
velin for  a  horseman. 

BARDE,  Fr.  barbed  or  trapped,  as  a 
great  horse  is;  also  bound  or  tied  across. 

BARDEAU,  Fr.  a  small  piece  of 
ship-timber,  made  in  the  shape  of  a  tile, 
with  which  pent-houses  and  windmills 
are  covered. 

BARDEES  cTeav,  Fr.  a  measure  used 
in  the  making  of  saltpetre,  containing 
three  half  hogsheads  of  water,  which  are 
poured  into  tubs  for  the  purpose  of  re- 
fining it.  Four  half  hogsheads  are  some- 
times thrown  in. 

ed  or  canvass  saddle  with  which  colts 
are  backed. 

BARGE-COURSE,  with  bricklayers, 
a  term  used  for  part  of  the  tiling  which 
projects  over,  without  the  principal 
rafters,,  in  all  sorts  of  buildings  where 
there  is  either  a  gable,  or  a  knkin-head. 

BARILLA R,  Fr.  an  officer  who  was 
formerly  employed  among  the  gallies, 
whose  chief  duty  is  to  superintend  the 
distribution  of  bread  and  water. 

BARILLET,  Fr.  keg;  the  barrel  of  a 
watch;  also  the  body  or  funnel  of  a 
sucking  pump,  in  which  the  piston  plays 
up  and  down.  It  is  likewise  called 
Secre  t. 

B ARILS,  Fr.  small  barrels,  contain- 
ing gunpowder,  flints,  &c. 

B a  r  i  ls  j'audroyu ns  et  flam boi/ans,  Fr. 
See  Thundering  Barrels. 

BARM,  or  Berm.     See  Berm. 

BARQUE,  Fr.  a  small  vessel  which 
has  only  one  deck,  and  serves  chiefly 
for  the  carriage  of  goods.  It  has  three 

Barque  longue,  Fr.  a  small  vessel 
used  in  war,  without  a  deck,  lower  than 
the  ordinary  barges,  with  a  peak  head, 
and  carrying  sails  and  oars. 

BARRACKS  (barraques,  Fr.)  are 
places  erected  for  both  officers  and  men 
to  lodge  in ;  they  are  built  different  ways, 
according  to  their  different  situations. 
When  there  is  sufficient  room  to  make 
a  large  square,  surrounded  with  build- 
ings, they  are  very  convenient,  because 
the  soldiers  are  easily  confined  to  their 
quarters,  and  the  rooms  being  contigu- 
ous, orders  are  executed  with  privacy 
and  expedition;  and  the  troops  have  not 
the  least  connection  with  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  place  :  this  prevents  quar- 
rels and  riots.    Those  for  the  horse  were. 


(    39    ) 

B  A  S 

formerly  called  barracks,  and  those  for 
the  foot  huts ;  but  now  barrack  is  used 
indifferently  for  both.     See  Caserne. 

Barrack  conies  from  the  Spanish, 
baruccas,  small  cabins  which  the  fisher- 
men make  on  the  sea-shore. 

BARRACK-altoToance,  a  specific  allow- 
ance of  bread,  beer,  coals,  ike.  to  the 
regiments  stationed  in  barracks. 

BARRACK-guard.  When  a  regiment 
is  in  barracks,  the  principal  guard  is  the 
barrack-guard;  the  officer  being  respon- 
sible for  the  regularity  of  the  men  in 
barracks,  and  for  all  prisoners  duly 
committed  to  his  charge  while  on  that 

Barrack-TV/ws^?'  General,  a  staff  of- 
ficer at  the  head  of"  the  barrack  depart- 
ment; lie  has  a  number  of  barrack- 
masters  and  deputies  under  him,  who 
are  stationed  at  the  different  barracks; 
he  has  an  office  and  clerks  for  the  dis- 
patch of  business;  to  this  office  all  re- 
ports, ckc.  respecting  the  barrack  de- 
partment are  made. 

BARRACK-Q/#ce,  the  office  at  which 
all  business  relating  to  the  barrack  de- 
partment is  transacted. 

BARRE,  Fr.  a  spar,  or  long  thin 
piece  of  wood  which  serves  to  keep  to- 
gether the  boards  in  a  partition,  and  to 
fasten  other  works;  also  a  whipstaff;  a 

Barre  ou  barreau  de  fer,  Fr.  a  solid 
bar  of  iron. 

BARRELS,  in  military  affairs,  are  of 
various  kinds. 

.Fire-BARRELs  are  of  different  sorts; 
•some  are  mounted  on  wheels,  filled  with 
composition,  and  intermixed  with  loaded 
grenades,  and  the  outside  full  of  sharp 
spikes:  some  are  placed  underground, 
which  have  the  effect  of  small  mines: 
others  are  used  to  roll  down  a  breach, 
to  prevent  the  enemy's  entrance. — Com- 
position: corned  powder,  SOlb.  Swedish 
pitch  12,  saltpetre  6,  and  tallow  3.  Not 
used  now. 

Thundering-BARRKLS  are  for  the  same 
purpose,  filled  with  various  kinds  of 
combustibles,  intermixed  with  small 
shells,  grenades,  and  other  fire-works. 
They  are  not  used  now. 

Poztfde/'-BARRELs  are  about  16  inches 
diameter,  and  30  or  32  inches  long, 
holding  100  pounds  of  powder;  but  the 
quantity  put  into  a  whole  barrel  is  only 
90  lbs.  into  an  half  barrel  45  lbs. 
and  a  quarter  barrel,  used  for  rifle 
powder,  only  22ilbs.;  this  proportion 
leaves  a  space  for  the  powder  to  sepa- 

rate when  rolled,  or  otherwise  it  would 
always  be  in  lumps,  and  liable  thereby 
to  damage. 

Budge-B\RRZLS  hold  from  40  to  60 
pounds  of  powder;  at  one  end  is  fixed 
a  leathern  bag  with  brass  nails:  they  are 
used  in  actual  service  on  the  batteries, 
For  loading  the  guns  and  mortars,  to  keep 
the  powder  from  firing  by  accident. 

Barrels  of  earth,  in  an  army,  a  sort 
of  halt-hogsheads  filled  with  earth, 
which  are  used  as  breast-works  for  co- 
vering the  soldiery;  and  also  to  break 
the  gabions  made  in  the  ditch;  also  to 
roll  into  breaches. 

BARRER,  Fr.  to  stop;  to  obstruct. 

Barrer  te  chenun  d'une  troupe,  ou 
d'une  armie  ennemie,  Fr;  to  take  pos- 
session of  any  particular  road  or  pas- 
sage, and  to  cut  it  up,  or  plant  it  with 
ordnance,  ckc.  in  such  a  manner  that  no 
hostile  force  could  march  through. 

BARRES,  Fr.  the  martial  sport 
called  bars. 

BARRICADE.  To  barricade  is  to 
fortify  with  trees,  or  branches  of  trees, 
cut  down  for  that  purpose,  the  brushy 
ends  towards  the  enemv.  Carts,  wa- 
gons, &c.  are  sometimes  made  use  of 
for  the  same  purpose,  viz.  to  keep  back 
both  horse  and  foot  for  some  time. 

BARRICADES,  Fr.  obstructions  or 
obstacles  created  by  means  of  ditches, 
temporary  abattis,  &c. 

BARRIER,  {barriire,  Fr.)  in  a  ge- 
neral sense,  means  any  fortification,  or 
strong  place  on  the  frontiers  of  a  coun- 
try. It  is  likewise  a  kind  of  fence  com- 
posed of  stakes,  and  transums,  as  over- 
thwart  rafters,  erected  to  defend  the  en- 
trance of  a  passage,  retrenchment,  or  the 
like.  In  the  middle  of  the  barrier  is  a 
moveable  bar  of  wood,  which  is  opened 
and  shut  at  pleasure.  It  also  implies  a 
gate  made  of  wooden  bars,  about  5  feet 
long,  perpendicular  to  the  horizon,  and 
kept  together  by  two  long  bars  going 
across,  and  another  crossing  diagonally. 
Barriers  are  used  to  stop  the  cut  made 
through  the  esplanade  before  the  gate 
of  a  town. 

BARMER.-tozcns,  (vil/es  barrieres,  Fr.) 
The  barrier-towns  in  Europe  were 
Menin,  Dendermond,  Ypres,  Tournay, 
Moris,  Namur,  and  Maestricht.  These 
towns  were  formerly  garrisoned  half  by 
French  or  Imperial,  and  half  by  Dutch 
troops.  They  were  established  in  1713 
by  the  treaty  of  Utrecht,  and  demolished 
by  Joseph  II.  in  1782. 

BAS-BOUD,  Fr.  a  sea-term;  the  lar- 

B  A  S 

(    10    ) 

13  A  S 

hoard  side.  The  French  use  the  words 
bas-burd  and  slri-bord  to  distinguish  the 
right  and  left  sides  of  a  sluice,  when  a 
person  is  going  through.  Stri-btird  is 
the  right,  and  bas-burd  the  left,  or  stai- 
bmrd  and  larboard,  looking  at  the  prow 
of  a  sin  1 1. 

BASALTES,  a  sort  of  marble  of  an 
iron  colour:  the  hardest  block  mar- 

BASCULE,  JFr.  a  counterpoise  which 
serves  to  lift  up  the  draw-oi  idge  of  a 
town.  Likewise  a  term  used  in  fortifi- 
cation to  express  a  door  that  shuts  and 
opens  like  a  trap-door. 

BASE,  rest,  support,  foundation: 
any  body  which  bears  another.  It  par- 
ticularly applies  to  the  lower  parts  of  a 
column,  or  pedestal. 

Base,  or  Basis,  in  fortification,  the 
exterior  part  or  side  of  a  polygon,  or 
rhat  imaginary  line  which  is  drawn  from 
the  flanked  angle  of  a  bastion  to  the 
angle  opposite  to  it. 

Base  signifies  also  the  level  line  on 
which  any  work  stands  that  is  even  with 
the  ground,  or  other  work  on  which  it 
is  erected.  Hence  the  base  of  a  parapet 
is  the  rampart. 

BASE-/i«e,  the  line  on  which  troops  in 
column  move.  The  first  division  that 
inarches  into  the  alignment  forms  the 
base-line,  which  each  successive  division 

Base-/jW  also  signifies  the  line  on 
which  all  the  magazines  and  means  of 
supply  of  an  army  are  established,  and 
from  which  the  lines  of  operation  pro- 

Hxst-ring.     See  Cannon. 

Base,  with  gunners,  the  smallest 
piece  of  ordnance,  4  feet  and  a  half 
long,  the  diameter  at  the  bore  1  inch  ] 
quarter;  it  weighs  203  pounds,  carries  a 
ball  1  inch  l-8th  diameter,  and 
live  or  six  ounces. 

BASIL,  with  joiners,  the  an»le  to 
which  the  edge  of  an  iron  tool  is  ground. 
To  work  on  soft  wood,  basils  are  usually 
made  twelve  degrees;  for  hard  wood, 
eighteen  degrees:  it  being  observed, 
that  the  more  acute  or  thin  t he  basil  is, 
the  better  and  smoother  it  cuts;  and 
the  more  obtuse,  the  stronger  and  fitter 
for  service. 

BASILISK,  an  ancient  name  given  to 
a  48  pounder.     See  Cannon. 

BASIS.     See  Base. 

BASKET-/,*//,  the  hilt  of  a  sword, 
so  made  as  to  contain  and  guard  the 
whole  hand. 


BASKETS,    in    military   affairs,   are 

simple  baskets,  frequently  used  in  sieges. 
They  are  filled  with  earth,  and  placed 
on  the  parapet  of  a  trench,  or  any  other 
part.  They  are  generally  about  a  foot 
and  a  half  in  diameter  at  the  top,  and 
eight  inches  at  the  bottom,  and  a.  foot 
and  a  half  in  height;  so  that,  being 
placed  on  the  parapet,  a  kind  of  embra- 
sure is  formed  at  the  bottom,  through 
n  Inch  the  soldiers  lire,  without  being  ex- 
posed to  the  shot  of  the  enemy.  See 

There  are  common  wicker  baskets, 
bushel  and  half-bushel,  used  in  the 
field  in  making  batteries,  &c.  besides 
the  gabion  appropriated  to  forming  part 
of  the  batteries,  by  being  filled  with 

BAS-OFFICIERS,  Fr.  non-commis- 
sioned ollicers,  i.  e.  Serjeants  and  cor- 
porals, are  so  called  in  the  French  ser- 
vice. With  us,  the  serjeants  and  lance 
Serjeants  only  are  so  called. 

BASON,  a  rcservatory  of  water,  as 
the  bason  of  a  jet  d'eau  or  fountain.  It 
is  also  applied  to  a  port  or  harbour,  as 
the  inner  or  outward  bason,  where  ships 
may  be  moored. 

BASSE,  Fr.  a  collar  for  cart-horses, 
made  of  rushes,  sedge,  straw,  &c. 

BASSIN,  Fr.  a  wet  dock. 

Bassin  de partage,  Fr.  that  spot,  in 
an  artificial  canal,  where  the  summit  of 
the  slope  is  on  a  level,  and  the  waters 
join  for  the  continuation  of  the  canal. 
Point  de  partage  is  the  point  where  the 
junction  is  formed. 

Bassin  d  chaux,  Fr.  a  lime-kiln,  or  a 
place  where  lime  is  slaked  and  inortail 

BASSINET,  Fr.  the  pan  of  a  musket. 

BASSO-RELIEVO  }  c     „ 

BASS-RELIEF,        S    te  ltELIEVO- 

BASSON  or  BASSOON,  a  wind  in- 
strument blown  with  a  reed,  performing 
the  base  to  all  martial  music,  one  or  two 
of  which  are  attached  to  each  regimental 

BASTILLE,  Fr.  any  place  fortified 
with  towers. 

Bastille,  a  state  prison  which  stood 
near  the  Temple  in  Parts,  and  was  de- 
stroyed by  the  inhabitants  of  that  capi- 
tal on  the  14th  of  July,  1789. 

BASTINADO,  a  punishment  among 
the  Turkish  soldiers,  which  is  performed 
by  beating  them  with  a  cane  or  the  flat 
side  of  a  sword  on  the  soles  of  their 
feet.  Among  the  French,  the  culprit  is 
tied  upon  a  bundle  of  straw,  aud   re- 


(  *i   ) 


ceives  a  prescribed  number   of  blows, '  either  on  the  capitals  prolonged  of  the 
either  upon    the  shoulders  or   upon  his    bastions  or  half-moons,  or  upon   their 

faces.     In  thickness  it  is  from  15  to  18 
feet,  that  it   may  be  able  to  withstand 


See  Fortification. 
BAT,  Fr.  a  pack-saddle. 
BAT- .Horses,   }  are    baggage     horses 
BAW-flicwses,  £  belonging  to   the  offi- 
cers when  on  actual  duty. 

H&T-Men,  j  were  originally  servants 
BAW-Mien,  i  hired  in  war  time,  to 
take  cure  of  the  horses  belonging  to  the 
train  of  artillery,  bakerv,  baggage,  &c. 
They  generally  wear  the  King's  livery 
during  their  service.     Men  who  are  ex- 

the  violence  of  the  enemy's  batteries. 
Its  height  depends  upon  the  depth  of 
the  ditch,  and  upon  the  elevation  of  the 
water  that  is  necessary  to  be  kept  up 
for  an  inundation;  but  the  top  of  the 
building  must  always  be  under  the  co- 
ver of  the  parapet  of  the  covert-way,  so 
as  not  to  be  exposed  to  the  enemy's 
view.  In  the  middle  of  its  length  is 
raised    a    massive     cylindrical     turret, 

cused   regimental  duty,  for  the  specific  j  whose  height  exceeds  the  batardeau  G 

purpose  of  attending  to  the  horses  be-   feet. 

longing  to  their  officers,  are  called  bat 

BATABLE,  that  may  be  disputed. 
This  term  was  applicable  to  the  contests 
which  once  existed  between  theBorderers 
of  England  and  Scotland. 

BATAGE,  BATTAGE,  Fr.  the  time 
employed  in  reducing  gunpowder  to  its 
proper  consistency.  The  French  usually 
consumed  '24  hours  in  pounding  the  mate- 
rials to  make  good  gunpowder;  supposing 
the  mortar  to  contain  16  pounds  of  com- 
position, it  would  require  the  application 
of  the  pestle  3500  times  each  hour.  The 
labour  required  in  this  process  is  less  in 
summer  than  in  winter,  because  the 
water  is  softer. 

BATAILLE,  Fr.  a  battle. 

Clicvul  de  BatatlI/E,  Fr.  a  war  horse, 
or  charger.  This  expression  is  used 
figuratively  as  a  sheet  anchor  or  last  re- 

Bataille  rangee,  Fr.  troops  drawn 
up  in  a  regular  line  for  action. 

BATAILLER,    Fr.    to    engage    one 

EATER,  Fr.  to  saddle  with  a  pack- 

BATESME  du  Tropique,  Fr.  a  chris- 
tening under  the  Line.  This  is  a  pro- 
phage and  ridiculous  ceremony  which 
every  person  is  obliged  to  go  through  the 
first  time  he  crosses  the  Line  on  his  pas- 
sage to  the  East  Indies.  Different  me- 
thods of  performing  it  are  observed  by 
different  nations.  Englishmen  frequently 
buy  themselves  off.  Among  the  French, 
the  individual  who  was  to  be  baptized 
or  christened,  swore  solemnly  by  the 
Evangelists,  that  he  would  individually 
assist  in  forcing  every  person  hereafter, 
who  should  be  similarly  situated,  to  go 
through  the  same  ceremony. 

Knights  of  the  BATH,  an  English 
military  order  of  uncertain  original. 
Some  writers  say  it  was  instituted  in  the 
Saxon  times;  some  will  have  it  to  have 
been  founded  by  Richard  II.  and  others 
by  Henry  IV.  nor  is  the  occasion  that 
eave  ri^e  to  the  order  better  known. 
Some  say  it  arose  from  the  custom  which 

another   partially,    or   by    detachments,   formerly   prevailed    of    bathing,    before 

without  coming  to  a  general  engage- 
ment;  to  struggle  hard. 

BATAILLON,  Fr.  battalion,  which 

Bataillox  quarrc,  Fr.  a  battalion 
which  is  drawn  up  in   such  a  manner, 

they  received  the  golden  spurs.  Others 
say  that  Henry  IV.  being  in  the  bath, 
was  told  by  a  knight,  that  two  widows 
were  come  to  demand  justice  of  him; 
when,  leaping  out  of  the  bath,  he  cried, 
"  It  was  his  duty  to  prefer  the  doing  of 

that  it  forms  a  perfect   square,  and    is  justice  to   his  subjects  to  the  pleasures 
equally  strong  on  the  four  sides.  |  of  the   bath;"  and   in    memory  of  this 

BATARDE,  French  8  pounders  are 
so  called.     They  are  used  in  action. 

BATARDEAU,  in  fortification,  is  a 
massive  perpendicular  pile  of  masonry, 

transaction  the  Knights  of  the  Bath 
were  created.  Camden  however  insists, 
that  this  was  only  the  restoration  of  the 
order,  which  was  in   that  prince's  reign 

whose  length  is  equal  to  the  breadth  of.|  almost  abolished:  but  however  that  may 
the  ditch,  inundation,  or  any  part  of  a  i  be,  the  order  was  revived  under  George 
fortification  where  the  water  cannot  be  I.  by  a  solemn  creation  of  a  considera- 
kept  in  without  the  raising  of  these  ble  number  of  knights.  They  wear  a 
sorts   of    works,    which    are   described  1  red    ribbond,  and   their  motto   is  Tria 



(     42     ) 


Juncta  in  uno,  alluding  to  the  three  car- 
dinal virtues  which  every  knight  ought 
to  possess. 

BATIMENT,  Fr.  any  thing  built  or 
raised  by  art;  regular  or  irregular;  also 
a  ship  or  vessel. 

BATON,  Fr.  a  staff. 

Baton  a  dtux  bouts,  Fr.  a  quarter- 

Baton  de  commandement,  Fr.  an  in- 
strument of  particular  distinction  which 
was  formerly  given  to  generals  to  the 
French  army.  Henry  III.  before  his 
ascension  to  the  throne,  was  made  gene- 
ralissimo of  all  the  armies  belonging  to 
his  brother  Charles  the  iXtl),  and  pub- 
licly received  the  Baton,  as  a  mark  of 
high  command. 

Baton  ferrat  tt  non  ferrat,  Fr.  all 
sorts  of  weapons. 

Obtenir  son  objet  pur  It  tour  du  Ba- 
ton, Fr.  to  accomplish  one's  ends  by 
equivocal  means. 

Eire  bien  assure,  de  son  Baton,  Fr.  to 
be  morally  certain  of  a  thing. 

Eire  ou  Baton  btanc,  Fr.  to 
be  reduced  to  one's  last  stake. 

Se  conduire  a  Batons  rompus,  Fr.  to 
do  any  thing  by  fits  and  starts,  to  be  un- 
decided in  one's  plans  of  attack,  &c. 

BATOON,  a  truncheon,  or  marshal's 

BATTA,  allowances  made  to  troops 
in  India. 

Dry-BATT a,  Ind.  money  which  is  given 
in  India  to  the  troops,  in  lieu  of  rations; 
or  batta  received  in  money,  to  distinguish 
it  from  wet-hatta  or  batta  received  in 
kind.  This  distinction  applies  only  to 
privates,  as  the  batta  to  officers  is  always 
paid  in  money. 

F«i/-Batta,  bid.  an  additional  al- 
lowance which  is  given  by  the  East  In- 
dia Company  to  their  troops. 

Haff'-BATTA,  Ind.  half  of  the  above 
allowance,  drawn  by  troops  in  garrison. 

Wet-BATTA,  Ind.  batta  given  in  kind. 

BATTAILOUS,  a  warlike  or  military 

BATTALIA.  Johnson  adopts  the 
word  from  Battaglia,  Ital.  and  calls  it 
the  main  body  of  an  army,  distin- 
guished from  its  wings.  We  are  of  opi- 
nion, that  it  farthe/  implies  an  army 
or  considerable  detachment  of  troops 
drawn  up  in  order  of  battle,  or  in  any 
other  proper  form  to  attack  the  enemy. 
See  Ba  itle. 

BATTALION  or  Batai.ion,  an  un- 
determined body  of  infantry  in  regard 

to  number,  generally  from  COO  to  1000 
men.  The  royal  regiment  of  artillery 
consists  of  10  battalions,  exclusive  of 
the  invalid  or  veteran  battalion.  Some- 
times regiments  consist  each  of  1  bat- 
talion only;  but  il  more  numerous,  are 
divided  into  several  battalions,  accord- 
ing to  their  strength;  so  that  every  one 
may  come  within  the  number  men- 
tioned. A  battalion  of  one  of  our 
marching  regiments  consists  of  1000 
and  sometimes  of  1200  men,  officers 
and  non-commissioned  included.  When 
there  are  companies  of  several  regiments 
in  a  garrison  to  form  a  battalion,  those 
of  the  eldest  regiment  post  themselves 
on  the  right*  those  of  the  second  on  the 
left,  and  so  on  till  the  youngest  fall  into 
the  center.  The  officers  take  their  posts 
before  their  companies,  from  the  right 
and  left,  according  to  seniority.  Each 
battalion  is  divided  into  4  divisions,  and 
each  division  into  two  subdivisions, which 
are  again  divided  into  sections.  The 
companies  of  grenadiers  being  unequal 
in  all  battalions,  their  post  must  be  re- 
gulated by  the  commanding  ollicer.  See 

Triangular  Battalion,  in  ancient 
military  history,  a  body  of  troops  rang- 
ed in  the  form  of  a  triangle,  in  which 
the  ranks  exceed  each  other  by  an  equal 
number  of  men.  If  the  first  rank  con- 
sists of  one  man  only,  and  the  difference 
between  the  ranks  is  only  one,  then  its 
form  is  that  of  an  equilateral  triangle; 
and  when  the  difference  between  the 
ranks  is  more  than  erne,  its  form  may 
then  be  an  isoscele,  having  two  sides 
equal,  or  scalene  triangle.  This  method 
is  now  laid  aside. 

BATTEN,  among  carpenters,  a  scant- 
ling of  wooden  stuff,  from  two  to  four 
inches  broad,  and  about  one  inch  thick. 

BATTER,  a  term  used  by  bricklayers, 
carpenters,  6iC.  to  signify  that  a  wall, 
piece  of  timber,  or  the  like,  does  not 
stand  upright,  but  leans  from  the  per- 
son looking  front-way  at- it.  When,  on 
the  contrary,  it  leans  towards  the  per- 
son, so  looking,  it  is  said  to  over-hang, 
or  hang-over. 

BAITER,  a  cannonade  of  heavy  ord- 
nance, from  the  1st  or  2d  parallel  of 
entrenchment,  against  any  fortress  or 

To  Batter  in  breach  implies  a  heavy 
cannonade  of  many  pieces  directed  to  one 
part  of  the  revetemeut  from  the  third 


(    43     ) 


BATTERIE  de  tambour,  a  French 
beat  of  the  drum  similar  to  the  General 
in  the  British  service. 

Batterie  en  roituge,  Fr.  a  battery 
used  to  dismount  the  enemy's  cannon. 

Batterie  par  camarade,  Fr.  the  dis- 
charge of  several  pieces  of  ordnance  to- 
gether, directed  at  one  object  or  place. 

Batterie  a  barbette,  Fr.  pieces  of 
ordnance  which  are  planted  above  a  pa- 
rapet that  is  not  sufficiently  high  to  ad- 
roit of  embrasures. 

Batterie  de  canons,  Fr.  This  term 
among  (he  French  signiries  not  only  the 
park  of  artillery,  or  the  place  where  the 
pieces  of  ordnance  are  planted,  but  also 
the  pieces  themselves. 

Batterie  directe,  Fr.  cannon  planted 
right  in  front  of  a  work,  or  of  a  body 
of  men,  and  which  can  play  directly 
upon  either. 

Batterie  d'enfilade,  Fr.  cannon  so 
planted  that  it  can  play  along  the  whole 
extent  of  a  line. 

Batterie  cnterrte,  Fr.  cannon  or 
ordnance  sunk  into  the  earth  in  such  a 
manner,  that  the  shot  can  graze  the 
whole  surface  of  the  ground  it  goes  over. 

Batterie  de  morlier,  Fr.  a  collection 
of  bombsor  shells, generally  formed  with- 
in the  circumference  of  a  wall. 

Batterie  d'obusier,  Fr.  a  battery 
formed  of  howitzers. 

Batterie  de  pierriers,  Fr.  a  battery 
consisting  of  machines,  from  which 
stones  may  be  thrown. 

Batterie  en  plein  champ,  Fr.  a  bat- 
tery consisting  of  cannon,  which  a/e 
planted  in  such  a  manner,  that  their  ob- 
ject of  attack  is  whollyunmasked.     , 

Batterie  en  reduns,  Fr.  cannon 
planted  in  such  a  manner,  that  the  se- 
veral pieces  form  a  species  of  saw,  and 
are  fired  from  alternate  intervals.  Can- 
non thus  ranged  may  be  said  to  stand 
pointed  in  echellon. 

BATTERING  implies  the  firing  with 
heavy  artillery  on  some  fortification  or 
strong  post  possessed  by  an  enemy,  in 
order  to  demolish  the  works. 

Batter i tic-p ieces  are  large  pieces  of 
cannon,  used  in  battering  a  fortified  town 
or  post. 

It  is  judged  by  all  nations,  that  no 
less  than  24  or  18  pounders  are  proper 
for  that  purpose.  Formerly  much  larger 
calibres  were  used,  but  as  they  were  so 
long  and  heavy,  and  very  troublesome 
to  transport  and  manage,  they  were  for 
a  long  time  rejected,  till  adopted  among 

the  French,  who,  during  the  late  war, 
have  brought  36  and  48  pounders  into 
the  field.  At  present  they  use  light 
pieces  in  the  field. 

BATTERiNO-TVam,  a  train  of  artil- 
lery used  solely  for  besieging  a  strong 
place,  inclusive  of  mortars  and  howit- 
zers: all  heavy  24,  18,  and  12  pounders, 
come  under  this  denomination;  as  like- 
wise the  13,  10,  and  8  inch  mortars  and 

Battering-How.  See  the  article 

BATTERY  implies  any  place  where 
cannon  or  mortars  are  mounted,  either 
to  attack  the  forces  of  the  enemy,  or  to 
batter  a  fortification:  hence  batteries 
have  various  names,  agreeable  ta  the 
purposes  they  are  designed  for. 

G^ti-Battery  is  a  defence  made  of 
earth  faced  with  green  sods  or  fascines, 
and   sometimes  made  of  gabions    filled 
with  earth:  it  consists  of  a  breust-zoork, 
parapet,  or  epaulement,  of  13  or  20  feet 
thick  at  top,  and  of  22  or  24  at  the 
foundation;  of  a  ditch  12  feet  broad  at 
the   bottom,  and   13  at  the  top,  and   7 
feet  deep.     They  must  be  7\  feet  high. 
The  embrasures  are  2  feet  wide  within, 
and   9   without,  sloping   a  little  down- 
wards,   to  depress   the  rnetal  on  occa- 
sion.    The  distance  from  the  center  of 
one  embrasure  to  that  of  the  other  is 
13  feet;  that   is,  the  guns  are  placed  at 
18  feet  distance  from  each  other ;  con- 
sequently   the    merlons  (or    the    solid 
earth    between     the     embrasures)    are 
16   feet    within,   and    7    without.     The 
gcnouilleres  (or    part    of    the    parapet 
which  covers  the  carriage  of  the  gun) 
are  generally  made  li\   feet  high  from 
the  platform  to  the  opening  of  the  em- 
brasures ;  though  this  height  owght  to 
be  regulated  according   to  the  semi-dia- 
meter  of  the  wheels  of  the  carriage,  or 
the  nature  of  the  gun.     The  platforms 
are  a  kind  of  wooden  floors,  made  to 
prevent  the  cannon    from  sinking  into 
the  ground,  and  to  render  the  working 
of  the  guns  more  easy;  and  are,  strictly 
speaking,  a  part  of  the  battery.     They 
are  composed  of  5  sleepers,  or  joists  of 
wood,  laid  lengthways,  the  whole  extent 
of  the  intended   platform  ;  and  to  keep 
them    firm  in   their  places,  stakes  must 
be  driven  into  the  ground  on  each  side; 
these  sleepers  are    then    covered    with 
sound  thick   planks,  laid  parallel  to   the 
parapet;  and  at  the  lower  end  of  the 
platform,  next  to  the  parapet,  a  piece 


(     44     ) 


of  timber  6  inches  square,  called  a 
Jiurter,  is  placed,  to  prevent  tbe  wheels 
from  damaging  the  parapet.  Platforms 
lire  generally  made  li!  t'tet  long,  15  feet 
broad  hehind,  and  9  before,  with  a  slope 
of  about  9  or  10  inches,  to  prevent  the 
guns  from  recoiling  too  much,  and  to 
bring  them  more  easily  forward  when 
loaded.  The  dimensions  of  the  plat- 
forms, sleepers,  planks,  hurters,  and 
nails,  ought  to  he  regulated  according 
to  the  nature  of  the  pieces  that,  are  to 
be  mounted. 

The  powder  magazines  to  serve  the 
batteries  ought  to  be  at  a  convenient 
distance  from  the  same,  as  also  from 
each  other;  the  large  one,  at  least  55 
feet  in  the  rear  of  4 he  battery,  and  the 
small  ones  about  25.  Sometimes  the 
large  magazines  are  made  either  to  the 
right  or  left  of  the  battery,  in  order  to 
deceive  the  enemy;  they  are  generally 
built  5  feet  under  ground;  the  sides  and 
roof  must  he  well  secured  with  boards, 
and  covered  with  earth,  clay,  or  some- 
tiling  of  a  similar  substance,  to  prevent 
the  powder  from  being  tired  :  they  are 
guarded  by  sentinels.  The  balls  are 
piled  in  readiness  beside  the  merlons, 
between  the  embrasures. 

Mortar-Bxn try.  These  kinds  of 
batteries  diner  from  gun-batteries,  only 
in  having  no  embrasures.  They  consist 
of  a  parapet  of   18   or   20  feet  thick 


;•  high  in  front,  and  6"   in  the  rear;  of 

a  berm  2'  or  8  feet  broad,  according  to 
the  quality  of  the  earth;  of  a  ditch  24 
I 'road  at  the  top,  and  20  at  the 
bottom.  The  beds  must  be  9  feet  long, 
(i  broad,  8  from  each  otiier,  and  5  feet 
from  the  parapet:  they  are  not  to  be 
sloping  like  the  gun-platforms,  but  ex- 
actly horizontal.  The  insides  of  these 
batteries  are  sometimes  sunk  2  or  3  feet 
into  the  ground,  by  which  they  are  much 
sooner  made  than  those  of  cannon.  The 
powder  magazines  and  piles  of  shells  are 
pi  iced  as  is  mentioned  in  the  article 

Ricoclict-B\TTZKY,  (Batterie  at  rico- 
chet, Fr.)  so  called  by  its  inventor  M. 
Vauban,  and  first  used  at  the  siege  of 
Aeth  in  1697.  It  is  a  method  of  dis- 
charging cannon  with  a  very  small  quan- 
tity of  powder.  The  elevation  is  so 
as  just  to  fire  over  the  parapet;  and 
then  the  shot  will  roll  along  the  oppo- 
site rampart,  dismounting  the  cannon, 
and  (hiving  or  destroying  the  troops. 
In  a  siege,  Ricochet  Batteries  are  gene- 

rally placed  at  about  300  feet  before 
the  first  parallel,  perpendicular  to  the 
faces  produced,  which  they  aie  to  enfi- 
lade. Ricochet  practice  is  not  outlined 
to  cannon  alone;  small  mortars  and 
howitzers  may  effectually  be  used  for 
the  same  purpose. — They  are  of  singu- 
lar use  in  action  to  enfilade  the  enemy's 
ranks;  for  when  the  men  perceive  the 
shells  roiling  and  bouncing  about  with 
their  fuzes  burning,  expecting  them  to 
burst  every  moment,  the  bravest  among 
them  will  hardly  have  courage  to  wait 
their  approach,  and  face  the  havoc  of 
their  explosion. 

Horizontal  Batteries,  (Batteriis 
horizontals,  Fr.)  are  such  as  have  only 
a  parapet  and  a  ditch ;  the  platform  being 
no  more  than  the  surface  of  the  horizon 
made  level. 

Ci-oss  Batteries  are  such  as  play 
athwart  each  other  against  the  same  ob- 
ject, forming  an  angle  at  the  point  of 
contact;  whence  greater  destruction  fol- 
lows, because  what  one  shut  shakes,  the 
other  beats  down. 

Oblique  Batteries,  or  Batteries  en 
echarpe,  on  par  bricole,  Fr.  are  those 
which  play  on  any  work  obliquely;  mak- 
ing an  obtuse  angle  with  the  line  of 
range,  after  striking  the  object. 

Enfilading  Batt  e  r  i  ES,(Butteries  tt en- 
filade, Fr.)  are  those  that  sweep  or  scour 
the  whole  length  of  a  straight  line,  or  the 
face  or  flank  of  any  work. 

Sweeping  Batteries.  See  Enfilad- 
ing Batteries. 

Redan  Batteries,  (Butteries  en  re- 
dans,  Fr.)  are  such  as  flank  each  other  at 
the  salient  and  rent  rant  angles  of  a  for- 

Direct  Batteries,  (Batteries  di- 
rectes,  Fr.)are  those  situated  opposite  to 
the  place  intended  to  be  battered,  so  that 
the  balls  strike  the  works  nearly  at  right 

Reverse  Batteries,  (Batteries  de  re- 
verSf  on  mcurtrilres,  Fr.)are  those  which 
play  on  the  rear  of  the  troops  appointed 
to  defend  the  place. 

G/arcc/ȣ-BATTERiES  are  such  whose 
shot  strike  the  object  at  an  angle  of 
about  20°,  after  which  the  ball  glances 
from  the  object,  and  recoils  to  some  ad- 
jacent parts. 

Joint  Batteries,  or  Comrade  Bat- 
teries, (Batteries  par  camarade,  Fr.) 
are  so  called  from  several  guns  firing  on 
the  same  object  at  the  same  time. — 
When  10  guns  are  fired  at  once,  their 


(     *5     ) 


*fifect  will  be  much  greater  than  when 
fired  separately. 

Swik  Batteries,  (batteries, 
Fr.)  are  those  whose  platforms  are 
sunk  beneath  the  level  of  the  field ;  the 
ground  serving  for  the  parapet ;  and  in 
it  the  embrasures  are  made.  This  often 
happens  in  mortar,  but  seldom  in  gun- 

Fascine  Batteries,  (batteries  a  fas- 
vines,  Fr.)  and  Gabion  Batteries,  are 
batteiies  made  of  those  machines,  where 
sods  are  scarce,  and  the  earth  very  loose 
or  sandy. 

HATTERY-planks  are  the  planks  or 
boards  used  in  making  platforms. 

BATTERY-foues  are  square  chests  or 
boxes,  filled  with  earth  or  dung;  used 
in  making  batteries,  where  gabions  and 
earth  are  not  to  be  had.  They  must  not 
be  too  large,  but  of  a  size  that  is  go- 

Battery-tkhYs  are  wooden  pins  made 
of  the  toughest  wood,  with  which  the 
planks  that  cover  the  platforms  are 
nailed.  Iron  nails  might  strike  fire 
against  the  iron-work  of  the  wheels,  in 
recoiling,  &c.  and  be  dangerous. 

BAJTERY-master,  the  person  whose 
duty  formerly  it  was  to  raise  the  bat- 
teries. This  office  is  now  suppressed  in 

BATTE\JRSd'estrade,Fr.  See  Scouts. 

BATTLE  implies  an  action  where 
the  forces  of  two  armies  are  engaged ; 
and  is  of  two  kinds,  general  and  parti- 
cular ;  general  where  the  whole  army  is 
engaged,  and  particular  where  only  a 
part  is  in  action ;  but  as  they  only  differ 
in  numbers,  the  methods  are  nearly  alike. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant Battles  and  Actions  that  have 
taken  place  in  all  parts  of  the  civilized 
Abraham  (St.)  Sept.  15,  1759. — Death 

of  General  Wolfe. 
Aculco,  (Mexico)  Nov.  7,  1810. 
Adige,  March  28,  1799. 
Aghrim,  July  22,  1691. 
Agincourt,  Oct.  25,  1415. — Won  by  the 

Agnaudell,  1599. 
Airolo,  1799. 

Albans,  (St.)  May  31,  1555;  1556. 
Albeck,  Oct.  1805. 
Alberes,  April  27  to  30,  1794. 
Albis  ltieden,  June  9,  1799. 
Albuhera,  May  16,  1811. 
Alcacar-quivir,  June  24,  1574. 
Aldenhoven,  Mar.  1, 1793;  Oct.  2. 1794. 

Aldudes,  June  3,  1794. 

Aleppo,  1517. 

Alessandria,  (Italy,)  May  17,  1799. 

Alexandria,  July  2,  1798;  March  12, 
1801;  March  21,  1801,  expulsion  of 
the  French  from  Egypt. 

Alkmaar,  Aug.  27  to  Nov.  30,  1799. 

Alii  Ghur,  Sept.  4,  1803. 

Almanza,  1707. — In  this  battle  the  Eng- 
lish were  entirely  defeated.  The 
English  army  was  commanded  by  a 
Frenchman,  and  that  which  conquered 
them  was  headed  by  an  Englishman. 

Almeida,  May  11,  1811. 

Altenkirken,  June  4,  1796  ;  Sept.  19, 

Altenheim,  July  16,  1675. 

Altorff,  Aug.  14,  1799;  Sept.  30,  1799. 

Amailhon,  July  1,  1793. 

Amberg,  Aug.  21,  1796\ 

Ampfingen,  Nov.  30,  1800. 

Ancenis,  Dec.  15,  1793. 

Andaye,  June  21,  1793. 

Anderlecht,  Nov.  15,  1792. 

Anghiari,  Jan.  15  and  16,  1797. 

Angouri,  1400. — Bajazet  I.,  at  the  head 
of  100,000men,was  defeated  and  taken 
prisoner  bj  Tamerlane  at  the  head  of 
800,000.  He  received  from  his  con- 
queror the  respect  due  to  his  rank. 
He  was  not  inclosed  in  an  iron  cage, 
nor  did  he  meet  with  a  cruel  death,  a» 
the  Greek  historians  assert. 

Antoine,  (Fauxbourg  St.)  July  5,  1652. 

Antraim,  Nov.  20,  1793. 

Aoste,  June  12,  1791. 

Appenwirh,  1796. 

Aran,  (Valley  of,)  1793. 

Arcis-sur-Aube,  1814. 

Arcoli,  November  15,  16  and  17,  1796. 
— Won  by  Bonaparte. 

Arlon,  1792,  1793;  April  17,  1796. 

x\rques,  September  21,  1589. 

Arroyo  del  Molino,  October  28,  1811. 

Arysch,  (El,)  1799. 

Aspe,  September  6,  1791. 

Ascalon,(Judaja,)  1192. — Richard,  King 
of  England,  defeats  Saladin's  army, 
consisting  of  300,000  fighting  men. 

Ashdown,  1016. — Between  Canute  and 

Aspeme,  August  21, 1809. 

Assaye,  Sept.  23,  1303. — Won  by  the 
British  in  India ;  on  which  occasion 
the  present  Duke  of  Wellington,  then 
Lieut.  Colonel  Wellesley  of  the  33d 
Foot,  greatly  distinguished  himself. 

Aumale,  1692. 

Aubin,  (St.)  1488. 

Aurav,  Sept.  29,  1364. 

B  A  T 

(     45  a     > 


Aoesoy,  1791. 

Austeilit/,  Dec.  2,  1805.— Tho  conquest 

(  t Germany  by  Bonaparte. 
A\cin,  loi'.O 
Ayvaille,  1794. 
Ay  moo/..  March,  1709. 
Baden,  July  1,  1796. 
Bagdad,  17:».'». 
BagBoty  October  25,  179:'.. 
Bagnouls-la-Maixo,  1793. 
Baltimore,  1781;  September 19j  1811. 
Bamberg,  August   1,  1796. 
Banbury,  July  26,  I4t.9. 
Bannor.kburn,  June  27,  1314. 
Bavckham,  October  7  to  9,  1608. 
Bardis,  April  5,  1798. 
Barnet,  April  11,    1471. 
Barrosa,  March  5,   1811. — Won  by  the 
British   under  General  Graham,  now 
Lord  Lynedock. 
Bartholomew,  (St.)  May  8,  1800. 
Bassano,   Sept.  8,   1796;     January  11, 

1801  ;  November  9,  1805. 
Bassignana,  May  19,  1799. 
Bastan,  (Valley  of  St.)  Julv  -2-1,  1794. 
Bautzen,  May  BO  to  81,  1313. 
Beylen,  July  80>  1608: 
Bayonne,  December  10  to  IS,  1313.— 

Won  by  the  Duke  ol'  Wellington. 
Beauge,  April  S,  1481. 
Beauheu,  September  20,  1793. 
B  .■amnont,  April  26,  1794. 
Beaupreau,  March  29, 1793. 
Beansejour,  1793. 
Belbeys,  March  31,  1800. 
Belluni,  March  13,  1797. 
Belonc,  July  5,  1796. 
Belvedere,  1793;  April  29,  1791. 
Belver,  June  26,  1794. 
Beneadi,  April  18,  1798. 
Bera,  1793;  July  24,  1791. 
Berchera,  December  2  to  1,  1793. 

I .ira,  November  28,  1794. 
Bergen,  April  13,  1759. 
!     •- tried,  February  3,  1807. 

gzabern,  October  3,  1793. 
iVresiiia,  November  28,  1812. 
Berne,  March  5,  1798. 
Bessai,  Julv  SO,  1793. 
Betentll,  March  18,  1791. 
Bezalu,  July  20,  1794. 
Bhurtporey  April  2,  1805. 
Bibemcb,  Oct.  2,  1796;  May  9,  1310- 
Bicoecpie.  1528. 
BiddasBoa,  August  17  and  October  9, 

Bilbao,  July  12  to  13,  1794. 
Binasco,  April  20  and  21,  1794. 
BingeVjVJarch  17,  1793;    March  27, 

Bjschofswerda,  September  22,  181*. 

Bitonto,  Mav  25,  1731. 

Blackhcath,  June  22,  1197. 

Illaekmere,  1323. 

Bladensburg,  August  21,    18]  1.— Ca]T- 

tur«  ot"  the  city  of  Washington. 
Blaregmes,  September  II.  170!>. 
Hlasclieidt,  November  20,  179-1. 
Bleneau,  April  7,  1652. 
Blenheim,  August  18,  1701.— Won  by 

the  Duke  of  Marlborough. 
r.l.nehearli,  September  24,  1439. 
Hoi-ghetto,  May  30,  1796. 
BorislofT,  J une' 25,  1708. 
Bormio,  March  26,  1799. 
Borodino,     September   7,    1812. — Th« 

capture  ol'  Moscow  bv  the  Trench. 
BoKO,  October  21,  1799. 
Bosworth,  August  21,1 185. 
Bothwell  Bridge,  June  22,  1679. 
Boulon,  August  IS,  17  91. 
Bonvines,  July  27,  121  1. 
Bouxweiller,  November  18  to  20,  1793. 
Boitel,  September  14  and  15,  1794. 
Boyne,  July  11,  1690. 
Braunsberg,  February  26,  1807. 
Brandy-wine  Creek,  September  12, 1777. 
Breeds-hill,  1775. 
Brcnta,  (Defiles  of  the,)  September  Tt 

1796;    November  3  and  3,  1796. 
Breslaw,  November  31,  1757. 
Bressuire,  August  24,  1792. 
Brienne,  January  29,  1814. 
Briga,  April  21,"  1794. 
Brignais,  1361. 
Brooklynn,  August  22,  1776. 
Brouzil,  1793. 

Bruschali,  September  4  to  15,  1796. 
Brzecie,  September  19,  1794. 
Butl'arola,  June  23,  1636. 
Bunker's-hill,near  Boston,June  17,1775. 

— Won  by  tlie  Americans. 
Burg-eberac.l),  Xov.  3  and  4,  1800. 
Burguet,  October  16, 1794. 
Bussingen,  October  7,  1799. 
Butzbach,  July  9,  1796. 
Buzaco,  September  27,  1810. 
Byn-el-barr,  April  2,  1798. 
Cadibona,  April  5,  1800. 
Cairo,  I  Egypt>)  April  19  to  27,  1800. 
Cairo,  (Italy,)  September  20,  1794. 
Calcinato,  April  19,  1706. 
Galdero,  December  12,  1796. 
Calderon,  (bridge  of,;  January  17,  1811. 

Calvi,  December  6,  1796, 
Campo  Santo,  1743. 
Cana,  June  10,  1798. 
Camden,  March  25,  1781. 

Caatalopo,  December  li,  1796. 


(    45  6    ) 


Carpenedolo,  January  26,  1796. 

Carpi,  1701.  * 

Cars,  June  17,  1744. 

.Casasola,  March  19,  1797. 

Cassano,  1705 ;  April  25,  1799. 

Cassovie,  1389. 

Cast,  September  4  to  10,  1758. 

Castel-franco,  November  23,  1503. 

Castel-genest,  November  24,  1793. 

Castellamare,  1617;  April  27,  1799. 

Castella,  May  12,  1812. 

Castellaro,  Sept.  12,  1796. 

Castelnaudari,  1632. 

Castel-novo,  November  21,  1796. 

Castel-novo,  (Dalmatia,)  September  30, 
and  October  10,  1806. 

Castiglione,  June  29,  1796. 

Castrel,  (Mount,)  April  30,  1794. 

Cateau-Cambresis,  April  7,  1794. 

Ce,  (bridge  of,)  April  26  and  28,  1792. 

Cerea,  September  11,  1798. 

Ceret,  May  4,  1794. 

Cerignolles,  April  28,  1503. 

Cerise,  September  1,  1794. 

Cerisolles,  April  15,  1544. 

Ceva,  April  26,  1796. 

Cezio,  May  7,  1800. 

Chabotiere,  March  23,  1796. 

Champagne,  (Campaign  of,)  August  22 
to  October  25,  1792. — The  Prussian 
army,  dreadfully  afdicted  with  the 
dysentery,  in  consequence  of  the  sol- 
diers eating  unripe  grapes,  forced  to 
abandon  the  coalition. 

Chantonnay,  September,  1793. 

Chateignerave,  1793. 

Chatillon,  (Savoy,)  May  18, 1800. 

Chatillon,  (France,)  Julv  8  to  October  6, 

Chebreisse,  July  13,  1793. 

Chemille,  February  24, 1796. 

Chiari,  1801. 

Chili,  (India,)  1803. 

Chiusa,  August  5,  1796;  January  2, 

Chiusella,  April  25,  1800. 

Choczim,  November  11,  1673. 

Chollet,  March  15,  1793;  October  15, 
1794 ;  February,  1794. 

Chotzemitz,  July  18,  1745. 

Circeo,  July  29,"  August  2  to  9,  1798. 

Cistella,  May  5  and  6,  1795. 

Ciudad  Rodrigo,  January  19,  1812. — 
Won  by  the  British  under  the  Duke  of 

Civita-Castellana,  December  4,  1798. 

Clausen,  1797. 

Closter-camp,  October  16,  1760. 

Cocherel,  1364. 

Coefeld,  August  1,  1759. 

Col-du-mont,  Apr.  17  and  May  12,  1795- 
Colonibino,  January,  1794. 
Commines,  1382. 
Consarbruck,  November  9  to  December 

SO,  1792. 
Constance,  October  7,  1799. 
Coimbra,  October  7,  1810. 
Coptos,  March  8,  1798. 
Coraiin,  March  23,  1800. 
Coron,  September  17,  1793. 
Corbach,  June  24,  1760. 
Cornells,  August  26,    1811.' — Total  de- 
feat of  the  Dutch ;  the  general  and  a 

few  followers  being  all  that  escaped  of 

10,000  men. — The  conquest  of  Java 

by  the  English. 
Corsica,  1769;  1793;  October,  1796. — 

Taken  by  the  British,  who  expelled  the 

Corunna,  January  16,   1309.- — Won  by 

the  British  under  Sir  John  Moore,  who 

was  killed. 
Cosdorif,  February  20,  1760. 
Cossaria,  April  13,  1796. 
Costheim,  September,  1795. 
Courtrai,   1302;    June  17  to  30,  1792; 

May  10,  1794. 
Coutras,  October  20,  1537. 
Cracovie,  1702. 
Cressy,  August  26,  1346.— Won  by  th« 

Crevelt,  June  23, 1758. 
Crevent,  June,  1423. 
Croix-des-bouquets,  June  23,  1793. 
Croix-de-Mortimer,  146 1 . 
Culloden,  April  27,  1746. 
Culm,  August,  September,  1813. 
CunnersdorfT,  August  12,  1759. 
Cyr,  (St.)  September,  1795. 
Czarnowo,  December  22, 1806. 
Czaslawau,  May  17, 1742. 
Dalem,  1568. 
Dego,  April  15,  1796. 
Delhi,  September  9,  1803. 
Delmesingen,  May  22, 1800. 
Demenhour,  May  8,  1799. 
Denain,  1712. 
Denis,  (St.)  1567. 
Dennewitz,  September  6,  1813, 
Deppen,    February  5,    1807 ;     June  C, 

Dettingen,  June  26,  1743. — George  the 

Second  commanded  in  person. 
Deux-ponts,  September  22, 1793. 
Deva,  June  28,  1795. 
DierdorrY,  April  17, 1797. 
Diernstein,  Nov.  14, 1305. 
Diersheim,  April  20  to  25, 1797. 
Diettickon,  September  22  to  26, 1799, 
Dobeln,  May  12,  1762. 

B  A  T 

(     45c     ) 


Dominco,  (St.)  1.502,  1700. 

Dresden,  August  27  and  28,  1813.— 
Moreau  mortally  wounded. 

Dreux,  December  IP,  1562. 

Dumblain,  November  12, 1715. 

Dona,  1701. 

Dunbar,  September  3,  1650. 

Dunes,  1638. 

Dunkirk,  September  7,  1793. 

Durham,  October  17,  1346.— David, 
king  of  Scots,  taken  prisoner. 

Dusseldorff,  September  8,  1795. 

Fckeren,  June  30,  1703 —Gen.  Obdam 
commanding  the  allies,  ran  oil'  at  t'ull 
speed,  declaring  all  lost;  but  General 
Slangenbourg  remained  with  the  troops 
and  made  a  skilful  retreat. 

Edgehill,  October  23,  1642. —Lost  by 
Charles  I.  and  won  by  Oliver  Crom- 

Einbeck,  August  24,  1761. 

Eltz,  October  19, 1796. 

EmsdorfF,  July  9,  1760.— Won  by  the 
allied  army  commanded  by  Prince 
Ferdinand,  when  the  Fifteenth  Ligbt 
Dragonnslnst  distinguished  themselves 
under  Lord  Heathfield,  then  Lt.  Col. 

Engadines,  (Affairs  in  the,)  March,  1799. 

Engen,  May  3,  1800. 

Ens,  1800.* 

Ensheim,  October  4,  1674. 

Erbach,  October  18, 1800, 

Eri  van,  1805. 

Ernani,  1794. 

Escaulas,  Xm  ember  20, 1794. 

Eslingen,  July  81,  1796. 

Essling,  May  32,  1809. 

Etlingen,  July  9,  1796. 

Evesham,  August  4,  1265. 

Exiles,  July  19,  1747. 

Eylau,  February  8,  1807. 

Faenza,  February  S,  1797. 

Faioum,  October  8,  1796. 

Falkirk,  July  21,  1298;  Jan.  28,  1746. 

Famars,  Mav  l  to  26,  1798. 

Favorite,  (J. a,)  January  14, 1797. 

Fehrbellin,  June  18, 1675. 

Feldkirk,  March  5  to  23,  1799;  Julv  15, 

Femeuil,  August  27, 1424. 

Feiruekabad,(E.I.)  November  17, 1804. 

Figuiero,  November  27,  179  I. 

Fleurus,  August  ;'.0,  1622;  July  1,  1696; 
Ma}  21  and  June  26, 1794. 

Flines,  1792. 

Flodden,Sept.  9, 1513.— James  IV.  king 
of  Scots,  killed. 

Florent,  (St.)  March  10,  1793. 

Fluvia,  June  15,  1795. 

Fombio,  May  9,  1796. 

Fontaine-francaise,  1595. 

Fontarabia,  August  1,  1794, 

Fontenai,  (Vendee,)  May  16  and  24, 

Fontenoi,  May  11,  1745. — Won  by  the 
French  under  Marshal  Saxe,  after  the 
British  had  been  masters  of  the  field 
all  day.  They  were  commanded  by 
the  fat  Duke  of  Cumberland. 

Fontoi,  August  19,  1792. 

Forham,  July  21,  1739. 

Formigni,  April  15,  1450. 

Formosa,  1662. 

Fornoue,  1494. 

Fossano,  April  23,  1796. 

Fougores,  November  2,  1793. 

Frankfort-on-the-Maine,  December  2, 
1792;  October  5,  1799. 

Frankfort-on-the-Oder,  August  12,  1759. 

Frankenthal,  June  24,  1796. 

Fraucnfeld,  May  22,  1799. 

Fravenstal,  1706. 

Freibach,  July  2  to  14,  1794. 

Frelignt,  September  13,  1794. 

Freschweiller,  December  22,  1792. 

Frendenstadt,  July  4,  1796. 

Freyberg,  October  10  and  29,  1762. 

Fribourg,August3, 1644  ;  March  1, 1798. 

Fridlingen,  1702. 

1'riedbera,  August  30, 1762  ;  August  24, 

Friedberg,  (Silesia,)  June  3,  1747. 

Friedland,  June  14, 1807.— Won  by  Bo^ 
naparte  against  the  Prussians. 

Fuente  de  Honor,  May  5,  1811. 

Fulda,  July  28,  1762. 

Fulgent,  September  23,  1793. 

Gabesbusch,  1712. 

Garigliano,  1502. 

Garrezio,  November  29,  1791. 

Gavignana,  1530. 

Gaza,  February  26,  1799. 

Gehemi,  April  11,  1799. 

Geisberg,  December  6,  1793. 

Geisenfeld,  September  1,  179C. 

Gemblours,  1518. 

Gemmingen,  1568. 

Genola,  November  3  and  4,  1799. 

George,  (St.)  September  14, 1796. 

George,  (St.)  Fort,  E.I.  1760. 

German-town,  October  14,  1777. 

Gilletto,  October  17  and  18,  1793. 

Giorgewo,  June  2  to  8,  1790. 

Giovanni,  (St.)  June  17  to  20,  1799. 

Gleisclv.veilhr,  July  29,  1793. 

Gliswelle,  June  13,  1792. 

Goar,  (St.)  1758. 

Godart,  (St.)  1661. 

Golden  Kock,(Tritchinopolv,)  1753.— A 


(     45  d    ) 


handful  of  British  and  Sepoys  defeats 
a  French  battalion  and  10,000  Mah- 
ratta  horse. 

Golymin,  December,  1806. 

Gonawes,  February  22,  1802. 

Gondelour,  1759. 

Gorcum,  January  21,  1795. 

Gorde,  September  16,  1813. 

Gorlitz,  1745. 

Gothard,  (St.)  September  17,  1799. 

Governo,  1526. 

Governolo,  1796 ;  September  18,  1797. 

Grabensteyn,  June  4,  1760. 

Granchamp,  June,  1795. 

Grandpre,  September  10,  1792. 

Granson,  1475. 

Grant,  1685. 

Granville,  November  14,  1793. 

Gravelle,  1793,  to  January  24,  1794. 

Grebenstein,  June  24,  1762. 

Greussen,  October  16,  1806. 

Grisen,  April  25,  1799. 

Grimsel,  August  14,  1799. 

Grodno,  1708. 

Gros  Jegemdorff,  August  30,  1757. 

Grosberen,  August  22  and  23,  1813. 

Grunnewald,  October  22,  1793. 

Grunsberg,  March  2,  1761. 

Guastalla,  1734 ;  March  24,  1746.     . 

Guechenen,  August  15,  1799. 

Guilford  Court  House,  (America,)  March 
15,  1781. 

Guinegatte,  1479. 

Gumine,  March  5,  1798. 

Gundelfingen,  August  8,  1793. 

Guntzbourg,  October  9,  1805. 

Gurau,  1705. 

Guttstadt,  June  9,  1807. 

Haag,  October  15,  1806. 

Haguenau,  1706 ;  December  22,  1793. 

Halberstadt,  1760. 

Halidon-Hill,  July  29,  1333. 

Halle,  October  17,  1806. 

Hamptienne,  June  23,  1793. 

Hanau,  October,  1813. 

Haslach,  July  14,  1796. 

Hastenbeck,  July  26,  1757. 

Hastings,  Oct.  14,  1066. — King  Harold 
slain,  and  the  race  of  English  kings 
destroyed  by  William  the  Bastard, 
commonly  called  William  the  Con- 

Heilsberg,  June  12,  1807. 

Helder,  August  27,  1799. 

Heliserke,  1368. 

Heliopolis,  March  19,  1800. 

Helsinborg,  1709. 

Henef,  September  13,  1795. 

HennersdortY,  November  24,  1745. 
Herrings,  February  12, 1429. 

Hersan,  1687. 

Herxheim,  June  17,  1793. 

Hexham,  May  15,  1464. 

Hocheim,  Dec.  14, 1792,  to  Jan.  6,  lf93* 

Ilochkirken,  October  14,  1758.  *«* 

Hochstedt,  August  13,  1703;  August  13, 
1704:  January  19,  1800. 

Hoff,  February  7,  1307. 

Hohenlinden,  December  3,  1800;  won 
by  the  French  under  General  Moreno 
against  the  Austrians. 

Hohenwil,  April  25  to  May  1,  1800. 

Hollabrnnn,  Dec.  15,  1805. 

Hollofin,  July  14,  1708. 

Hondscoote,  Sept.  7,  8,  9,  1793;  won 
by  the  French  over  the  British,  after 
the  unsuccessful  attempt  to  enter  Dun* 

Hooglede,  June  10  and  15,  1794. 

Hoterage,  July  19,  1572. 

Hundsmark,  April  4  to  15,  179G. 

Ichenhausen,  June,  1800. 

Iller,  May  28. to  June  5,  1800. 

Ingelmunster,  May  10,  1794. 

Inn,  Dec.  5  to  14,  1800;  1805. 

Inspruck,  1797;  1305. 

Intrapa,  Nov.  25  to  27,  1795. 

Iratie,  May  11,  1794. 

Irmeaca,  April  26,  1794. 

Irun,  July  23,  1793. 

Isola,  July  1  to  7,  1806. 

lvry,  March  14,  1590. 

Janvilliers,  Feb.  14,  1814. 

Jarnac,  March  13,  1569. 

Jean,  (St.)  April  16,  1796. 

Jean-de-Luz,  Feb.  5,  1794. 

Jean-pie-de-port,  (St.)  June  6,  1793. 

Jemmapes,  Nov.  6,  1792. — Won  by  the 
French  army  under  the  command  of 
General  Dumourier  against  the  Aus- 
trians, headed  by  Prince  Saxe  Teschen, 
Governor  of  the  Low  Countries.  The 
consequence  of  this  battle  was  the 
subsequent  irruption  of  the  French 
into  Flanders  and  Holland  ;  and  even- 
tually, the  cause  of  that  military  en- 
thusiasm, by  which  France  was  ena- 
bled to  over-run  all  civilized  Europe  ; 
Great  Britain  excepted. 

Jena,  Oct.  14,  1806. — The  conquest  of 
Prussia,  by  Bonaparte. 

Jersey,  Jan.  6,  1781. 

Joannesberg,  Aug.  30,  1762. 

Jagerthall,  March  8,  1774. 

Josseau,  Oct.  11,  1745. 

Josselin,  (the  Thirty,)  1351. 

Juliano,  May  11  to  29,  1799. 

Juterboch,  Aug.  1813. 

Kagoul,  July  18,  1770. 

Ka'lisk,  1706. 

B  A  T 

(     45  C    ) 

B  A  T 

Kamlacli,  August  13,  1706. 
Karmidtjea,  Dec.  28,  1806. 
Katzbach,  Augasl  96,  1813. 
Kayserlaoteni,  Nov.  98  and  29,  1793; 

Oct.  06,  1796. 
K.iM-riluil,  Un  14,  1790. 
Kill),  (passage  of  the  Rhine,)  June  24, 

L796;  SepL  15,  1790;  Nov.  22,  1796; 

.l:m.  94,  1797. 
Kent',  Feb.  12,  1799. 
Kesselsdorff,  Dec.  15,  1745. 
l\n  m:il,  17.".;;,  1789. 
Kingston,  Noveoibe»2,  1449. — Between 

Charles    I.    and    the    Parliamentary 

Kint/ig,  (on  the,)  Aug.  18  to  15,  1793. 
Kirkdenckcrn.  Julv  IS,  17  'i  1 . 
Kinveiller,  April  23,  1794. 
Kitzinge*,  August,  1794. 
Klotten,  July  9f,  1796. 
Kffinigeberg,  lane  46,  1867. 
Kolin,  June  18,  1757. 
Korsoum,  March  15,  1799. 
Krasnoij  Nov.  id,  i«i?. 
Krattan,  (Java,)  battle  and  a^saulr  of  the 

palace  of  the  Sultan  Djojeoaita,  June 

21,  1818. 
Krupezize,  L794. 
kutVestain,  (Fort,)  Nov.  1896. 
Kursomb,  Dec  24,  180G. 
Labositz,  Oct.  I,  175G. 
Laffeld,  July  20,  1747. 
Lambach,  Oct.  27,  1806. 
Lambert,  (St.)  Sept.  19,  1765; 
Landsbut,  June  23  to  July  23,  1700. 
Langensalza,  Feb.  12,  17<>0. 
Lango-nogro,  August,  1806. 
Laogueaau,  Oct.  10,  1805'. 
Ixuuioi,  Sept.  ...  1798;  August  2ft,  1793; 

.May  18,  1791. 
Lansdown,  July  5,  1646. 
Lantesee,  Mav  i.  179  i. 
Laon,  March  9,  !0,  181  I. 
Laufeld,  July  2,  17  47  ;  Sept.  19,  1791 

July  P, 

Liege,  Nov.  1792;  July  27,   1794,  won 

by  the  French  under Dnmouriep. 
Lignitz,  1241  ;  August  15,  1760, 

Limburg,  Nov.  9,  1792;  1795; 

Lincelles,  August  18,  1793. 

Lincoln,  May  19,  1217. 

Lissa,  Nov.  5,  1757. 

Loano,  Nov.  23,  1795. 

Lobbes,  May  24,  1794. 

Lodi,  May  11,  1790.— Tlie  bridge  of 
Lodi  was  crossed  by  Bonaparte  and 
Augereau,  under  a  heavy  lire  from  the 
Austrian  batteries;  Bonaparte  heading 
the  Grenadiers  with  a  standard  in  bis 

Lodron,  July  13,  1790. 

Loniitten,  1807. 

Long  Island,  August  27,  1770. 

Longwy,  Oct.  22,  1792. 

Lopaczim,  Dec.  25,  130G. 

Loubi,  April  11,  1799. 

Louesch,  May  31,  1799. 

Louisbourg,  July  27,  1758. 

I.onvain,  April  22,  1793;  July  15,  1794. 

Lowers,  Dec.  5, 1806; 

Lowosita,  Oct.  l,  1750. 

Lubcck,Oct.  31,  1S06. — Capitulation  of 
Marshal  Blucher,  the  Duke  of  Saxe- 
Weiinar,  and  Duke  of  Brunswick Oels. 
'  Lucerne,  1 158. 
!  Lucia,  (Santa,)  March  30,  1799. 

Lugon,  June  23,  1793;  Oct.  13,  1793. 

Lugo,  July  9,  1790. 

Lutzelberg,  1 758. 

Lutzen,  1032;  1813. 

Luxembourg,  June  12,  1795. 

Luzara,  1702. 

Machecoult,  Mar.  14,  1793;  Dec.  1798. 

Maczim,  July  13,  1791. 

Madelaine,  Sept.  20,  1798. 

Madrid,  August  4,  1812. 

Magnan,  March  30  to  April  7,  1799. 

Maida,  July  0,  180G. 

Laurent-de-la-Mouga,     May    0,     1794 ■;,  Mairnbourg,  Sept.  7,  1790. 

H©V,  17,  1701 
Lauria,  August,  1806. 
I  .nun  rbourg,  ( let.  f  l  to  28,  1798. 
Lavis,  (River,)  1790;   March  20,  1797. 
Lax,  April  1,  1700. 
Lech,  June   11,    1800;    Oct.  0  and' 7, 

Leipsic,  1G31;  Oct.  16  and  19,  1813.— 

Jn  the  last  great  battle,  the  King  of 

Saxony    and    his    Court    were    undo 

Lesnow,  Oct.  7,  17o;;. 
Leswaree,  Nov.  1,  1803. 
Leuze,  Sept.  18,  1091. 
Lewes,  May  14,  1264. 
Lexington,  1775. 

Malines,  July  13,  1794. 

Malo-Yaraslovetz,  Oct.  24,  1812. 

Malplaquet,  Sept.  11,  1709. 

Manoss,  April  22,  1799. 

Mans,  Dec.  10,  1793. 

Mantua,  May  29,  1796. 

Marco,  (San,)  Jan.  1,  1801. 

Marengo,  June  15,  1800. — The  conquest 
of  great  part  of  Italy;  won  by  Bona- 
parte in  person  against  the  Austrian 
army.  General  Desaix,  who  largely 
contributed  by  breaking  the  line,  was 
killed  on  this  occasion. 

Mai  pee,  1641. 

Maricndal,  1645. 

Maiicnvverder,  1G29- 


(     45/    ) 


Marienzel,  Nov.  7,  1805. 
Marignan,  Sept.  13  and  14,  1515. 
Marquain,  April  25,  1792. 
Marsaille,  1693. 
Marston-Moor,  July  2,  1644. 
Martinique,  1762;  April  16,  1780 
Matchewitz,  Oct.  14,  1794. 
Maulde,  1792. 
Maurice,  Oct.  4,  1793. 
Maxem,  1759. 
Medellin,  Mar.  2S,  1809. 
Meer,  August  5,  1758. 
Memel,  July  3,  1757. 
Memmingen,  May  10,  1800. 
Messina,  1282. 
Mexico,  1519. 
Michel,  (St.)  June  13,  1797. 
Micoui,  1798. 

Millesitno,  April  14,  1796;  won  by  Bo- 
Minden,  August  1,  1759;  won  by  the 

Mitquamar,  Sept.  28,  1798. 

Mittau,  1705. 

Moescroen,  April  29,  1794. 

Moeskirck,  May  5,  1800. 

JUohatz,  1526;"  1687. 

Mohilow,  July,  1812. 

Mohrungen,  Jan.  25,  1807. 

Mohvitz,  April  10,  1741. 

Mondovi,  April  5,  1796. 
Monmouth,  March  11,  May  11,  1403. — 
Defeat  of  the  Welsh. 

Monmouth  Court-house,(America,)  June 
28,  1778. 

Mons-en-pue!Ie,  1304. 

Mtnitabaur,  April  19,  1797. 

Montaigu,  1793. 

Monte-Coccaza,  August,  1806. 

Montcontour,  1559. 

Moutebaldo,  1796;  Jan.  13,  1797. 

Montebello,  June  12,  1800. 

Monte  di  Savaro,  March  2,  1797. 

Monte-inurio,  August  1,  1538. 

Montenotte,  April  9,  10,11,  1796. 




first  memorable    battle 
fought  by  Bonaparte. 
Montesimo,  1745. 
Mont-Genevre,  August  27,  1793. 
Montiel,  March  14,  1363. 
Montlhery,  1465. 

Montmartre,  Romainvilleand  Belleville, 
(heights  before  Paris,)  Mar.  30,  1814 
— Occupation  of  Paris  by  the  Allies 
— Restoration  of  Louis  XVIII. 
Monzanbano,  Dec.  26,  1800. 
Mooch,  April  14,  1574. 
Moore-Cross-Crick,  1776. 
Morgarten,  1499. 
Mortajme,  1793. 

Moskowa,  1812,  called  by  the  Russians 
The  Bloody  Battle  of  Borodino. — 
Marshal  Ney  distinguished  himself 
greatly  in  this  battle,  and  thence  took 
his  title. 

Mouveau,  July  10,  1793. 

Moxon,  Nov.  20  and  21,  1759. 

Mulberg,  1547. 

Mulhausen,  1674. 

Mulheim,  1505. 

Munden,  Oct.  29,  1762. 

Muradal,  1210. 

Muret,  1213. 

Muttenthal,  Oct.  1799. 

Nageara,  1368. 

Namslaw,  1745. 

Nanci,  1477. 

Nantes,  June  24  to  27,  1793. 

Narrew,  Feb.  15,  1807. 

Narva,  Nov.  30,  1700. 

Naseby,  June  25,  1645.— The  downfall 
of  the  monarchy  under  Charles  the. 
First,  and  the  erection  of  the  common- 
wealth under  Oliver  Cromwell. 

Navarete,  April  3, 1367. — Henry  the  Bas- 
tard totally  defeated  by  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  and  Don  Pedro  replaced  or 
the  throne  of  Castile. 

Nazielsk,  Dec.  30,  1806. 

Negrepelisse,  1622. 

Nerac,  July  7,  1621. 

Neresheim,  1796. 

Nerwinden,  July  29,  1693;  March  18 
and  19,  1793. — Won  by  the  Austrians 
under  the  command  of  Prince  Co- 
bourg,  father  to  the  British  Saxe  Co- 
bourg.  In  consequence  of  tins  battle, 
the  French,  under  Generals  Dumou- 
rier  and  Miranda,  were  obliged  to 
evacuate  Holland  and  the  Low  Coun- 
tries, and  Paris  itself  was  threatened 
by  the  combined  armies  under  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick. 

Neubourg,  June  26,  1800. 

Neuhoff,  April  23,  1797. 

Neumark,  (Carniola,)  April  2,  1797. 

Neumulli,  June  24,  1796. 

Neuwied,  1794;  Sept.  8,  1796;  Oct.  23, 

1796;  April,  1797. 
Neuwiller,  Nov.  18,  1794. 
Newbury,   Oct.  27,  1644;   remarkable 
for  the  obstinate  courage  which  was 
displayed  by  the  London  militia,  every 
man  of  which,  according  to  the  late 
Earl  of  Liverpool,  was  found  dead  in 
the  ranks.    See  his  Pamphlet  respect- 
ing the  Militia. 
Newport,  Sluys,  and  Ipres,  October  19", 

1793.  ' 

Niagara,  (Fort,)  1756. 
Niagara,  July  25,  1314. 

B  A  T 

(     45g     ) 


.Nicea,  1333. 

Nicobar,  1227. 

Nicopolis,  (Danube,)  1393. 

Nicopolis,  (Epirus,)  1799. 

Nidel-Ingelheim,  Sept.  15,  1795. 

Niderbach,  May  25, 1796. 

Nieve,  Dec  9, 10, 11, 12  and  13, 1313. 

Nieuport,  July  2,  1(300;  July  8,  1794.— 
Inundated  round  and  man f ally  de- 
fended by  a  small  body  of  British 
against  the  French  army  commanded 
by  General  Pichegru,  in  1794. 

Ninety-six,  June  19,  1781. 

Nisbet,  May  7,  1402. — Between  tbe 
English  and  the  Scots,  when  10,000 
of  the  latter  were  slain. 

Noirmoutiers,  Jan.  5,  1794. 

Nordlingen,  Sept.  6,  1634 ;  August  3, 

Northallerton,  1138. 

Northampton,  July  19,  1460. 

Novi,  1745;  August  16,  1799;  Jan.  8, 

Nuremberg,  Dec.  15,  1800. 

Oberflesheim,  March  30,  1793. 

Obrique,  1139. 

Ockzakow,  Dec.  6,  1788. 

Offembourg,  1796. 

Oldensee,  1605. 

Omulef,  May  13,  1805. 

Oporto,  May   12,   1809.— Won  by  the 

Ost-Capelle,  July  7,  1793. 
Orchies,  July  13  to  14,  1792. 
Ormea,  April  16,  1794. 
Orthes,Feb.  €7, 1814. 
Oss,  July  16, 1796. 
Ostend,  April  19,  1798. 
Ostreiram,  1762. 
Otricoli,  Jan.  5,  1799. 
Otterburn,    July    31,    1388. — Between 

Hotspur  and  Earl  Douglas. 
Oudenarde,  July  7,  1708. 
Pampeluna,  July  9,  1795. 
Parma,  June  29,  1734;  July  12,  1799. 

— The  French  under  Gen.  Macdonald 

defeated  by  Suwarrow. 
Partha,  Oct.  15,  1813. 
Passaw,  1703. 

Patay,  June  10, 1429,  under  Joan  of  Arc. 
Paviii,  1525. 
Peila,  August  16, 1762. 
Peiiestortes,  Sept.  18,  1793. 
Periapatam,  (E.I.)  March  4,  1799. 
Peschiera,  July  19, 1796. 
Peterwaradin,  August  4,  1710. 
Pfaffenhoffen,  1745. 
Pfullendorff,  March  20  to  23,  1799. 
Pietri,  July  29,  1793. 
Pinkey,  Sept.  10,  1547. 
Piqpasteus,  Sept.  14, 1793. 

Pirna,  October  16, 1756. 
Plasencia,  June  16, 1746 ;  1799;  May  5, 

Plassendal,  1708,  1745. 

Plassie,  (E.  I.)  February  5,  1757. 

Plomnitz,  February  13,  1745. 

Plowcre,  1331. 

Po,  (St.  Cypriano,)  June  6,  1800. 

Poitiers,  September  19,  1356. — The  King 
of  France  and  his  sou  taken  pri- 

Polotsk,  September,  1812. 

Pontremoli,  May,  1799. 

Posnanie,  1704. 

Prague,  1600  ;  May  22,  1757. 

Prentzlow,  October  28,  1806. 

Preston-pans,  October  2,  1745. 

Pretsch,  October  29, 1759. 

Primolan,  September  7,  1796. 

Princetown,  1778. 

Prusnitz,  September  30, 1745. 

Pruth,  1711. 

Pufflich,  October  39,  1794. 

Pultusk,  1702  ;  December  26,  1806. 

Pultawa,  July  9,  1709. 

Pyramids,  July  20,  1798. 

Pyrenees,  August  11,  16,  19,  1813.— 
Won  by  the  British  under  the  Duke 
of  Wellington. 

Quaquoun,  March  13,  1799. 

Quatre  Bras,  June  16,  1815. 

Quebec,  April  28,  1760. 
i  Quentin,(St.)  August  10, 1557. 

Quiberon,  June  24  to  July  25,  1795.— 
The  Emigrants  defeated  and  destroyed 
by  the  French  Republicans  under  Ge- 
neral Hochc. 

Quievrain,  April  28,  1792. 

Radstadt,  July  5,  17961 

Kami) lies,  May  23,  1706. 

Rastars,  April  4,  1794. 

Rathenau,  1646. 

Razboc,  1390. 

Rebec,  1523. 

Reichenberg,  April  21,  1757. 

Reichlingen,  (passage  of  the  Rhine,)  April 
30,  1800. 

Reignac,  (island  of  the  Rhine,)  1743. 

Renchen,  June  28,  1796. 

Renti,  August  15,  1551. 

Rhamanie,  July  10,  1798  ;  May  9,  1801. 

Rhinberg,  October  16,  176U. 

Rhinfeld,  February  28,  1638;  July  8, 

Ricardi,  1466. 

Rieti,  December,  1798. 

Rimenatc,  1578. 

Riota,  June  6, 1513. 

Rivoli,  January,  1797- 

Rocoux,   1746.— Won    by  the   French 

under  Marshal  SaxeA  ajjaiuit  the  Dutch 


(     45*    ) 



and  English,  under  Prince  Charles  of 
Rocroy,  1643. 

Rodelheim,  December  3,  1792. 
llolcia,  August  17,  1808. 
RoncevaUes,  July  24,  1813. 
Rorbis,  1799. 

Rosbach,  November  5,  1757. 
Rosbeq,  1382. 
Rosemberg,  1755. 

Rosetta,  March  31  and  April  19, 1807. 
Roundawaydown,  July  13,  1643. 
Roveredo,  Septernher  3  to  5,  1796. 
Runiersheirn,  August  26,  1709. 
Rymnich,  September  22, 1789. 
Sabuga!,  1404. 
Saffef,  May  12,  1799. 
Sahagun,  Dec.  21,  1803. 
Salado,  1340. 

Salamanca,  July  22,  1312. 
Salehieh,  1793  ;  March  3,  1800. 
Sal  ion  za,  December  27,  1800. 
Salza,  (Passage  of  the,)  December,  1800. 
Samanouth,  January,  1799. 
Sand   Hills,    near   Bergen,   October   2, 

Sandershagen,  October  10,  1758. 
Sandershausen,  July  23,  1758. 

Saratoga,  October  *16,  1776. — Won 
the  Americans,  when  the  late  General 
Bourgoyne  was  taken  prisoner,  and  his 
whole  army  surrendered. 

Saragossa,  1118;  1710. 

Sarre',  November  10,  1313. 

Saumur,  June,  1793. 

Savannah,  January  15,  1778. 

Savcnay,  November  15,  1793. 

Savigliano,  September  18,  1799. 

Sawolax,  1788. 

Scherding,  January  17,  1744. 

Schifferstadt,  May  23,  1794. 

Schliengen,  October  23,  1796. 

Sebastian,  (St.)  September  9,  1813. 

Sedaseer,  March,  1799. 

Sediman,  March  30.  1798. 

Selbourg,  August,  1704. 

Seminara,  April   21,    1503;    May   28, 

Senef,  August  11,  1674. 

Seringapatam,  1799. 

Sezia,  April  30,  1800. 

Shacton,  May  16,  1643. 

Shrewsbury,  June  21,  1403. 

Siegberg,  July  3,  1796. 

Silleri,  (Plains  of,)  1760. 

Sintzeim,  1674. 

Sion,  May  15,  1798. 

Smolensko,  September  22,  1708;  August 

17,  1812. 
Soldau,  December  26,  1806. 

Solway,  November  24,  1542. 

Sommo  Sierra,  1808. 

Sora,  1307. 

Souaqui,  January  3,  1799. 

Souhama,  1799. 

Spanden,  June  4,  5,  and  6,  1807. 

Spierbach,  November  15,  1703. 

Spire,  1792. 

Staflarde,  1690. 

Stamford,  March,  1470. 

Steinkerk,  August  3,  1692. 

Stockach,  March  25,  1799. 

Stoke,  June  6,  1487. 

Strehlen,  August  2,  1760. 

Stum,  1630. 

Suez,  April,  1800. 

Suffelsheim,  August  23,  1744. 

Sulzbach,  August  19,  1796. 

Syene,  February  12,  1799. 

Tagliacozzo,  1268. 

Tagliamento,  (Passage  of  the.)  effected 
by  Bonaparte,  March  14,  1797  ;  No- 
vember 12,  1805. 

Taillebourg,  1242. 

Talavera  de  la  Ileyna,  July  28,  1809.— 
Won  bv  the  present  Duke  of  Wel- 

Tanaro,  1745. 

Tannenbeig,  July  15,  1409- 

Tarvis,  March  25,  1797. 

Tauris,  1514. 

Taunton,  March  SJ,  1461. 

Terni,  December,  1798- 

Terracina,  August  11,  1798. 

Tesino,  March  31,  1800. 

Tewkesbury,  May  4,  1471. 

Thanis,  (Passage  of  the,')  (Egypt,)  1250. 

Thebes,  (Egypt,)  January  13*1799. 

Theme,  April  9, 1799. 

Tiberiad,  1187. 

Ticonderoga,  July  o,  1758. 

Tidon,  1746. 

Tilsitt,  1807. — Won  by  Bonaparte,  who 
made  peace  with  the  Emperor  Alex- 

Tirlemont,  November  8,  1792  ;  July  19, 

Tolhuys,  (Passage  of  the  Rhine,)  1672. 

Tongres,  1  i08. 

Tonquin,  1200. 

Torfou,  September  19,  1793. 

Torgau,  September  8,  1759;  November 

3, 1760. 
Toulouse,  April  10,  1814.  / 

Tours,  October,  732. — This  battle  was 
fought  between  Abdoulrahman,  the  Sa- 
racen chief,  and  Charles  Martel,  the 
hero  of  Christendom,  and  was  pro- 
ductive of  most  important  conse- 
quences, for  it  decided  that  the  reli- 

n  a  t 

(      4(3      ) 

C  A  T 

gion  of  Mahomet  "as  not  to  become 

{wedominant  in  Eoiope. — For  pai  ticu- 
ars,  see  Gibbon's  History,  4to.  edit. 
vol.  HI. 

Trunin,  .March  83,  1797*. 
r«  di  ■  .  December,  1 776. 

Treves,  August  8.  1701. 

Tripstadt,  July  11.  1 7 i- 1 . 

Tana,  1693;  ami  1706. — Inconsequence 
of  which  the  French  were  driven  out 
of  Italy. 

Turkheim,  14 

Vim.  October  15,  1805. 

Urlaffen.  June  87,  1796. 

U telle,  October  81,  1703. 

Valmy,  September,  1798. 

Varne,  1444. 

Veillane.  16S0. 

Velletri,  (surprized  1744. 

Vellinghausen,  Julj  16,  1761. 

Verner.  September,  1J 

Verneuil,  1504. 

Verona,  August,  1704;   1799. 

Villa-Vic  osa,  1710. 

Ville-longue,  December  6,  1793. 

Villers  en  Coocbee,  A  il  24,  1701. — 
The  Emperor  Leopold  saved  by  the 
Fifteenth  Light  Dragoons;  for  which 
gallant  action  eight  of  ti;e  oriicers  were 
us  inTested  with  the  Military 
Order  of  Maria  Theresa. 

V   ntira,  August  81,  1808. 

\ 'ittoria,  June  81,  1813. 

Wa.i  --  ge  of  the,)  1795. 

Wagram,Ja  j  5,  I  ■  >9. 

W  akd  did,  I  .  r  :i.  U60. 

Waatsenau,  October  85,  1703. 

Warbourg,  July  31,  15 

Warsaw,  1771. 

Waterloo,  June  18,  1815. — Total  defeat 
of  the  French  army  under  the  guidance 
of  Bonaparte,  by  the  combined  British 
and  Frussian  armies,  commanded  by 
the  Duke  of  Wellington,  and  Marshal 
Prince  Blucher. — Second  restoration 
of  Louis  XVIII. 

Watignies,  17 

WeisseiuLerg,  1744. 

White  Plains  November  16,  1776. 

Wignendorff,  October  17,  lv06. 

WiThelmstahl,  June  04,  i; 

Wilstett,  June  86,  17. 

Wunpfen,  May  16,  1669. 

Woitenbuttel,  June  29,  1641. 
-u  1312. 

Wondiwas,  December  31,  1760. 

W    rcester,  September  3.  1651. 

Women,  May,  1313. — This  battle  was 
won  by  Bonaparte,  and  stauds  re- 
corded   in  the   famous   collection   of 

mint  medals,  known  bv  the  description 
of  the  reign. 
Wynedale,  September  28,  1708. 

York-Town,  (America,'  Oct  JO, 1781. 

Zama,  A.  R.  560  —  Ar.t.i  .—This 
I  ::le  was  fought  between  Scipio,  the 
Roman,  and  Hannibal,  the  Carthagi- 
nian, and  put  an  end  to  the  long 
existing  rivalsbip  of  Rome  aud  Car- 

Zamora,  1476. 

Zedenick,  October  '27,  1806. 

Zenta,  16 

Zorndorff,  August  85,   175S. 

Zullichau,  July  83,  1759. 

Zuntersdorff,  November,  1805. 

Between  Porto  Novo  and  Mooteapollam, 
1.1.)  17S1. 

Between  Scindiah  and  the  English, (E.I.) 
August  11,  1803. 

Near  Riga,  (between  St.  Cyr  and  Witt- 
genstein,) IS  13. 

Near  Montinirai],  February  12,  1811, 
(between  Bonaparte  and  Blucher.) 

There  is  no  action  in  war  more  bril- 
liant than  that  of  battles,  the  success  of 
which  sometimes  decides  the  fate  of 
kingdoms.  It  is  by  this  action  a  general 
acquires  his  reputation.  It  is  in  battle 
that  his  valour,  his  force  of  genius,  and 
his  prudence,  appear  in  their  full  extent; 
and  when  !y  he  has  occasion  for 

that  firmness  of  mind,  without  which  the 
most  able  general  will  hardly  succeed. 

Bat t Us  have  ever  been  the  last  re- 
source of  good  generals.  A  situation 
where  chance  and  accident  often  baiiie 
and  overcome  the  most  prudential  and 
most  able  arrangements,  and  where  su- 
periority iu  numbers  by  no  means  en- 
sures success,  is  such  as  is  never  entered 
into  without  a  clear  necessity  for  so 
doing.  The  lighting  a  battle  only  be- 
cause an  enemy  is  near,  or  from  having 
no  other  formed  plan  of  offence,  is  a 
direful  way  of  making  war.  Darius 
lost  his  crown  and  life  by  it:  King 
Haroid  of  England,  did  the  same;  and 
Francis  I.  at  Pavia,  lost  the  battle  and 
his  liberty.  King  John,  of  Fiance, 
fought  the  battle  of  Poitiers,  though 
ruin  attended  his  eueray  if  he  had  not 
fought,  The  Russian  and  Prussian  cam- 
paigns against  Bonaparte,  in  1806  and 
".  are  also  strong  illustrations  of  this 
truth  ;  and  particularly  so,  the  battle  of 
.  loo. 

The  true  situation  for  giving  battle  is 


(    47     ) 


when  an  army's  situation  cannot  be 
worse,  if  defeated,  than  if  it  does  not 
fijiht  at  all;  and  when  the  advantage 
may  be  great,  and  the  loss  little.  Such 
was  the  Duke  of  Cumberland's  at  Hast- 
etiheck,  in  1757,  and  Piince  Ferdinand's 
at  Vellinghausen,in  1761.  The  reasons 
and  situations  for  giving  battle  are 
so  numerous,  that  to  treat  of  them  all 
would  fill  a  large  volume:  we  will  there- 
fore content  ourselves  with  the  follow- 
ing. There  may  be  exigencies  of  stale 
that  require  its  array,  to  attack  the  ene- 
my at  all  events.  Such  were  the  causes 
of  the  battle  of  Blenheim,  in  1794,  of 
Zorndorrt,  in  1758,  of  Cunnersdorff,  in 
1759,  and  of  Rosbuch,  in  1757.  To  raise 
a  siege,  to  defend  or  cover  a  countrv. — 
An  army  is  also  obliged  to  engage  when 
shut  up  in  a  post.  An  army  may  give 
battle  to  effectuate  its  junction  with  ano- 
ther army,  &c. 

The  preoarations  for  battle  admit  of 
infinite  variety.  By  a  knowledge  of  the 
detail  of  battles,  the  precept  will  ac- 
company the  example.  The  main  gene- 
ral preparations  are,  to  profit  by  any 
advantage  of  ground ;  that  the  tactical 
form  of  the  army  he  in  some  measure 
adapted  to  it;  and  that  such  form  be,  if 
possihle,  a  form  tactically  better  than  the 
enemy's.  In  forming  the  armv,  a  most 
careful  attention  should  be  given  to  mul- 
tiply resources,  so  that  the  fate  of  the 
army  may  not  hang  on  one  or  two  ef- 
forts; to  give  any  particular  part  of  the 
army,  whose  quality  is  superior  to  such 
part  in  the  enemy's  army,  a  position 
that  ensures  action  ;  and  finally,  to  have 
a  rear  by  nature,  or,  if  possible,  by  art, 
capable  of  checking  the  enemy  in  case 
of  defeat ;  that  is,  never  to  lose  sight  of 
the  Base  Line. 

The  dispositions  of  battles  admit 
likewise  of  an  infinite  variety  of  cases; 
for  even  the  difference  of  ground  which 
happens  at  almost  every  step,  gives  oc- 
casion to  change  the  disposition  or  plan; 
and  a  general's  experience  will  teach 
him  to  profit  oy  this,  and  take  the  ad- 
vantage the  ground  offers  him.  It  is  an 
instant,  a  coup-iCail,  which  decides  this: 
for  it  is  to  be  feared  the  enemv  raav  de- 
prive you  of  those  advantages,  or  turn 
them  to  his  own  profit;  and  for  that 
reason  this  admits  of  no  precise  rule; 
the  whole  depending  upon  time  and  op- 

W  ith  regard  to  battles,  there  are 
three  things   to   be   considered;    what 

precedes,  what  accompanies  and  whet 
follows  the  action.  As  to  what  pre- 
cedes the  action,  you  should  unite  all 
your  force,  examine  the  advantage  of  the 
ground,  the  wind,  and  the  sun,  (things 
not  to  be  neglected,;  and  chuse,  if  possi- 
ble, a  field  of  battle  proportioned  to  the 
number  of  your  troops. 

You  must  post  the  different  kinds  of 
troops  advantageously  for  each :  they 
must  be  so  disposed  as  to  be  able  to  re- 
turn often  to  the  charge;  for  he  who 
can  charge  often  with  fresh  troops,  is 
commonly  victorious;  witness  the  uni- 
form practice  of  the  French.  Your 
wings  must  be  covered  so  as  not  to  be 
surrounded,  and  you  must  take  care, 
that  your  troops  can  assist  each  other 
without  any  confusion,  the  intervals  be- 
ing proportioned  to  the  battalions  and 

Particular  regard  must  be  had  to  the 
regulation  of  the  artillery,  which  should 
be  disposed  so  as  to  be  able  to  act  in 
every  place  to  the  greatest  advantage; 
for  nothing  is  more  certain  than  that,  if 
the  artillery  be  well  commanded,  pro- 
perly distributed,  and  manfully  served, 
it  will  greatly  contribute  to  gaining  the 
battle;  being  looked  upon  as  the  gene- 
ral instrument  of  the  army  and  the  most 
essential  part  of  military  force. — The 
artillery  must  be  well  supplied  with  am- 
munition, and  each  soldier  have  a  suf- 
ficient number  of  cartridges.  The  bag- 
gage, provisions,  and  treasures  of  the 
army,  should,  on  the  day  of  battle,  be 
sent  to  a  place  of  safety. 

In  battle,  where  the  attacks  are,  there 
is  also  the  principal  defence.  If  an  army 
attacks,  it  forms  at  pleasure;  it  makes 
its  points  at  will :  if  it  defends,  it  will 
be  sometimes  difficult  to  penetrate  into 
the  designs  of  the  enemy,  but  when 
once  found,  succour  succeeds  to  the  dis- 
covery. Ground  and  numbers  must 
ever  lead  in  the  arrangement  of  battles; 
impression  and  resource  will  ever  give 
them  the  fairest  chance  of  success.  Xever 
to  be  surprized  is  perhaps  the  surest  way 
never  to  be  beaten. 

The  Battle,  a  term  of  distinction 
which  was  used  during  the  13th  and 
14th  centuries,  to  mark  the  cavalry,  or 
gentlemen  who  served  on  horseback. 
Robertson,  in  his  View  of  the  State  of 
Europe,  vol.  i.  page  80,  observes,  that, 
during  those  period-,  the  armies  of  Eu- 
rope were  composed  almost  entirelv  of 
cavalry.    No  geutleman  would  appei- 

T,  A  T 

in  the  field  hut  on  horseback. 

(     48     ) 


To  serve 

in  any  oilier  manner,  lie  would  have 
deemed  derogatory  to  his  rank.  The 
cavalry,  by  way  of  distinction,  was  called 
The  Battle,  and  on  it  alone  depended 
the  fate  of  every  action.  The  infantry, 
collected  from  the  dregs  and  refuse  of 
the  people,  ill  armed,  and  worse  disci- 
plined, wiis  almost  of  no  account. 

B\tti.e-^/>t«v,    )  the     method    and 

Line  of  B  \  i 1  le,  S  order  of  arranging 
the  troops  in  line  of  battle;  the  form  of 
drawing  up  the  army  for  an  ei^gagi  - 
inenf.  This  method  generally  consists 
of  three  lines,  viz.  the  front  line,  the 
rear  line,  and  the  reserve. 

The  second  line  should  be  about  300 
paces  behind  the  first,  and  the  reserve 
at  about  .3  or  GOO  paces  behind  the  se- 
cond. The  artillery  is  likewise  distri- 
buted along  the  front  of  the  first  line. 
The  front  line  should  be  stronger  than 
the  rear  line,  that  its  shock  may  be  more 
violent,  and  that,  by  being  more  exten- 
sive, it  may  more  easily  close  on  the 
enemy's  Hanks.  If  the  first  line  has  the 
advantage,  it  should  continue  to  act, 
and  attack  the  enemy's  second  line, 
which  must  be  already  terrified  by  the 
defeat  of  the  first.  The  artillery  must 
always  accompany  the  line  of  battle  in 
the  order  it  was  at  first  distributed,  if 
the  ground  permit;  and  the  rest  of  the 
army  should  follow  the  motions  of  the 
first  line,  when  it  continues  to  march 
on  alter  its  first  success. 

Main  Battle.     See  Battle-Array. 

B\TTLE-«aT,  (hache  d'armes,  Fr.)  an 
effensive  weapon,  formerly  much  used 
by  the  Danes,  and  other  northern  in- 
fantry.  It  was  a  kind  of  halberd,  and 
did  great  execution  when  wielded  by  a 
strong  arm. 

BATTLEMENTS,  in  military  af- 
fairs, are  the  indentures  in  the  tup  of 
<>id  castles  or  fortified  walls,  or  other 
buildings,  in  the  form  of  embrasures, 
for  the  greater  conveniency  of  tiring  or 
looking  through. 

BATTUE,  Fr.  to  direct  one  or  more 
|  icces  of  ordnance  in  such  a  manner, 
that  any  given  object  may  be  destroyed 
or  broken  into  by  the  continued  dis- 
ge  of  cannon  ball,  or  of  other  war- 
like materials;  it  likewise  means  to 
silence  an  enemy's  fire. 

Battre  en  Sreche,  Fr.  to  batter  in 
breach.  The  word  battre  is  aJso  applied, 
in  the  artillery,  to  all  the  different  ways 
of  battering. 

Battue  Festrade,  Fr.  to  scour;  to 

Battue  la  campagne,  Fr.  to  scour  the 
country,  or  make  incursions  against  an 

Battre  de  front,  Fr.  to  throw  can- 
non-shot in  a  perpendicular  or  almost 
perpendicular  direction  against  an\  body 
or  place  which  becomes  an  object  of  at- 
tack. This  mode  of  attack  is  less  ef- 
fectual than  any  other  unless  you  bailer 
in  breach. 

Battrj  cVecharve,  Fr.  to  direct  shot, 
so  that  the  lines  of  fire  make  a  manifest 
acute  angle  with  respect  to  the  lino  of 
any  particular  object  against  which  can- 
non is  discharged. 

Bati  R  e  i  a  jlunc,  Fr.  is  when  the  shot 
from  a  battery  runs  along  the  length  of 
the  front  of  any  object  or  place  against 
which  it  is  directed. 

Battue  «  don,  Fr.  to  direct  the  shot' 
from  one  or  several  pieces  of  cannon  so 
as  to  batter,  almost  perpendicularly, 
from  behind  any  body  of  troops,  part  of 
a  rampart  or  intrenchment. 

Battre  de  revers,  Fr.  to  direct  shot 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  run  between  the 
two  last  mentioned  liens  of  fire.  When 
you  batter  from  behind,  the  shot  fall 
almost  perpendicularly  upon  the  reverse 
of  the  parapet.  When  you  batter  from 
the  reverse  side,  the  trajectories  or  lines 
of  fire  describe  acute  angles  of  forty- 
live  degrees  or  under,  with  the  prolon- 
gation of  that  reverse. 

Battre  de  bricole,  Fr.  This  method 
can  only  be  put  in  practice  at  sieges, 
and  against  works  which  have  been  con- 
structed in  front  of  others  that  are  in- 
vested. Every  good  billiard  player  will 
readily  comprehend  what  is  meant  by 
bricole  or  back-stroke. 

Battue  en  sape,  Fr.  to  batter  a  work 
at  the  foot  of  its  revetemeut. 

Battre  en  salve,  Fr.  to  make  a  gene- 
ral discharge  of  heavy  ordnance  against 
anv  spot  in  which  a  breach  is  attempted 
to  be  made. 

Battue  la  cainse,  Fr.  to  beat  a  drum. 

Battue  I'assemblce,  Fr.  to  beat  the 

Battre  un  ban,  Fr.  to  give  notice  by 
sound  of  drum,  when  an  officer  is  to  be 
received,  orders  given  out,  or  any  punish- 
ment to  he  publicly  inflicted. 

Battre  la  chamade,  Fr.  to  give  inti- 
mation by  the  sound  of  drum,  from  a 
besieged  place,  of  a  disposition  to  capi- 
tulate; to  beat  a  parley. 


(    49    ) 


Battre  aux  champs,  Fr.  to  give  notice, 
by  beat  of  drum,  that  a  regiment,  or 
armed  body  of  men,  is  approaching  or 
marching  off.  It  also  signifies  the  beat 
which  is  made  when  a  superior  officer 
comes  near  a  guard,  &c. 

Battre  la  charge,  Fr.  to  beat  the 
charge;  or  to  give  notice  that  a  general 
discharge  of  musketry  is  about  to  take 
place,  and  that  the  whole  line  is  to 
charge  with  bayonets. 

Battre  la  Diane,  Fr.  to  beat  the  Re- 

Battre  les  drapeanx,¥r.  to  announce, 
by  beat  of  drum,  that  the  colours  are 
about  to  be  lodged. 

Battre  la  generate,  Fr.  to  beat  the 
General;  a  signal  to  collect  the  soldiers 
together  for  immediate  action,  or  for 
quitting  camp,  or  quarters. 

Battre  la  marche,  Fr.  to  give  notice, 
by  beat  of  drum,  for  troops  to  advance 
or  retreat. 

Battre  la  messe,  Fr.  to  give  notice,  by 
beat  of  drum,  for  soldiers  to  march 
to  church. 

Battre  la  prierc,  Fr.  to  give  notice, 
by  beat  of  drum,  for  soldiers  to  assem- 
ble at  any  particular  place  to  hear 

Battre  la  retraite,  Fr.  to  beat  the 
retreat;  a  notice  given  by  all  the  drums 
of  a  regiment  or  army,  for  soldiers  to 
keep  to  their  several  colours,  and  to  re- 
tire in  the  best  order  they  can,  after  a 
disastrous  battle. 

Se  Battre  en  retraite,  Fr.  to  main- 
tain a  running  fight. 

Mener  battant,  to  overcome. 

Mener  quelqiiun  att  tambour  battant, 
to  disconcert,  to  confound,  puzzle,  and 
perplex  any  body. 

BATTURES,  Fr.  breakers;  shelves. 

BAUDRIER,  Fr.  a  cross-belt.  It 
also  signifies  a  sword-belt. 

BAVETTE,  Fr.  in  architecture,  a 
piece,  or  apron,  of  lead,  which  is  placed 
in  front  of  a  water  pipe,  or  upon  a  roof 
that  is  slated.  It  signifies,  literally,  a 
bib,  such  as  is  put  before  a  child. 

BAUGE,  Fr.  a  coarse  sort  of  mortar 
which  is  made  with  chopped  straw,  or 
pounded  hay,  in  the  manner  that  lime 
and  sand  are  mixed  up.  This  species  of 
mortar  is  used  in  lieu  of  better. 

BAVINS,  in  military  affairs,  implies 
small  faggots,  made  of  brush-wood,  of 
a  considerable  length,  no  part  of  the 
brush  being  taken  off.     See  Fascines. 

BAYARD,  Fr.  a  provincial  term  used 

i  in  Languedoc  and  Roussilion  to  signify  a 

BAY,  {bai/e,  Fr.)  an  inlet  of  the  sea 
between  two  capes  or  headlands.  It 
also  signifies  such  a  gulph  or  inlet  of  the 
land  as  does  not  run  very  deep  into  it, 
whether  large  or  small;  but  smaller 
bays  are  frequently  denominated  creeks, 
havens,  or  roads.  It  may  be  observed, 
indeed,  in  general,  that  a  bay  has  a  pro- 
portionably  wider  entrance  than  either  a 
gulph,  or  a  haven;  and  that  a  creek  has 
usually  a  small  inlet,  and  is  always 
much  less  than  a  bay. 

BAY-window,  one  that  is  composed  of 
an  arch  of  a  circle;  consequently  it  will 
stand  without  the  stress  of  the  building: 
by  which  means  spectators  may  better 
see  what  is  done  in  the  street. 

BAYE,  Bee  ou  Jour,  Fr.  in  architec- 
ture, every  sort  of  aperture  in  a  build- 
ing is  so  called. 

BAYONET,  {bayonnette,  Fr.)  a  kind 
of  triangular  dagger,  made  with  a  hollow 
handle,  and  a  shoulder,  to  fix  on  the 
muzzle  of  a  firelock  or  musket,  so  that 
neither  the  charging  nor  firing  is  pre- 
vented by  its  being  fixed  on  the  piece. 
It  is  of  infinite  service  against  horse. 
At  first  the  bayonet  was  screwed  into 
the  muzzle  of  the  barrel,  consequently 
could  not  be  used  during  the  fire.  It  is 
said  by  some  to  have  been  invented  by 
the  people  of  Malacca,  and  first  made 
use  of  on  quitting  the  pikes.  Accord- 
ing to  others,  it  was  first  used  by  the 
fuzileers  in  France,  who  were  afterwards 
made  the  body  of  Royal  Artillery.  At 
present  it  is  given  to  every  infantry  re- 
giment. This  weapon  was  formerly 
called  dagger.  In  some  old  English 
writers  it  is  written  Bagonet;  and,  in- 
deed, generally  now  so  pronounced  by 
the  common  soldiers. 

A  French  writer,  in  a  work  entituled 
L'Essai  general  de  la  Tactique,  has  pro- 
posed a  methud  of  exercising  the  sol- 
diers in  a  species  of  fencing  or  tilting 
with  this  weapon.  But,  as  another  very 
sensible  author  (Mauvillion  in  his  Essai 
sur  I'lnjluence  de  la  Poudre  a  Canon  dans 
I'ylrt  de  la  Guerre  Moderne)  justly  asks, 
how  can  any  man  tilt  or  fence  with  so 
cumbrous  an  instrument,  and  so  dithcult 
to  be  handled,  as  the  firelock?  It  seems 
probable  that  great  advantage  mav  be 
obtained  by  a  person  who  has  been 
taught  to  use  such  a  weapon  scientifi- 
cally, when  contending  with  an  indi- 
vidual; but  we  do  not  think  that  the 


(    so   > 


niceties  of  parrying  are  applicable  to  the 
charge  in  line;  but  a  firm  grasp  and  a 
quick  and  steady  thrust  are  required. 
A  French  author,  M.  G.  De  Levis,  in  bis 
Maxima  and  Reflexions,  observes:  Oner 
combat tre  a  Farme  blanche,  voila  ce  qui 
constitue  le  veritable  guerrier.  Lex 
peuplet  qui  out  cttte  e'nergie  (et  its  sont 
ai  bien  petit  nomine)  peuvent  s'appeler 
<)  ban  droit  let"  Grenadiers  de  F Europe." 
Experience  has  convinced  the  French 
that  this  daring  quality  is  peculiarly 
marked  in  the  character  and  conduct  of 
a  British  soldier,  of  which  a  signal  proof 
was  given  at  the  battle  of  Waterloo,  on 
the  18th  June,  1815. 

BEACON,  (j'anal,  Fr.)  something 
raised  on  an  eminence  to  be  fired,  or 
displayed,  on  the  approach  of  an  enemy, 
to  alarm  the  country;  also,marks  erect- 
ed, or  lights  made  in  the  night,  (as  on 
the  North  and  South  Forelands  on  the 
Coast  of  Kent,  and  elsewhere,)  to  direct 
navigators  in  their  course,  and  warn 
them  from  rocks,  shallows,  and  sand- 
banks. It  is  said  that  Bonaparte's 
boasted  pillar  near  Boulogne  will  be 
converted  into  one. 

On  certain  eminent  places  of  the 
country  are  placed  long  poles  erect, 
whereon  are  fastened  pitch-barrels  to  be 
fired  by  night,  and  smoke  made  by  day, 
to  give  notice,  in  a  few  hours,  to  the 
whole  kingdom,  of  an  approaching  in- 

To  BEAR,  in  gunnery.  A  piece  of 
ordnance  is  said  to  bear,  or  come  to  bear, 
when  pointed  directly  against  the  ob- 
ject; that  is,  pointed  to  hit  the  object. 

BEARD,  the  reflected  points  of  the 
head  of  an  ancient  arrow,  particularly 
of  such  as  were  jagged. 

To  BEAT,  in  a    military  sense,  signi- 
fies to  gain  the  day,  to  win  the  battle,  &c. 
To  Beat  a  parley.     See  Cham  a  de- 
To  Beat  a  drum.     See  Drum. 
To  Beat  to  arms,  to  assemble  the  sol- 
diers,  or  armed  citizens  of  a  town  or 
place  by  beat  of  drum. 

BEAVER,  that  part  of  the  ancient 
helmet  which  covered  the  face,  and 
which  was  moveable  so  as  to  expose  the 
face  without  removing  the  beaver  from 
the  helmet. 

BEC  de  corbin,  Fr.  a  battle-axe. 
BEC1IE,  Fr.  a  spade  used    by  pio- 

BEDS,  in  the  military  language,  are 
of  various  sorts,  viz. 

Mortar-BEDS  serve  for  the  same  pur- 

pose as  a  carnage  does  to  a  cannon :  they 
are  made  of  solid  timber,  consisting  ge- 
nerally of  two  pieces  fastened  together 
with  strong  iron  bolls  and  bars.  Their 
sizes  arc  according  to  the  kind  of  mortar 
they  carry. 

-Roi/«/-Beds,  )  are  carriages  for  a 
Coe A<m«b-B EDS,  S  royal  mortar,  whose 
diameter  is  5  .  8  inches:  and  a  coehorn 
mortar,  whose  diameter  is  4  .  G  inches. 
Those  beds  are  made  of  one  solid  block 

Sea-Mori 'nr-BEns  are  likewise  made 
of  solid  timber,  like  the  former,  but  differ 
in  their  form,  having  a  hole  in  the  center 
to  receive  the  pintle  or  strong  iron  bolt, 
about  which  the  bed  turns.  Sea-mortars 
are  mounted  on  these  beds,  on  board  of 
the  bomb-ketches. 

N.  B.  These  beds  are  placed  upon  very 
strong  timber  frames,  fixed  into  the 
bomb-ketch,  in  which  the  pintle  is  fixed, 
so  as  the  bed  is  turned  about  it,  to  tire 
any  way.  The  fore  part  of  these  beds  is 
an  arc  of  a  circle  described  from  the  same 
center  as  the  pintle-hole. 

There  are  iron  mortar-beds,  as  well  as 
wood,  for  the  nature  of  13,  10,  and  8 
inch  mortars,  which  are  expressly  for 
land  service. 

S/oo/-Bed  is  a  piece  of  wood  on  which 
the  breech  of  a  gun  rests  upon  a  truck- 
carriage,  with  another  piece  fixed  to  it  at 
the  hind  end,  that  rests  upon  the  body 
of  the  hind  axle-tree;  and  the  fore  part 
is  supported  by  an  iron  bolt.  See  Car- 

Bed  of  atone,  in  masonry,  a  course  or 
range  of  stones.  The  joint  of  the  bed 
is  the  mortar  between  two  stones  placed 
over  each  other. 

BEEFEATERS,  (Buffetiers,)  yeomen 
of  the  guard  to  the  King  of  Great  Britain, 
so  called  from  being  stationed  by  the 
sideboard  at  great  royal  dinners.  They 
are  kept  up  rather  from  state  than  for 
any  military  service.  Their  arms  are  a 
sword  and  lance. 

BEETLES,  in  a  military  sense,  are 
large  wooden  hammers  for  driving  down 
palisades,  and  lor  other  uses,  &c. 

BEETLESTOCK,  the  stock  or  handle 
of  a  beetle. 

BEFROI,  Fr.  belfry,  alarm-bell ;  also 
a  watch-tower,  or  high  place  tit  for  dis- 

BELANDRE,  Fr.  a  flat-bottomed 
vessel,  with  masts  and  sails,  &c.  which  is 
used  in  Flanders  for  the  conveyance  of 


(    61    ) 

B  E  V 

BELIER,  Fr.  a  battering  ram. 

BELLIGERENT,  in  a  state  of  war- 
fare. Hence  any  two  or  more  nations  at 
war  are  called  belligerent  powers. 

BELTS,  in  tlie  army,  are  of /different 
sorts,  and  for  various  purposed,  viz. 

Sword-BzLT,  a  leathern  strap  in  which 
a  sword  han^s. 

Shoulder-i')£LT,  a  broad  leathern  belt, 
which  goes  over  the  shoulder,  and  to 
which  the  pouch  is  fixed  :  it  is  also 
called  Cross-Belt .  It  should  be  made 
of  stout  smooth  buff,  with  two  buckles 
to  fix  the  pouch  to  the  belt.    See  Pouch. 

Waist-BELT,  a  leathern  strap  fixed 
round  the  waist,  by  which  a  sword  or 
bayonet  is  suspended. 

Belts  are  known  among  the  ancient 
and  middle-age  writers  by  divers  names, 
as  zona,  cingulum,  reminiculum,  ringa, 
and  baldrellus.  The  belt  was  an  essen- 
tial piece  of  the  ancient  armour,  inso- 
much that  we  sometimes  find  it  used  to 
denote  the  whole  armour.  In  latter  ages 
the  belt  was  given  to  a  person  when  he 
was  raised  to  knighthood;  whence  it  has 
also  been  used  as  a  badge  or  mark  of  the 
knightly  order. 

BELVEDERE,  Fr.  a  turret,  or  raised 
pavilion,  on  an.  elevated  ground,  in  the 
shape  of  a  platform,  whence  the  country 
round  may  be  seen. 

BENAR,  Fr.  a  large  four-wheeled 
wagon,  which  is  used  to  carry  stones  in 
the  construction  of  fortified  places. 

BENDINGS,  in  military  and  sea  mat- 
ters, are  ropes,  wood,  &c.  bent  for  se- 
veral purposes.  M.  Amontons  gives  se- 
veral experiments  concerning  the  bend- 
ing of  ropes.  The  friction  of  a  rope 
bent,  or  wound  round  an  immoveable 
cylinder,  is  sufficient,  with  a  very  small 
power,  to  sustain  very  great  weights. 
Divers  methods  have  been  contrived  for 
bending  timber,  in  order  to  supply  crook- 
ed planks  and  pieces  for  building  ships; 
such  as  by  sand,  boiling  water,  steam  of 
boiling  water,  and  by  fire.  See  M.  Du 
Hamel,  in  his  book  called  Du  Transport, 
de  la  Conservation,  et  de  la  Force  des 
Bois.  M.  Delesme  ingeniously  enough 
proposed  to  have  the  young  trees  bent 
while  growing  in  the  forest.  The  method 
of  bending  planks  by  sand-heat,  now  used 
in  the  king's  yards,  was  invented  by 
Captain  Cumberland. 

A  method  has  been  lately  invented 
and  practised  for  bending  pieces  of  tim- 
ber, so  as  to  make  the  wheels  of  car- 
riages without  joints.     The  bending  of 

boards,  and  other  pieces  of  timber  for 
carved  works  in  joinery,  is  effected  by 
holding  them  to  the  fire,  then  giving 
them  the  figure  required,  and  keeping 
them  in  it  bv  tools  for  the  purpose. 

BENEDICTION  de  drapeaux,  Fr. 
the  consecration  of  colours. 

Benediction  generate,  Fr.  a  religious 
invocation  which  is  made  to  God  by  the 
principal  chaplain  belonging  to  a  French 
army  on  the  eve  of  an  engagement. 

BENEFICIARII,  in  ancient  military 
history,  denotes  soldiers  who  attend  the 
chief  officers  of  the  army,  being  exempt- 
ed from  all  other  duty. 

Beneficiarii  were  also  soldiers  dis- 
charged from'  the  military  service  or 
duty,  and  provided  with  benejicia  to  sub- 
sist on. 

BERCEAU,  Fr.  literally  a  cradle; 
a  full-arched  vault. 

BERGE,  Fr.  the  high  bank  or  bor- 
der of  a  river.  Kivage  signifies  the  edge 
of  the  water,  but  berge  means  the  ad- 
jacent high  ground  which  secures  the 
country  round  from  inundations. 

BERM,  a  little  space  or  path  between 
the  ditch  and  the  parapet.  See  Forti- 

To  BESIEGE,  to  lay  siege  to,  or  in-, 
vest  any  place  with  armed  forces. 

BESIEGERS,  the  army  that  lays  siege 
to  a  fortified  place. 

BESIEGED,  the  garrison  that  de- 
fends the  place  against  the  army  that 
lays  siege  to  it.     See  Siege. 

BETAIL,  Fr.  cattle  in  general. 

To  BETRAY,  (trahir,  Fr.)  to  deliver 
perfidiously  any  place  or  body  of  troops 
into  the  hands  of  the  enemy;  to  dis^ 
cover  that  which  has  been  entrusted  to 

BETTY,  a  machine  used  for  forcing 
open  gates  or  doors.     See  Petard. 

BEVEAU,  Fr.  a  mathematical  instru- 
ment which  is  used  to  carry  a  mixed- 
lined  angle  from  one  angle  to  another. 

BEVIL,   )  in  masonry  and  joinery,  a 

BEVEL,  S  kind  of  square,  one  leg  of 
which  is  frequently  crooked,  according 
to  the  sweep  of  an  arch  or  vault.  It  is 
moveable  on  a  point  or  center,  and  may, 
therefore,  be  set  to  any  angle.  The 
make  and  use  of  the  bevel  are  much  the 
same  as  those  of  the  common  square 
and  mitre,  except  that  the  latter  are 
fixed  ;  the  first  at  an  angle  of  90  degrees, 
and  the  second  at  45:  whereas  the  bevel 
being  moveable,  it  may  in  some  measure 
do  the  office  of  both,  and  also  their  de- 
ll 2 

r;  I  II 

(    M    ) 

B  I  L 

flciency,  which  it  is  chiefly  intended  to 
supply,  serving  to  set  off  or  transfer 
angles,  either  greater  or  less  than  90  or 
45  degrees. 

BzvEL-angle,  anv  angle  that  is  not 
square,  whether  it  he  more  ohtuse  or 
more  acute  than  a  right  angle;  but  if  it 
be  one  half  as  much  as  a  right  angle, 
viz.  45  degrees,  it  is  then  called  a  mitre. 
There  is  also  a  half-mitre,  which  is  an 
angle  that  is  one  quarter  of  a  quadrant 
or  square^  viz.  'l'2\  degrees. 

BEY,  (Beis,  Fr.)  an  officer  of  high 
rank  among  the  Turks,  but  inferior  in 
Command  to  the  Pacha. 

BIAIS,  Fr.  bevel,  slanting,  sloping, 

Entreprendm  nne  affaire  de  /ow.s-  les 
Bi*rs,  to  undertake  a  thing  in  every  way. 

BIAISER,  Fr.  to  bevel,  to  slope: 
figuratively,  to  shuffle. 

BICOQL E,  Fr.  a  term  used  in  France 
to  signify  a  place  iti-fortified  and  incapa- 
ble of  much  defence.  It  is  derived  from 
a  place  on  the  road  between  Lodi  and 
Milan,  which  was  originally  a  gentle- 
man's country-house  surrounded  by 
ditches.  In  the  year  1522,  a  body  of 
imperial  troops  were  stationed  in  it,  and 
stood  the  attack  of  the  whole  French 
army  during  the  reign  of  Francis  I. 
This  engagement  was  called  the  battle 
ol  Bicoqtti . 

MI  DON,  Fr.  a  sort  of  oblong  ball  or 
shut,  which  goes  farther  than  a  round 

BTEZ,  Fr.  that  particular  part  of  a 
navigable  canal  which  lies  between  two 
floodgates,  and  whence  waters  are  drawn 
in  order  to  facilitate  the  ascent  or  de- 
scent of  boats  and  barges,  where  there 
are  fails. 

BIGORNE,  Fr.  an  anvil. 

BIGORNEAU,  Fr.  a  small  rising 

B1IIOUAC,  BrorAC,  Biouvac,  or 
Bivouaq,  Fr.  [derived  by  some  from 
the  German  weymacht,  a  double  watch 
or  guard  :  by  others  from  the  German 
biwacht,  an  extraordinary  guard,  set  at 
night,  tor  the  safety  of  a  camp:]  a 
night-guard,  or  a  detachment  of  the 
wh  lie  army,  which,  during  a  siege,  or  in 
the  presence  of  an  enemy,  marches  out 
every  night  in  squadrons  or  battalions 
to  line  the  circumvailations,  or  to  take 
post  in  front  of  the  camp,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  securing  their  quarters,  prevent- 
ing surprises,  and  of  obstructing  sup- 
plies.    When  an  army  docs  not  encamp 

hut  lie's  under  arms  all  night,  it  is  said 

to  Invalid!]. 

Bivolac  also  signifies  small  huts  or 
sheds  to  which  troops  upon  the  outposts 
of  an  army  may  occasionally  retire  for 
repose,  fi)  the  Dictionnaire  de  i'Aca- 
demie  this  word  is  written  bivac  or  bi- 

Lever  le  Bivouac,  Fr.  to  draw  in 
the  out-posts,  after  break  of  day,  and 
order  the  different  parties,  horse  or  foot, 
into  camp  or  barracks. 

BIVAQUER,  on  Bivouaquer,  Fr. 
to  be  out  all  night  in  the  open  air.  The 
Evcubitc  of  the  Romans  corresponded 
with  these  duties,  which  were  done  night 
and  day.  See  D'Aouino't  Lexicon  Mili- 

BILAN,  Fr.  a  book  in  which  French 
bankers  and  merchants  write  their  active 
and  passive  debts. 

BILBO,  a  rapier  or  small  sword  was 
formerly  so  called. 

BILBOQUETS,  Fr.  small  pieces  of 
stone  which  have  been  sawed  from  the 
block,  and  remain  in  store. 

HILL  or  Bill-hook,  a  small  hatchet, 
used  for  cutting  wood  for  fascines,  ga- 
bions, bavins,  ccc.  When  it  is  long,  it  is 
called  a  hedging-bill;  when  short,  a 
hand- bill. 

7b  Bill  up,  a  term  used  when  a  sol- 
dier is  ordered  not  to  go  out  of  barracks 
or  camp;  his  name  being  stuck  up  at 
the  barrack-gate,  or  given  in  at  the  quar- 
ter-guard to  prevent  his  egress.  This 
word  is  also  used,  in  some  regiments,  to 
signify  the  putting  a  soldier  into  the 
black-hole,  or  into  what  the  Guards  call 
the  Dry-room. 

BILLE  pendante,  Fr.  in  hydraulics, 
the  piece  of  timber  which  is  suspended 
from  the  end  of  the  balance  or  beam, 
and  serves  to  put  some  other  essential 
piece  in  motion. 

Bille  couchce,  Fr.  a  piece  of  timber 
which  advances  and  recedes  with  the 
motion  of  the  wheel  in  a  water-mill. 

BILLET,  a  well-known  ticket  for 
quartering  soldiers,  which  entitles  each 
soldier,  by  act  of  parliament,  to  candles, 
vinegar,  and  salt,  with  the  use  of  fire, 
and  the  necessary  utensils  for  dressing 
and  eating  their  meat.  The  allowance 
of  small  beer  has  been  altered  by  a  lata 

Billet,  blanc  ou  voir,  Fr.  a  piece  of 
white  or  black  paper  which  is  folded  up, 
and  serves  to  determine  various  matters 
by  drawing  lots. 

B  L  A 



B  L  O 

Billet  de  came,  Fr.  an  acknowledg- 
ment which  is  given  in  writing  by  the  pay- 
master of  a  regiment  for  money  in 

Billet  d'entree  d  Vhopital,  Fr.  a 
ticket  which  is  given  to  a  sick  soldier  to 
entitle  him  to  a  birth  in  the  military 

Billet  d'honneitr,Y\\  a  written  ac- 
knowledgment which  is  given  by  an 
officer  for  articles  taken  on  credit ;  but 
this  more  frequently  happens  in  matters 
of  play. 

Billet  de  logement,  Fr.  a  billet  for 
quarters.  This  billet  or  ticket  was  for- 
merly delivered  out  to  the  French  troops 
upon  the  same  general  principles  that  it 
is  issued  in  England. 

BILLETING,  in  the  army,  implies  the 
quartering  soldiers  in  the  houses  of  any 
town  or  village. 

BILLETTES  d'une  espieu,  Fr.  cross 
hars  of  iron  or  steel. 

BlNACLE,a  telescope  with  two  tubes., 
so  constructed,  that  a  distant  object 
might  be  seen  with  both  eyes,  now  rarely- 

BINARD,  Fr.    SeeBiNAR. 

BINN,  a  great  chest  to  put  corn  in. 

BINOCLE,  (binocle,  Fr.)  a  kind  of 
dioptric  telescope. 

BINOMIAL  root,  in  mathematics,  is 
a  root  composed  of  two  parts,  joined  by 
the  sign  -|-.  If  it  has  three  parts,  it  is 
called  a  trinomial ;  and  any  root  consist- 
ing of  more  than  three  parts  is  called  a 

BISSAC,  Fr.  a  wallet,  or  a  sack  which 
opens  down  the  middle. 

BISSECTION,  in  geometry,  the  di- 
vision of  any  quantity  into  two  equal 
parts.  It  is  the  same  as  bipartition. 
Hence  to  bissect  any  line  is  to  divide  it 
into  two  equal  parts. 

BISTOURE,  Fr.  in  surgery,  an  inci- 
sion knife. 

BIT,  the  bridle  of  a  horse  which  acts 
by  the  assistance  of  a  curb.  See  Curb 
and  Bridon. 

BLACK-HOLE,  a  place  in  which  sol- 
diers may  be  confined  by  the  command- 
ing officer,  but  not  by  any  inferior  officer. 
In  this  place  they  are  generally  restricted 
to  bread  and  water.  Many  colonels  and 
commanding  officers  of  corps  are  advo- 
cates for  this  sort  of  correction,  in  pre- 
ference to  flogging  or  corporal  punish- 

BLANKETSjCombustible  things  made 

of  coarse  paper  steeped  in  a  solution 
of  saltpetre,  which,  when  dry,  are  again 
dipt  in  a  composition  of  tallow,  resin, 
and  sulphur.  They  are  used  only  in  fire- 

BLAST,  and  BLASTING.  See  Mines 
and  Mining. 

BLINDAGE,  a  work  which  is  car- 
ried on  along  a  trench,  to  secure  it  from 
the  shells,  &c.  of  a  besieged  garrison. 

BLINDE,  Fr.     See  Blinds. 

BLINDER,  Fr.  to  make  use  of 

BLINDS,  in  military  affairs,  are 
wooden  frames  composed  of  4  pieces, 
either  flat  or  round,  two  of  which  are 
6  feet  long,  and  the  others  3  or  4  feet, 
which  serve  as  spars  to  fasten  the  two 
first  together:  the  longest  are  pointed  at 
both  ends,  and  the  two  others  are  fasten- 
ed towards  the  extremities  of  the  former, 
at  about  10  or  12  inches  from  their 
points,  the  whole  forming  a  rectangular 
parallelogram,  the  long  sides  of  which 
project  beyond  the  other  about  10  or  12 
inches.  Their  use  is  to  fix  them  either 
upright,  or  in  a  vertical  position,  against 
the  sides  of  the  trenches  or  saps,  to 
sustain  the  earth.  Their  points  at  the 
bottom  serve  to  fix  them  in  the  earth, 
and  those  at  the  top  to  hold  the  fascines 
that  are  placed  upon  them;  so  that  the 
sap  or  trench  is  formed  into  a  kind  of 
covered  gallery,  to  secure  the  troops  from 
stones  and  grenades. 

The  term  Blind  is  also  used  to  express 
a  kind  of  hurdle,  made  of  the  branches  of 
trees,  behind  which  the  soldiers,  miners, 
or  labourers,  may  carry  on  their  work 
without  being  seen.    See  Hurdle. 

Blinds  are  sometimes  only  canvass 
stretched  to  obstruct  the  sight  of  the 
enemy.  Sometimes  they  are  planks  set 
up;  for  which  see  Mantlet.  Some- 
times they  are  made  of  a  kind  of  coarse 
basket-work.  See  Gabions.  Sometimes 
of  barrels,  or  sacks  filled  with  earth.  In 
short,  they  signify  any  thing  that  covers 
the  labourers  from  the  enemy. 

Blind.  See  Orillon  and  Fortifi- 

BLOCAGES,  Fr.  small  stones,  or 
shards,  which  are  used  in  mortar,  or 
thrown  into  water  for  a  sort  of  founda- 

Blocage,  ou  Blocaille,  Fr.  rubbish; 
such  as  is  used  to  fill  up  walls. 

BLOCKADE,        )  in  military  affairs, 

BLOCKADING,  ]  implies   the    sur- 

B  L  O 

(     54     ) 


rounding  a  place  with  different  bodies 
of  troops,  who  shut  up  all  the  avenues 
on  every  side,  and  prevent  every  thing 
from  going  in  or  out  of  the  place — this 
is  usually  effected  by  means  of  the  ca- 
valry. The  design  of  the  blockade  is  to 
oblige  those  who  are  shut  up  in  the  town 
to  consume  all  their  provisions,  and  by 
that  means  to  compel  them  to  surrender 
for  want  of  subsistence. 

Hence  it  appears  that  a  blockade  must 
last  a  long  time,  when  a  place  is  well 
provided  with  necessaries:  for  which 
r i  ason  this  method  of  reducing  a  town 
is  seldom  taken,  but  when  there  is  rea- 
son to  believe  the  magazines  are  unpro- 
vided, or  sometimes  when  the  nature  or 
situation  of  the  place  permits  not  the 
approaches  to  be  made,  which  are  neces- 
sary to  attack  in  the  usual  way. 

Maritime  towns,  which  have  a  port, 
are  in  much  the  same  case  as  other 
towns,  when  their  port  can  be  blocked 
up,  and  the  besiegers  are  masters  of  the 
sea,  and  can  prevent  succours  from  being 
conveyed  that  way  into  the  place. 

To  Bi.OCKapi:  or  to  block  up  a  place, 
is  to  shut  up  all  the  avenues,  so  that  it 
cannot  receive  any  relief  either  of  men  or 
provisions,  &c. 

To  raise  a  Blockade  is  to  march 
from  before  the  place,  and  leave  it  free 
and  open  as  before. 

To  turn  a  siege  into  a  Blockade  is 
to  desist  from  a  regular  method  of  be- 
sieging, and  to  surround  the  place  with 
those  troops  who  had  formed  the 

To  form  a  Blockade  is  to  surround 
the  place  with  troops,  and  hinder  any 
thing  from  going  in  or  coming  out. 

QUER,  Fr.  a  sea  term,  signifying  to 
apply  the  sheathing  hair  to  a  ship's  bot- 

BLOCUL,  Fr.  the  main  pole  in  a 
tent  ;   also  a  small  tower. 

B LOCUS,  Fr.     See  Blockade. 

BLOCK-batter>/,\\\  gunnery,  a  wooden 
battery  for  two  or  more  small  pieces 
mounted  on  wheels,  and  moveable  from 
place  to  place;  very  ready  to  fire  en  bar- 
bette, in  the  galleries  and  casemates,  &c. 
where  room  is  wanted. 

Block-Aousc,  in  the  military  art,  a 
kind  of  wooden  fort  or  fortification, 
sometimes  mounted  on  rollers,  or  on  a 
flat-bottomed  vessel,  serving  either  on 
the  lakes  or  rivers,  or  in  counterscarps 
or  counter-approaches.      The  Brisbane, 

on  the  south  side  of  Calais  harbour,  19 
of  this  description,  standing  on  wooden 
piles,  and  surrounded  by  a  battery.  This 
name  is  sometimes  given  to  a  brick 
or  a  stone  building  on  a  bridge,  or  the 
brink  of  river,  serving  not  only  for  its 
defence,  but  for  the  command  of  the 
river,  both  above  and  below. 

BLOQUEIt,  Fr.  to  blockade. 

Bloqler,  Ft",  in  mason-work,  to 
erect  thick  rough  walls  along  the  trenches, 
without  confining  them  to  measure  or 
line,  as  is  the  case  in  stone  walls. 

Bloquer  also  signifies  to  fill  up,  indis- 
criminately, the  chasms  in  walls  with 
rubbish  and  coarse  mortar,  as  is  the  case 
in  works  constructed  under  water. 

BLUES,  or  Royal  Horse  Guards,  com* 
monly  called  the  Oxford  Blues.  This 
regiment  was  originally  raised  at  Oxford, 
and  possesses  landed  property  in  that 
county.  It  consists  of  1  colonel,  with 
8  warrant  men;  2  lieutenant  colonels; 
1  majors;  8  captains,  (of  whom  his  pie- 
sent  Majesty  is  one;)  8  lieutenants;  8 
cornets;  8  quarter-masters,  who  all  bear 
the  King's  commission;  2  surgeons;  1 
adjutant;  1  assistant  surgeon;  1  vete- 
rinary surgeon;  1  corporal-major;  42 
corporals;  9  trumpeters;  .r>60  privates. 
It  is  worthy  of  remark,  that  lieutenant 
colonels  and  captains  of  this  regiment 
do  not  pay  any  thing  to  the  agent,  as  is 
the  case  in  other  regiments. 

The  kettle  drummers  and  trumpeters 
belonging  to  this  corps,  and  to  the  Life 
Guards,  being  household  troops,  have 
their  clothing  furnished  to  them  out  of  his 
Majesty's  wardrobe. 

BLUNDERBUSS,  (mousqueton,  Fr.) 
a  well-known  fire-arm,  consisting  of  a 
wide,  short,  but  very  large  bore,  capable 
of  holding  a  number  of  musket  or  pistol 
balls,  or  slugs  ;  very  fit  for  doing  great 
execution  in  a  croud,  making  good  a 
narrow  passage,  defending  the  door  of  a 
house,  staircase,  &c.  or  repelling  an  at- 
tempt to  board  a  ship. 

To  BOAR,)  with  horsemen.    A  horse 

To  BORE,  J  is  said  to  boar  or  bore, 
when  he  shoots  out  his  nose  as  high  as 
he  can. 

BOARD,  (conseil,  bureau,  departe- 
ment,  Fr.)  an  office  under  the  govern- 
ment, where  the  affairs  of  the  state  are 
transacted;  of  which  there  are  several 
sorts  in  England;  as  Board  of  Ordnance,, 
Board  of  Admiralty,  &c.  &c. 

BOAT.  See  Advice  Boat,  Pontoon- 
Boat,  &c. 

B  O  I 

(     55     ) 


BOB-tail,  with  archers,  is  the  steel  of 
an  arrow  or  shaft,  which  is  small  breasted, 
and  large  towards  the  head. 

BODY,  {corps,  Fr.)  in  the  art  of  war, 
is  a  number  of  forces,  horse  or  foot, 
united  under  one  commander. 

Main  Body  of  an  army  sometimes 
means  the  troops  encamped  in  the  cen- 
ter between  the  two  wings,  and  gene- 
rally consists  of  infantry.  The  main 
body  on  a  march  signifies  the  whole  of 
the  army,  exclusive  of  the  van  and  rear- 

Body  of  reserve.     See  Reserve. 

Body  of  a  place  is,  generally  speak- 
ing, the  buildings  in  a  fortified  town ; 
yet  the  inclosure  round  them  is  generally 
understood  by  it. 

BOETES  pour  les  rtjouissances,  Fr. 
small  guns,  made  of  wrought  or  cast 
iron,  which  are  laid  in  a  vertical  posi- 
tion, after  thev  have  been  loaded  with 
gunpowder,  and  then  plugged  up  with  a 
wooden  stopper.  These  guns  are  let  off, 
like  other  pieces  of  ordnance,  by  apply- 
ing the  match  to  the  bottom  of  the  box. 
The  train,  along  which  the  fire  is  con- 
veyed, consists  of  bran,  with  gunpowder 
at  the  top,  in  order  to  secure  the  latter 
from  moisture. 

Boete,  in  the  artillery,  an  instrument 
made  of  brass,  to  which  a  steel  temper- 
ed blade  is  attached,  with  which  the 
metal  in  a  cannon  is  diminished,  for  the 
purpose  of  widening  the  bore.  See 

Boete,  ou  coffre,  Fr.  a  wooden  box, 
in  which  is  carried  the  gun-powder  for 
a  mine. 

BozTE-a-pierrier,  Fr.  a  hollow  cy- 
linder made  of  iron  or  copper,  which, 
when  loaded,  is  placed  in  a  mortar,  so 
that  an  immediate  communication  takes 
place  between  the  fuse  of  the  latter  and 
its  touch-hole,  and  it  is  propelled  to  the 
place  of  destination. 

Aller  au  BOIS,  Fr.  to  go  with  a  party 
of  men  for  the  purpose  of  procuring 
wood,  &c. 

Bors  de  rcmontage,  Fr.  every  species 
of  timber  which  is  used  to  new  mount 
cannon,  or  refit  ammunition  wagons, 

Boxs  de  chauffage,  Fr.  the  fuel  which 
is  distributed  among  French  troops. 

Long  Boj  s,  Fr.  a  pike,  lance,  or  spear. 

Faire  de  tout  Bois  Jleches,  Fr.  figu- 
ratively, to  use  every  thing  that  turns 
to  one's  purpose.  Literally,  to  make 
arrows  out  of  every  sort  of  wood. 

Faire  haut  le  Bors,  Fr.  pikemen  are 
said  to  do  so,  when  they  stop  and  niaks 
a  stand,  advancing  their  pikes. 

L'ceil  tend  a  au  Bots,  Fr.  warily : 
watchfully;  alluding  to  a  bowman,  who 
keeps  his  eye  upon  the  wood  of  his  in- 
strument, when  he  takes  aim. 

BOISE,  Fr.  a  log,  or  great  piece  of 
timber;  more  particularly  a  brace  of 

BOISSEAU,  Fr.  a  French  bushel, 
being  the  12th  part  of  a  septier,  and 
somewhat  less  than  our  London  peck 
and  a  half.  A  boisseau  of  wheat 
weighs  20  pounds;  our  peck  of  wheat- 
meal  14. 

BOISSEL  d'osier,  Fr.  a  weel  or  weerc 
of  ozier  twigs. 

BOISSIER,  Fr.  to  wainscot  walls, 

BOISSIERE,  Fr.  a  hedge,  thicket,  or 
plot  of  box  trees. 

BOLT,  an  iron  pin  used  for  strength- 
ening a  piece  of  timber,  or  for  fastening 
two  or  more  articles  together.  Bolts 
in  gunnery,  being  of  several  sorts,  aoV 
mit  of  various  denominations,  which 
arise  from  the  specific  application  of 
them,  as 


8.  Garnish 

9.  Axle-tree 
10.  Bolster 

Bolts  of  iron  for  house-building  are 
distinguished  by  ironmongers  into  three 
kinds,  viz.  plate,  round,  and  spring  bolts. 
Plate  and  spring  bolts  are  used  for  the 
fastening  of  doors  and  windows.  Bound 
boltsare  long  iron  pins,  with  a  head  at  one 
end  and  a  key  hole  at  the  other. 

Prize-BoLTS,  with  gunners,  are  large 
knobs  of  iron  on  the  cheek  of  a  car- 
riage, which  prevent  the  handspike  from 
sliding,  when  it  is  poising  up  the  breech 
of  the  piece. 

Transom-Bons,  with  gunners,  are 
bolts  which  go  between  the  cheeks  of 
a  gun-carriage  to  strengthen  the  tran- 

Traverse-BoLTS,  with  gunners,  two 
short  bolts  put  one  into  each  end  of  an 
English  mortar  carriage,  which  serve  to 
traverse  the  raoi  tar. 

Bracket-BoLTS,    with   gunners,   bolts 



r>  o  m 

(  ™  ) 

13  O  M 

which  go   through  the  clieeks  of  a  mor- 
tar, and   by  tin-  help  of  the  coins  keep  it 
fixed  to  the  elevation  given  her. 
/  See  Siili.l. 
nnM],)('W.     See  Caisson. 

j  Vessels,  )  small  vessels,made 
\  Ketches,  \  very  strong,  with 
large  beams,  particularly  calculated  for 
i  hi  owing  shells  into  a  town,  castle,  or 
fortification,  from  13  to  10-inch  mor- 
tars, two  of  which  are  placed  on  hoard 
of  each  ship.  They  are  said  to  have  been 
invented  by  one  M.  Reyneau,  a  French- 
man, and  to  have  been  first  put  in  action 
at  the  bombardment  of  Algiers  in  1681  : 
till  then  it  had  been  judged  impracticable 
to  bombard  a  place  from  the  sea. 

Bomb  Tender,  a  small  vessel  of  war 
laden  with  ammunition  for  the  bomb 
ketch,  and  from  which  the  latter  is  con- 
stantly supplied.  The  ammunition  and 
stores  are  now  carried  in  the  bomb  ves- 
sel :  tenders  not  being  employed  in  that 

BOMB AlfD,  (bombarde,  Fr.)  an  an- 
cient piece  of  ordnance,  very  short,  and 
very  thick,  with  an  uncommon  large 
bore.  There  have  been  bombards 
which  have  thrown  a  ball  or  shell  of  S 
Bwt. :  they  made  use  of  cranes  to  load 
them.  The  Turks  use  some  of  them 
at  present. 

To  Bombard,  (bombarder,  Fr.)  See 

BOMBARDING,  )  the  act  of  as- 
BOMBARDMENT,  S  saulting  a  city 
or  fortress,  by  throwing  shells  into  it, 
in  order  to  set  fire  to,  and  ruin  the 
houses,  churches,  magazines,  &c.  and 
to  do  other  mischief.  As  one  of  the 
effects  of  the  shell  results  from  its 
weight,  it  is  never  discharged  as  a  ball 
from  a  cannon,  that  is,  by  pointing  it  at 
a  certain  object :  but  the  mortars  in 
England  are  fixed  at  an  elevation  of  45 
degrees;  that  is,  inclined  so  many  de- 
grees from  the  horizon,  that  the  shell 
describes  a  curve,  called  the  military 
projectile:  hence  a  mortar,  whose  trun- 
nions are  placed  at  the  breech,  can  have- 
no  point  blank  range.  I  am  of  opinion 
that  mortars  should  be  so  contrived, 
that  they  may  be  elevated  to  any- -degree 
iequired,  as  much  preferable  to'  those 
rixed  at  an  angle  of  45°;  because  shells 
should  never  be  thrown  at  that  angle  but 
in  one  single  case  only,  which  seldom 
happens;  that  is,  when  the  battery  is  so 
far  off,  that  they  cannot  otherwise  reach 
the  works:  for  when  shells  are  thrown 

from  the  trenches  into  the  works  of  a 
fortification,  or  from  the  town  into  the 
trenches,  they  should  have  as  little  ele- 
vation as  possible,  in  order  to  roll  along, 
and  not  bury  themselves;  whereby  the 
damage  they  do  and  the  terror  they 
cause  to  the  troops,  is  much  greater 
than  if  they  sink  into  the  ground.  On 
the  contrary,  when  shells  are  thrown 
upon  magazines,  or  any  other  buildings, 
with  an  intention  to  destroy  them,  the 
mortar  should  be  elevated  as  high  at 
possible,  that  the  shells  may  acquire  a- 
greater  force  in  their  fall.  Some  mor- 
tars (5{  inch  brass)  have  of  late  been 
constructed  to  fire  at  different  elevations, 
upon  brigadier-general  Lawson's  princi- 


Shells  should  be  loaded  with  no  more 
powder  than  is  required  to  burst  them 
into  the  greatest  number  of  pieces,  and 
the  length  of  the  fuzes  should  be  exactly 
calculated  according  to  the  required 
ranges;  for,  should  the  fuze  set  fire  to 
the  powder  in  the  shell  before  it  fails  on 
the  place  intended,  the  shell  will  burst  in 
the  air,  and  propably  do  more  mischief 
to  those  who  fired  the  mortar,  than  to 
those  against  whom  it  was  discharged. 
To  prevent  this,  the  fuzes  arc  divided 
into  as  many  seconds  as  the  greatest 
range  requires,  consequently  may  be  cut 
to  any  distance,  at  an  elevation  of  45 

Mortars  are  not  to  be  fired  with  two 
fires;  for  when  the  fuze  is  properly 
fixed,  and  both  fuze,  and  shell  dredge' 
with  mealed  powder,  the  blast  of  the 
powder  in  the  chamber  of  the  mortar, 
when  inflamed  by  the  tube,  will  likewise 
set  fire  to  the  fuze  in  the  shell. 

BOMBARDIERS,  non-commissioned 
officer,  so  called  because  they  were 
chiefly  employed  in  mortar  and  howitzer 
duty.  They  are  to  load  them  on  all  oc- 
casions; and  in  most  services  they  load 
the  shells  and  grenades,  fix  the  fuzes, 
prepare  the  composition  both  for  fuzes 
and  tubes,  and  fire  both  mortars  and 
howitzers  on  every  occasion.  They  are 
also  employed  on  all  services  in  the  ar- 
tillery. In  the  English  service,  shells, 
grenades,  and  composition  for  the  same, 
fuzes,ccc.  are  prepared  in  the  Laboratory 
by  people  well  skilled  in  that  business. 

In  most  foreign  services,  both  officers 
and  soldiers  belonging  to  the  companies 
of  bombardiers  have  an  extraordinary 
pay,  ;^s  it  requires  more  mathematical 
learning  to  throw  shells  with  some  d»- 


(     57     ) 


gree  of  exactness,  than  is  requisite  for 
the  rest  of  the  artillery.  In  the  British 
service,  a  specific  number  is  attached  to 
each  company  of  artillery;  hut  they  flo 
not  form  a  separate  corps  as  in  other 

BOM  BE,  ou  courbe,  Fr.  a  flat  portion 
of  a  circle,  such  as  is  made  upon  the 
base  of  an  equilateral  triangle,  whose 
center  is  the  angle  at  the  top. 

Bombe,  Fr.  timber  that  is  crooked, 
and  tit  for  crotches,  knees,  &c. 

BOMBELLES,  Fr.  diminutive  bombs 
or  shells,  which  are  used  against  a  be- 
sieged fortress,  or  for  the  purpose  of 
creating  confusion  among  a  body  of 

BOMBEMENT,  Fr.  curvity,  con- 
vexity, also  the  swelling  of  a  pillar. 

BOi\T,  Fr.  a  written  document  which 
always  precedes  the  signature  of  a  sove- 
reign or  a  minister,  and  by  which  some 
appointment  is  confirmed,  to  one  or 
more  persons. 

BONACE  or  BONNACE,  Fr.  calm 
weather,  with  a  serene  sky  and  smooth 

BONAVOGLIE,  Fr.  a  man  that  for  a 
certain  consideration  voluntarily  en- 
gages to  row. 

BONDIR,  Fr.  to  bound;  to  fly  up  as 
a  cannon  ball  does.  It  is  also  applied  to 
a  horse  that  suddenly  leaps  forward. 

BONNET,  in  fortification,  implies  a 
small  but  useful  work,  that  greatly  an- 
noys the  enemy  in  his  lodgments. 
This  work  consists  of  two  faces,  which 
make  a  salient  angle  in  the  nature  of  a 
ravelin,  without  any  ditch,  having  only  a 
parapet  three  feet  high,  and  10  or  12 
feet  broad.  They  are  made  at  the  sa- 
lient angles  of  the  glacis,  outworks,  and 
body  of  the  place,  beyond  the  counter- 
scarp, and  in  the  faussebray.  See  For- 

Bonnet,  a  sort  of  cap  which  is  worn 
by  the  Highlanders,  hence  called  Bon- 

Bonnet  a  Frttre,  or  Priest's-cap, 
in  fortification,  is  an  outwork,  having 
three  salient  and  two  inward  angles,  and 
differs  from  the  double  tenaille  only  in 
having  its  sides  incline  inwards  towards 
the  gorge,  and  those  of  a  double  tenaille 
are  parallel  to  each  other.  See  Forti- 

Bonnet  defer,  Fr.  an  iron  scull,  a 
sal  lad. 

BOOKS.  There  are  different  books 
made  use  of  in  the  British  army,  for  the 

specific  purposes  of  general   and   regi- 
mental economy. 

The  general  order  book  is  kept  by  the 
brigade  major,  from  which  the  leading 
oiders  of  regiments,  conveying  the  pa- 
role and  countersign,  are  always  taken. 

The  regimental  order  book  contains 
the  peculiar  instructions  of  corps  which 
are  given  by  a  colonel  or  commanding 
officerto  the  adjutant — Hence  adjutant's 
order  book. — And  from  him  to  the 
serjeant-major,  who  delivers  the  same 
to  the  different  Serjeants  of  companies 
assembled  in  the  orderly  room  for  that 
purpose.  Hence  the  company's  order 

The  regimental  book  is  kept  by  the 
clerk  of  the  regiment,  and  contains 
all  the  records,  &c.  belonging  to  the 

The  black  book  is  a  sort  of  memoran- 
dum which  is  kept  in  every  regiment  to 
describe  the  character  and  c  induct  of 
non-commissioned  officers  and  soldiers; 
when,  and  how  often,  they  have  been  re^ 
duceri,or  punished,  &c. 

Every  quarter-master  belonging  to  the 
cavalry  and  infantry  has  likewise  a  book 
which  may  not  improperly  be  called  a 
book  or  inventory  of  regimental  stores, 
&c.  A  black  bonk,  is  kept  in  the  adju- 
tant-general's office  in  Dublin,  so  that 
the  commander  in  chief  can  always 
know  the  state  or  condition  of  each  re- 
giment in  that  country,  with  respect  to 
its  interior  management.  This  system 
ought  to  he  general. 

Time  book.  A  book  which  is  usually 
kept  at  public  offices  in  order  to  ascer- 
tain the  exact  time  at  which  the  clerks, 
Cv'c.  make  their  appearance,  particularly 
at  the  War-Office. 

Quarter  book.  A  book  kept  in  the 
Office  of  Ordnance,  which  contains  the 
names  of  such  officers,  and  such  salaries 
only,  as  have  been  sanctioned  by  his 
Majesty's  warrants. 

Practice  book.  A  book  containing 
the  weight,  range,  &c.  of  cannon;  and 
also  the  manner  of  exercising  with 
pieces  of  artillery.  Every  officer  be- 
longing to  the  royal  artillery  ought  to 
have  a  book  of  practice. 

Regimental  court-martial  book.  This 
book  contains  the  names  of  the  soldiers 
who  have  been  tried  since  the  date  of 
the  last  inspection  of  a  regiment,  stat- 
i  ing  the  crime  lor  which  each  man  has 
been  tried;  the  punishment  awarded, 
and  i  he  punishment  inflicted. 
•         I 


(    58    ) 


Description  book.  This  book  is  like- 
wise called  regimental  book. 

BOOM,  in  marine  fortilication,  is  a 
long  piece  of  timber,  with  which  rivers 
or  harbours  are  stopped,  to  prevent  the 
enemy's  coining  in  :  it  is  sometimes  done 
by  a  cable  or  chain,  and  floated  wiih 
yards,  top-masts,  or  spars  of  wood  lash- 
ed to  it. 

BOOTS,  a  familiar  term  used  in  the 
British  service.  It  means  the  youngest 
officer  at  a  regimental  mess,  and  takes 
its  origin,  most  probably,  from  what  is 
generally  called  Boots  at  an  inn. 

BORDAGE,  I V.  the  planks  of  a  ship's 

Franc  Bordace,  Fr.  the  outside 

BORDE  E  de  canon,  Fr.  a  broadside, 
or  all  the  guns  on  one  side  of  a  ship. 

BORDER,  in  military  drawings,  im- 
plies single  or  double  lines,  or  any  other 
ornament,  round  a  drawing,  &c. 

BORDER,  Fr.  in  a  military  sense,  to 
line:  as  Border  la  cole,  to  line  the  coast. 

BORDEREAU,  Fr.  a  sort  of  diary 
which  is  kept  in  a  troop  or  company,  for 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining  what  arti- 
cles have  been  distributed,  and  what 
jnonev  lias  been  paid  to  the  soldiers. 

BORDERERS(King'sown.)  The  25th 
regiment  is  so  called;  from  the  regiment 
having  originally  been  stationed  on  the 
boundaries  of  Scotland. 

BORDURE,  Fr.  in  architecture,  a 
profile  in  relievo,  which  is  either  oval  or 
round.  When  it  is  square,  it  is  called 
cadre,  and  serves  to  frame  a  picture  or 

Bordure  de  pave,  Fr.  the  curb  stone 
on  each  side  of  a  paved  road. 

BORE,  in  gunnery,  implies  the  cavity 
of  the  barrel  of  a  gun,  mortar,  howitzer, 
or  any  other  piece  of  ordnance.  See 

BORNE,  Fr.  a  stone  stud,  which  is 
placed  at  the  corner  of,  or  before,  a 
wall,  to  secure  it  against  wagons,  &c. 

Borne,  Fr.  limit;  bound. 

BORNOYER,  Fr.  to  ascertain  the 
straight ness  of  a  line,  by  looking  with 
one  eye  through  three  or  more  stakes 
or  poles,  in  order  to  erect  a  wall,  or 
plant  a  row  of  trees. 

BOSCAGE,  ^  a  term  in  architecture, 

BOSS  AGE,  $  used  for  any  stone  that 
has  a  pmjeeture,  and  is  laid  in  a  place, 
in  a  building,  lineal,  to  be  afterwards 
carved  into  mouldings,  capitals,  coats  of 
arms,  &c 

Bossage  is  also  that  which  is  other- 
wise called  rustic  work. 

Bossage  en  liaison,  Fr.  that  which  re- 
presents the  squares  and  stones  laid 

BOSSE,  Fr.  a  term  used  in  the 
French  artillery  to  express  a  glass  bottle 
which  is  very  thin,  contains  four  or  five 
pounds  of  powder,  and  round  the  neck 
of  which  four  or  five  matches  are  hung 
under,  after  it  has  been  well  corked.  A 
cord,  two  or  three  feet  in  length,  is  tied 
to  the  bottle,  which  serves  to  throw  it. 
The  instant  the  bottle  breaks,  the  pow- 
der catches  fire,  and  every  thing  within 
the  immediate  effects  of  the  explosion  is 
destroyed,  or  injured. 

Bosse,  Fr.  a  small  knob  or  emboss- 
ment, which  is  left  on  the  dressing  of  a 
stone,  to  shew  that  the  dimensions  have 
not  been  toised,  and  which  the  work- 
man pares  off  when  he  finishes. 
BO  ITER,  Fr.  to  boot. 
BOTTINE,  Fr.  half  boots  worn  by 
the  hussars  and  dragoons  in  foreign 

BOUCHE,     Fr.     the     aperture     or 
mouth  of  a  piece  of  ordnance,  &c. 
Bouche,  Fr.  the  king's  kitchen. 
BOUCAES  a  feu,  Fr.     This  word  is 
generally  used  to  signify  pieces  of  ord- 
nance, such  as  cannon  and  mortars. 

Grosse  Bouche  a  feu,  Fr.  a  piece  of 
heavy  ordnance. 

Petite  Bouche  a  feu,  Fr.  a  carbine, 
musket,  or  pistol. 

BOUCHERS  d'une  armie,  Fr.  This 
term  is  sometimes  used  among  the 
French,  to  signify  the  persons  who  con- 
tract with  the  quarter-master  general's 
department  for  a  regular  supply  of 

BOUCHON  d'etoupe,  de  Join,  de 
paille,  Fr.  the  wad  of  a  cannon,  made 
of  tow,  hay,  straw,  &c. 

Un  port  BOUCLE,  Fr.  a  land-locked 

BOULANGERIE,  Fr.  a  bakery; 
the  spot  where  bread  is  baked  for  an 
army,  or  where  biscuits  are  made  at  a 

BOULANGERS,  Fr.  bakers.  Per- 
sons of  this  description  are  generally  at- 
tached to  armies. 

BOVLDER-u  alls,  a  kind  of  wall 
which  is  built  with  round  flints,  or 
pebbles,  laid  in  strong  mortar.  These 
walls  are  chiefly  used  where  the  sea  has 
a  beach  cast  up,  or  where  there  is  plenty 
of  flints. 


(     69     ) 


BOULER  la  mutitre,  Fr.  to  stir  up  inhabitants  which  consists   of  respect- 

the  different  metals  which  are  used  in 
casting  cannon. 

BOULETS  a  deux  tites,  ou  anges,  Fr. 
double  headed  shot. 

Boulets  enchaints,Yr.  chain-shot. 

Boulets  ramis,  Fr.  barred-shot. 

Boulets  rouges,  Fr.  red -hot  shot. 

BOULEVART,  Fr.  formerly  meant 
a  bastion.  It  is  no  longer  used  as  a  mi- 
litary phrase,  although  it  sometimes  oc 

able  tradesmen  who  are  united  among 
themselves,  and,  in  moments  of  danger, 
learn  military  movements,  and  turn  out 
as  volunteers  for  the  security  of  their 
rights,  &c. 

BOURGUIGNOTE,  Fr.  a  helmet  or 
morion  which  is  usually  worn  with  a 
breast-plate.  It  is  proof  against  pikes 
and  swords.    It  is  also  called  a  Cabosset. 

BOURRADE,  Fr.  a  thrust  which  is 

curs  in  the  description  of  works  or  lines  I  made  with  the  barrel  end  of  the  musket 
which  cover  a  whole  country,  and  pro-    instead  of  the  butt. 

tect  it  from  the  incursions  of  an  enemy. 
Thus  Strasburgh  and  Landau  may  be 
called  two  principal  boulevarts  or  bul- 
warks, by  which  France  is  protected  on 
this  side  of  the  Rhine. 

The  elevated  line,  or  rampart,  which 
reaches  from  the  Champs  Elysees  in 
Paris  beyond  the  spot  where  the  Bas- 
tille was  destroyed  in  1789, and  surrounds 
Paris,  is  styled  the  Boulevart. 

In  ancient  times,  when  the  Romans 
attacked  any  place,  they  raised  boule- 
varts near  the  circumference  of  the 
walls.  These  boulevarts  were  80  feet 
high,  300  feet  broad,  upon  which  wood- 
en towers  commanding  the  ramparts 
were  erected,  covered  on  all  sides  with 
iron-work,  and  from  which  the  besiegers 
threw  upon  the  besieged  stones,  darts, 
(ire-works,  &c.  to  facilitate  the  ap- 
proaches of  the  archers  and  battering 

BOULINER,  Fr.  to  pilfer.  Bouliner 
dans  un  camp,  to  steal  or  pilfer  in  a 
camp.  Un  soldat  boulineur,  a  soldier 
that  plunders. 

BOULINS,  Fr.  pieces  of  timber 
which  are  fastened  into  walls  in  order 
to  erect  a  scaffold. 

XVoms  <&rBouLiNS,Fr.scaffoldingholes. 

BOULON,  Fr.  an  iron  bolt. 

BOULONNER,  Fr.  to  fasten  with 
an  iron  bolt. 

BOULONS  d'afut,  Fr.  the  bolts  of 
the  gun-carriage. 

BOUNTY,  a  certain  sum  of  money 
which  is  given  to  men  who  enlist. 

FmA-BouNTY,  money  given  to  a 
soldier  when  he  continues  in  the  ser- 
vice after  the  expiration  of  the  term  for 
which  he  enlisted. 

BOU  RE,  Fr.     See  Mousse. 

BOURGEOIS,  Fr.  the  middle  order 
of  people  in  a  town  are  so  called,  to 
distinguish  them  from  the  military  and 

BOURGEOISIE,  Fr.   that  class  of 

BOURRE,  Fr.  a  wad. 

BOURRELET,  Fr.  the  extremity  of 
a  piece  of  ordnance  towards  its  mouth. 
Bourrelet  means  likewise  a  pad  or  collar. 

BOURRER,  Fr.  to  ram  the  wad  or 
any  other  materials  into  the  barrel  of  a 

Bourrer  une  mine,  Fr.  to  fill  up 
the  gallery  of  a  mine  with  earth,  stones, 

BOURRIQUET,  Fr.  a  basket  made 
use  of  in  mining,  to  draw  up  the  earth, 
and  to  let  down  whatever  may  be  ne- 
cessary for  the  miner. 

BOURSEAU,  Fr.  in  architectures 
round  moulding  upon  the  ridge  of  lead, 
on  the  top  of  a  house  that  is  slated. 

BOUSIN,  Fr.  soft  crust  of  stones 
taken  out  of  the  quarry. 

BOUSSOLE,  Fr.  a  compass,  which 
every  miner  must  be  in  possession  of  to 
direct  him  in  his  work. 

BOUTE-SELLE,  Fr.  the  signal  or 
word  which  is  given  to  the  cavalry  to 
saddle  their  horses. 

BOUTON,  Fr.  the  sight  of  a  musket. 

BOW,  an  ancient  weapon  of  offence, 
made  of  steel,  wood,  or  other  elastic 
matter;  which,  after  being  bent  by 
means  of  a  string  fastened  to  its  two 
ends,  in  returning  to  its  natural  state 
throws  out  an  arrow  with  prodigious 

The  use  of  the  bow  is,  without  all 
doubt,  of  the  earliest  antiquity.  It  has 
likewise  been  the  most  universal  of  all 
weapons,  having  obtained  amongst  the 
most  barbarous  and  remote  people,  who 
had  the  least  communication  with  the 
rest  of  mankind. 

The  bow  is  a  weapon  of  offence 
amongst  the  inhabitants  of  Asia,  Africa, 
and  America,  at  this  day;  and  in  Eu- 
rope, before  the  invention  of  fire-arms,  a 
part  of  the  infantry  was  armed  with 
bows.  Lewis  XII.  first  abolished  the 
use  of  bows  in  France,  introducing,  in 
J  2 


(     60     ) 


their  stead,  the  halhert,  pike,  and  broad-' 
sword.  The  long-bow  was  formerly  in 
great  use  in  England,  and  many  laws 
were  made  t'>  encourage  tlie  practice 01  it. 
Tlie  parliament  under  Henry  VII.  com- 
plaints! of  tlie  disuse  of  long-bows, 
heretofore  the  safeguard  and  defence  of 
this  kingdom,  and  the  dread  and  terror 
of  its  enemies. 

Cross  How  is  likewise  an  ancient 
weapon  uf  offence,  of  the  eleventh  cen- 
tury. Philip  II.  surnamed  the  Con- 
queror, introduced  cross-hows  into 
f ranee.  In  this  reign  Richard  I.  of 
l'.n  land,  '•  s  killed  liy  a  cross-bow  at 
tl.e  siege  of  Chalus. 

1j()v\  MAN.     See  Archer. 

BOWYER,    the   man  who  made  o: 
repaired  the  military  bows  was  SO  called. 

BOXES,  in  military  affairs,  are  of 
several  sorts,  and  for  various  purposes. 

A  cutting  B>x,  a  box  wherein  chop- 
ped straw  and  cut  hay  may  he  kept.  troop  of  cavalry  intended  for 
service  or  parade,  ought  to  have  a  cut- 
ting box  I  elodging  to  it,  and  one  man 
constantly  employed,  all  day,  at  it  in 
chopping  hay,  straw,  &c.  Forage  of  all 
kinds  should  lie  cut  and  mixed  together. 
Among  the  G  rmans,  every  trooper 
carries  a  double  feed  of  chopped  straw 
and  corn  mingled  together,  which  is 
never  touched  hut  by  express  order  of 
the  commanding  officer. 

Battery-BoxES.     See  Battery. 

Cartpuch-llox.ES.     See  Cartouch. 

AViT-Boxes  arc  made  of  iron,  and 
fastened  one  at  each  end  of  the  navej  to 
prevent  the  arms  of  the  axle-tree,  about 
which  the  boxes  turn,  from  causing  too 
much  friction. 

I^b-Boxes,  such  as  are  filled  with 
small  shot  For  grape,  according  to  the 
size  of  the  gun  they  are  to  he  fired  out  of. 

/foot/- Boxes,  with  lids,  for  holding 
grape-shot,  &c.  Each  calibre  has  its 
own,  distinguished  by  marks  of  the  cali- 
bre on  the  lid. 

There  are  wooden  boxes  which  con- 
tain ammunition  carried  upon  the  lim- 
hers  and  cars  for  field  ordnance;  also 
boxes  to  contain  the  reserve  ammuni- 
tion as  it  conies  from  the  Laboratory. 
The  shot,  shells,  cartridges,  &c.  are 
packed  in  these  boxes,  according  to  their 
natures  and  descriptions,  so  as  to  prevent 
any  confusion;  and  the  ends  of  the  boxes 
are  marked  in  letters  to  shew  what  they 

BOYAUj  in  fortification,  is  a  particu- 

lar trench  separated  from  the  others, 
which,  in  winding  about,  incloses  dif- 
ferent spaces  of  ground,  and  runs  pa- 
rallel with  the  works  of  the  place,  that 
it  may  not  be  enfiladed.  When  two  at- 
tacks are  made  at  once,  one  near  to  the 
other,  the  boyau  makes  a  communica- 
tion between  the  trenches,  and  serves  as 
a  line  of  contravallation,  not  only  to 
hinder  the  sallies  of  the  besieged,  but 
likewise  to  secure  the  miners. 

BUACES,  in  a  military  sense,  are  a 
kind  of  armour  for  the  arm:  they  were 
formerly  a  part  of  a  coat  of  mail.  'I  he 
straps  which  are  worn  across  the  shoul- 
ders, in  order  to  suspend  the  breeches, 
are  also  called  Braces. 

BRACKETS,  in  gunnery,  are  the 
cheeks  of  the  travelling  carnage  of  guns 
and  howitzers;  they  are  made  of  strong 
wooden  planks.  This  name  is  some- 
times given  to  that  part  of  a  large  mor- 
tar-hed,  where  the  trunnions  are  placed, 
for  the  elevation  of  the  mortar:  they 
are  sometimes  made  of  wood,  and  more 
frequently  of  iron,  of  almost  a  semi- 
circular figure,  well  fastened  with  nails 
and  strong  plates. 

BRACONS,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  small 
stakes  of  wood  which  are  assembled 
with  the  cross-beams  in  the  Hood-gates 
of  large  sluices. 

BRADS,  a  kind  of  nails  used  in 
building,  which  have  no  spreading 
heads,  as  other  nails  have.  They  are 
distinguished  by  ironmongers  in  the 
following  manner:  joiners'  brads,  floor- 
ing brads,  bntten  brads,  bill  brads  or 
quarter  heads}  &c. 

BRAGUE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  mortoise,  or 
joining  of  pieces  together. 

BRANCARD  ou  civiere,  Fr.  a  hand- 
barrow,  or  litter.  This  word  literally 
means  shaft.  It  is  sometimes  used  as  a 
machine  to  carry  sick  or  wounded  sol- 
diers upon.  The  difference  between 
brancard  and  civiere  is  that  the  first  is 
only  a  frame;  and  the  second,  being 
bo.ude  1  inside, and  raised  round,  it  can  be 
used  for  the  conveyance  of  earth,  sand,  &c. 

BRAN  (ill-:,  Fr.  branch.  This  word 
is  peculiarly  adapted  to  the  covert-way, 
ditch,  horn-works,  and  to  every  part  of 
a  fortification,  and  signifies  the  long 
sides  of  the  different  works  which  sur- 
round a  fortified  town  or  camp.  See 
Mine  and  Gallery. 

Branche  d'un  prqjet  de  guerre,  of- 
fensive ou  defensive,  Fr.  This  term 
comprehends    the  various  designs  and 

B  R  E 

(     61     ) 

B  R  I 

means  which  are  embraced   to  carry  01 
offensive  or  defensive  measures. 

Branche  de  riviere,  Fr.  a  branch  of 
a  river. 

Brunche  also  signifies,  as  with  us,  the 
various  divisions  of  a  department,  as 
civil  and  military  branches. 

BRAND,  an  ancient  term  for  a 
sword  ;  so  called  by  the  Saxons. 

BRANDINS,  Fr.     See  Chevrons. 

BRAQUEMART,  Fr.  a  broad  short 
sword,  which  is  usually  worn  on  the  let' 
side,  and  is  properly  a  cutlass. 

BRAQUER,  Fr.  to  bring  up  any 
thins,  so  that  it  may  be  used  immedi- 
ately: hence  Braquer  le  canon,  to  bring 
cannon  to  bear. 

BRAS  de  mer,  Fr.  an  arm  of  the  sea. 

BRASSER  la  matiere,  Fr.  to  mix  the 
different  ingredients  which  are  required 
for  the  making  of  gunpowder  or  other 
combustible  matter. 

BRASSARTS,JV.thin  plates  of  beaten 
iron  which  were  anciently  used  to  cover 
the  arms  above  the  coat  of  mail. 

BRAVOURE,  Fr.  According  to  the 
author  of  the  French  Military  Dictionary, 
this  word  signifies  any  act  of  courage  and 
valour  by  which  the  enterprizing  cha- 
racter of  a  man  is  distinguished. 

BRAYETTE,  Fr.  See  Torre  cor- 

BRAZING,  the  soldering  or  joining 
two  pieces  of  iron,  by  means  of  thin 
plates  of  brass  melted  between  the  two 
pieces  to  be  joined. 

BREACH,  (brtche,  Fr.)  a  gap,  or 
opening,  in  any  part  of  the  works  of 
a  fortified  place,  made  by  the  artillery 
or  mines  of  the  besiegers,  preparatory  to 
the  making  of  an  assault. 

A  practicable  Breach,  (brtche  prac- 
ticable, Fr.)  an  opening  made  into  the 
wall  of  a  fortified  place,  through  which 
soldiers  may  enter. 

To  repair  a  Breach,  to  stop  or  fill  up 
the  gap  with  gabions,  fascines,  &c.  and 
prevent  the  assault. 

To  fortify  a  Breach,  to  render  it  in- 
accessible  with  chevaux-de-frize,  crow's- 
feet,  &c. 

To  make  a  lodgment  in  the  Breach. 
After  i he  besieged  are  driven  away,  the 
besieiieis  secure  themselves  against  any 
future  attack  in  the  breach. 

To  clear  the  Breach,  to  remove  the 
ruins,  that  it  may  be  the  better  defended. 

BREAK-o/^  a  term  used  when  ca- 
valry is  ordered  to  diminish  its  front — 
similar  to   rile-off  in  the  infantry.     It  is 

also  used  to  signify  wheeling  from  line; 
as  break  iNG-off  to  the  left,  for  wheeling 
to  the  left. 

To  Break-o^  (rompre,  discontinuer, 
Fr.)  also  signifies  to  desist  suddenly:  as 
to  BfiEAK-o/f  negociations. 

To  Break  a  horse,  (dresser  un  cheval, 
Fr.)  to  render  a  horse  manageable. 

To  tinEAh-ground,  (ouvrir  la  tranchte, 
Fr.)  to  make  the  first  openingof  the  earth 
to  form  entrenchments,  as  at  the  com- 
mencement of  a  siege.  It  applies  also 
to  the  sti iking  of  tents,  and  quitting  the 
ground  on  which  any  troops  had  been 

BREAST-PLATE,  a  piece  of  defen- 
sive armour  worn  on  the  breast. 

BREAST-ziw/r.     See  Parapet. 

BRECHE,  Fr.  any  opening  which  is 
made  by  force.  It  is  also  used  among  the 
French,  to  signify  a  successful  charge 
upon  a  bodv  of  men. 

BREECH  of  a  gun,  the  end  near  the 
vent.     See  Cannon. 

BRETESQUE,  Fr.  a  public  place 
in  a  town  wherein  proclamations  are 
usually  made;  also  a  port  or  portal  of 
defence  in  the  rampart,  or  wall  of  a 

BRETESSE,  Fr.  embattled;  garnish- 
ed or  furnished  with  battlements. 

BRETESSE,  Fr.  the  battlement  of 
a  wall. 

B  REVET- rarc/c  is  a  rank  in  the  army 
higher  than  that  for  which  pay  is  re- 
ceived. It  gives  precedence  (when  corps 
are  brigaded)  according  to  the  date  of 
the  brevet  commission. 

The  Brevet,  a  term  used  to  express 
general  promotion,  by  which  a  given 
number  of  officers  are  raised  from  the 
rank  of  captain,  upwards,  without  any 
additional  pav,  until  they  reach  the  rank 
of  major-general;  when,  by  a  late  regula- 
tion, they  become  entitled  to  a  quarterly 

BREVET,  Fr.  commission,  appoint- 
ment. All  otiicers  in  the  old  French 
service,  from  a  cornet  or  sub-lieutenant 
up  to  a  marshal  of  J7ance,were  styled  of- 
ficiers  a  brevet. 

Brev  ets  d'assurance  ou  de  retenued'ar- 
gcnt,  Fr.  certain  military  and  civil  ap- 
pointments  granted  by  the  old  kings  of 
France,  which  were  distinguished  from 
other  places  of  trust,  in  as  much  as  every 
successor  was  obliged  to  pay  a  certain 
sum  of  money  to  the  heirs  of  the  de- 
ceased, or  for  the  discharge  of  his  debts. 

BRICKS,  substances  composed  of  an 

B  R  I 

(     62     ) 

B  R  I 

enrthv  matter,  which  are  hardened  by 
art :  they  may  be  very  well  considered 
as  artificial  stcne.  Bricks  are  of  very 
great  antiquity,  as  appears  from  sacred 
history,  the  Tower  of  Babel  being  built 
with  them;  and  it  is  said  the  remains  are 
still  visible.  The  Greeks  and  Romans, 
&c.  generally  used  bricks  in  their  build- 
ings, witness  the  Pantheon,  &c.  In  the 
east  they  baked  their  bricks  in  the  sun. 
The  Romans  used  them  unburst,  having 
first  left  them  to  dry  in  the  air  for  three, 
four,  or  five  years. 

The  best  bricks  must  not  be  made  of 
any  earth  that  is  full  of  sand  or  gravel, 
nor  of  such  as  is  gritty  or  stony;  but  of 
a  greyish  marie,  or  whitish  chalky  clay, 
or  at  least  of  reddish  earth.  But  if 
there  is  a  necessity  to  use  that  which  is 
sandy,  choice  should  be  made  of  that 
which  is  tough  and  strong. 

The  best  season  for  making  bricks  is 
the  spring;  because  they  will  be  subject 
to  crack,  and  be  full  of  chinks,  if  made 
in  the  summer :  the  loam  should  he 
well  steeped  or  soaked,  and  wrought 
with  water.  They  are  shaped  in  a  mould, 
and,  after  some  drying  in  the  sun  or 
air,  are  burnt  to  a  hardness.  This  is 
our  manner  of  making  bricks;  but  whe- 
ther they  were  always  made  in  this  man- 
ner admits  a  doubt.  We  are  not  clear 
what  was  the  use  of  straw  in  the  bricks 
for  building  in  Egypt,  or  why  in  some 
parts  of  Germany  they  mix  saw-dust  in 
their  clay  for  bricks. 

We  are  in  general  tied  down  by  cus- 
tom to  one  form,  and  one  size;  which 
is  truly  ridiculous :  8  or  9  inches  in 
length,  and  4  in  breadth,  is  our  general 
measure  :  but  beyond  doubt  there  might 
be  other  forms,  and  other  sizes,  intro- 
duced very  advantageously.  Bricks,  with- 
out any  particular  form  or  shape,  are 
used  in  the  north  of  England  to  make 
up  the  public  roads,  &c.  particularly 
those  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Sheffield, 
Wakefield,  and  Leeds. 

Compass  Bricks  are  of  acircular  form; 
their  use  is  for  steening  of  walls;  we  have 
also  concave,  and  semi-cylindrical,  used 
for  different  purposes. 

Grey-Stocks  are  made  of  the  purest 
earth,  and  better  wrought:  they  are  used 
in  front  in  building,  being  the  strongest 
and  handsomest  of  this  kind. 

P/We-BtucKS  are  made  of  the  same 
tarth,  or  worse,  with  a  mixture  of  dirt 
fro.ii  the  streets,  and  being  carelessly 
put  out  of  hand,  are  therefore  weaker 

and  more  biittle,  and  are  only  used  out 
of  sight,  and  where  little  stress  is  laid  on 

Red-Stocks  are  made  of  a  particular 
earth,  well  wrought,  and  little  injured  by 
mixture:  they  are  used  in  fine  work,  and 

Hcdgcrlcy-TlRiCKS  are  made  of  a  yel- 
lowish coloured  loam,  very  hard  to  the 
touch,  containing  a  great  quantity  of 
sand  :  their  particular  excellence  is,  that 
they  will  bear  the  greatest  violence  of 
fire  without  hurt. 

BRIDGES,  in  military  affairs,  are  of 
several  sorts  and  denominations,  viz. 

Rkj/i-Bridges  are  made  of  large 
bundles  of  rushes,  bound  fast  together, 
over  which  planks  are  laid,  and  fas- 
tened: these  are  put  in  marshy  places, 
for  the  army  to  pass  over  on  any  emer- 

Pendant  or  hanging  Bridges  are 
those  not  supported  by  posts,  pillars,  or 
hutments,  but  hung  at  large  in  the  air, 
sustained  only  at  the  two  ends. 

Diaw-B  ridge,  that  which  is  fastened 
with  hinges  at  one  end  only,  so  that  the 
other  may  be  drawn  up  (in  which  case 
the  bridge  is  almost  perpendicular)  to 
hinder  the  passage  of  a  ditch,  &c. — 
There  are  others  made  to  draw  back 
and  hinder  the  passage ;  and  some  that 
open  in  the  middle;  one  half  of  which 
turns  away  on  one  side,  and  the  other 
half  to  the  other,  and  both  again  join  at 

F/i/ing-BRivcz  is  generally  made  of 
two  small  bridges,  laid  one  over  the 
other,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  upper- 
most stretches  out  by  the  help  of  certain 
cords  running  through  pullies  placed 
along  the  sides  of  the  upper  bridge, 
which  push  it  forwards,  till  the  end  of  it 
joins  the  place  it  is  intended  to  be  fixed 
on.  They  are.  frequently  used  to  sur- 
prise works,  or  out-posts,  that  have  only 
narrow  ditches. 

Bridge  of  boats  is  a  number  of 
common  boats  joined  parallel  to  each 
other,  at  the  distance  of  6"  feet,  till  they 
reach  across  the  river;  which  being 
covered  with  strong  planks,  and  fastened 
with  anchors  and  ropes,  the  troops  march 

Bridge  of  communication  is  that  made 
over  a  river,  by  which  two  armies,  or 
forts,  which  are  separated  by  that  river, 
have  a  free  communication  with  one 

Floating-BmoGZ,  abridge  resembling 

B  R  I 

(     63     ) 

B  R  I 

«  work  in  fortification,  which  is  called 
a  redoubt;  consisting  of  two  boats 
covered  with  planks,  that  are  solidly 
framed,  so  as  to  bear  either  horse  or 
artillery.  Bridges  of  this  kind  are  fre- 
quently used. 

Poh/om-Bridge,  a  number  of  tin  or 
copper  boats  placed  at  the  distance  of  7 
or  8  feet  asunder,  each  fastened  with 
an  anchor,  or  a  strong  rope  that  goes 
across  the  river,  running  through  the 
rings  of  the  pontons.  They  are  covered 
with  baulks,  and  then  with  chesses  or 
pianks,  for  the  army  to  walk  over.  See 

Cask,  or  Barrel  Bridge,  a  number 
of  empty  casks  that  support  baulks  and 
planks,  made  as  above  into  a  bridge, 
where  pontons,  &c.  are  wanting.  Ex- 
perience has  taught  us  that  5  tuns  of 
empty  casks  will  support  above  water 
9000  pounds:  hence  any  calculation  may 
be  made. 

Bridges  are  made  of  carpentry  or 
masonry.  The  number  of  arches  of  a 
bridge  is  generally  made  odd;  either 
that  the  middle  of  the  stream  or  chief 
current  may  flow  freely  without  inter- 
ruption of  a  pier;  or  that  the  two 
halves  of  the  bridge,  bv  gradually  rising 
from  the  ends  to  the  middle,  may  there 
meet  in  the  highest  and  largest  arch  ; 
or  else,  for  the  sake  of  grace,  that 
being  open  in  the  middle,  the  eye  in 
observing  it  may  look  directly  through, 
as  we  always  expect  to  do  in  looking 
at  it;  and  without  which  opening  we 
generally  feel  a  disappointment  in  view- 
ing it. 

If  the  bridge  be  equally  high  through- 
out, the  arches,  being  all  of  a  height, 
are  made  of  one  size,  which  causes  a 
great  saving  of  centering.  If  the  bridge 
be  higher  in  the  middle  than  at  the 
ends,  let  the  arches  decrease  from  the 
middle  towards  each  end,  but  so  that 
each  half  have  the  arches  exactly  alike, 
and  that  they  decrease  in  span  propor- 
tionally to  their  height,  so  as  to  be  al- 
ways the  same  kind  of  figure.  Bridges 

of  which  is  highly  spoken  of;  the  model  ie 
at  the  Office  of  Ordnance,  in  Pall-Mail. — 
Bridges  have  sometimes  been  built  in 
commemoration  of  great  battles,  such  as 
those  of  Jena,  Austerlitz,  &e.  in  Paris. 

Names  of  all  the  Terms  peculiar  to 
Bridges,  fyc. 

Abutment.     See  But  merit. 

Arch,  an  opening  of  a  bridge,  through 
or  under  which  the  water,  &c.  passes, 
and  which  is  supported  by  piers  or  hut- 
ments. Arches  are  denominated  cir- 
cular, elliptical,  cycloids),  caternarian, 
equilibria!,  gothic,  &c.  according  to  their 
figure  or  curve. 

Archivolt,  the  curve  or  line  formed 
by  the  upper  sides  of  the  voussoirs  or 
arch-stones.  It  is  parallel  to  the  intra- 
dos  or  under  side  of  the  arch,  when  the 
voussoirs  are  all  of  the  same  length: 
otherwise  not. 

By  the  archivolt  is  also  sometimes  un- 
derstood the  whole  set  of  voussoirs. 

Banquet,  the  raised  foot-path  at  the 
sides  or  the  bridge  next  the  parapet. 

Battardeau,  or  }  a  case  of  piling,  &c. 

Coffer-dam,  $  without  a  bottom, 
fixed  in  the  river,  water-tight,  or  nearly 
so,  in  order  to  lay  the  bottom  dry  for 
a  space  large  enough  to  build  the  pier 
on.  When  it  is  fixed,  its  sides  reaching 
above  the  level  of  the  water,  the  water 
is  pumped  out  of  it,  or  drawn  off  by 
engines,  &c.  till  the  space  be  dry:  and 
it  is  kept  so  by  the  same  means,  until 
the  pier  is  built  up  in  it,  and  then  the 
materials  of  it  are  drawn  up  again. 
Battardeaux  are  made  in  various  man- 
ners, either  by  a  single  inclosure,  or  by 
a  double  one,  with  clay  or  chalk  rammed 
in  between  the  two,  to  prevent  the 
water  from  coming  through  the  sides: 
and  these  inclosures  are  also  made  either 
with  piles  only,  driven  close  by  one  an- 
other, and  sometimes  notched  or  dove- 
tailed into  each  other;  or  with  piles 
grooved  in  the  sides,  driven  in  at  a  dis- 
tance from  one  another,  and  boards  let 
down  between  them  in  the  grooves. 

Butments  are   the  extremities    of    a 

rather    be    of    few    and    large   bridge,  by  which  it  joins  to,  or  abuts  upon 

arches,  than  of  many  and  small  ones 
if  the  height  and  situation  will  allow 
of  it. 

Several  bridges  have  lately  been  con- 
structed of  cast  iron,  as  those  of  Sunder- 
land, Colebrook  Dale,  &c. — A  portable 
iron  bridge  is  constructing  under  the  im- 
mediate direction  of  Major  By,  of  the 
corps  of  Royal  Engineers,  the  principle 

the  land,  or  sides  of  the  river,  &c. 

These  must  be  made  very  secure,  quite 
immovable,  and  more  than  barely  suffi- 
cient to  resist  the  drift  of  its  adjacent 
arch;  so  that,  if  there  are  not  rocks  or 
very  solid  banks  to  raise  them  against, 
they  must  be  well  reinforced  with  proper 
walls  or  returns,  &c. 

Caisson,  a   kind  of  chest,  or  flat-bot- 

B  R  I 

(     64     ) 

B  R  I 

tomed  boat,  in  which  a  pier  is  built, 
then  sunk  to  the  bed  of  the  river,  and 
the  sides  loosened  and  taken  off  from 
the  bottom,  by  a  contrivance  for  that 
purpose:  the  bottom  of  it  being  left 
under  the  pier  as  a  foundation.  It  is 
evident  therefore,  that  t lie  bottoms  of 
the  caissons  must  be  made  very  strong 
and  tit  for  the  foundations  of  the  piers. 
The  caisson  is  kept  afloat  till  the  pier 
be  built  to  the  height  of  low-water 
mark  ;  and  for  that  purpose  its  sides 
must  either  be  made  of  more  than  thai 
height  at  (irst,  or  else  gradually  raised 
to  it,  as  it  sinks  by  the  weight  of  the 
work,  so  as  always  to  keep  its  top  above 
water :  and  therefore  the  sides  must  be 
made  very  strong,  and  kept  asunder  by 
cross  timbers  within,  lest  the  great  pres- 
sure of  the  ambient  water  crush  the 
sides  in,  and  so  not  only  endanger  the 
work,  but  also  drown  the  workmen 
within  it.  The  caisson  is  made  of  the 
shape  of  the  pier,  but  some  feet  wider 
on  every  side,  to  make  room  for  the 
men  to  work  ;  the  whole  of  the  sides 
are  of  two  pieces,  both  joined  to  the 
bottom  quite  round,  and  to  each  other  at 
the  salient  angle,  so  as  to  be  disengaged 
from  the  bottom,  and  from  each  other, 
when  the  pier  is  raised  to  the  desired 
height,  and  sunk.  It  is  also  convenient 
to  have  a  little  sluice  made  in  the  bot- 
tom, occasionally  to  open  and  shut,  to 
sink  the  caisson  and  pier  sometimes  by, 
before  it  be  finished,  to  try  if  it  bottom 
level  and  rightly;  for  by  opening  the 
sluice,  the  water  will  rush  in  and  fill  it 
to  the  height  of  the  exterior  water,  and 
the  weight  of  the  work  already  built 
will  sink  it;  then  by  shutting  the  sluice 
again,  and  pumping  out  the  water,  it 
will  be  made  to  float  again,  and  the  rest 
of  the  work  may  be  completed.  It  must 
not  however  be  sunk  except  when  the 
sides  are  hi«h  enouiih  to  reach  above 
the  surface  of  the  water,  otherwise  it 
cannot  be  raised  and  laid  dry  again. — 
Mr.  Labeyle  tells  us,  that  the  caissons 
in  which  he  built  Westminster  bridge, 
contained  above  150  load  of  fir  timber, 
of  40  cubic  feet  each,  and  were  of  more 
tonnage  or  capacity  than  a  40-»un  ship 
of  war. 

Centers  are  the  timber  frames  elect- 
ed in  the  spaces  of  the  arches  to  turn 
them  on,  by  building  on  them  the  vnus- 
soirs  of  the  arch.  As  the  center  serves 
as  a  foundation  for  the  arch  to  be  built 
upon,  when  the  arch  is  completed,    that 

foundation  is  struck  from  under  it,  to 
make  way  for  the  water  and  navigation, 
and  then  the  arch  will  stand  of  itself 
from  its  curved  figure.  The  center 
must  be  constructed  of  the  exact  figure 
of  the  intended  arch,  convex,  as  the 
arch  is  concave,  to  receive  it  on  as  a 
mould.  If'  the  form  be  circular,  the 
curve  is  struck  from  a  central  point  by 
a  radius;  if  it  be  elliptical,  it  should  be 
struck  with  a  double  chord,  passing  over 
two  pins  fixed  in  the  focusses,  as  the 
mathematicians  describe  their  ellipses: 
and  not  by  striking  different  pieces  or 
arcs  of  circles  from  several  centers : 
for  these  will  form  no  ellipsis  at  all,  but 
an  irregular  mis-shapen  curve  made  up 
of  broken  pieces  of  different  circular 
arches;  but  if  the  arch  be  of  any  other 
form,  the  several  abscissas  and  ordinates 
should  be  calculated  ;  then  their  corre- 
sponding lengths,  transferred  to  the  cen- 
tering, will  give  so  many  points  of  the 
curve;  by  bending  a  bow  of  pliable  mat- 
ter, according  to  those  points,  the  curve 
may  be  drawn. 

The  centers  are  constructed  of  beams 
of  limber,  firmly  pinned  and  bound  to- 
gether, into  one  entire  compact  frame, 
covered  smooth  at  top  with  planks  or 
boards  to  place  the  voussoirs  on;  the 
whole  supported  by  off-sets  in  the  sides 
of  the  piers,  and  bv  piles  driven  into  the 
bed  of  the  river,  and  capable  of  being 
raised  and  depressed  by  wedges  con- 
trived for  that  purpose,  and  for  taking 
them  down  when  the  arch  is  completed. 
They  should  also  be  constructed  of  a 
strength  more  (ban  sufficient  to  bear  the 
weight  of  the  arch. 

In  taking  the  center  down,  first  lower 
it   a    little,    all    in    a   piece,    by    easing 
some  of  the  wedges;  then  let  it   rest    a 
few  days    to   try  if  the  arch  maki  s   any 
efforts  to  fall,  or  any  joints  open,  or  any 
stones    crush    or    crack,    cvc.     that     the 
damage    may     be    repaired    before    the 
center  is  entirely  removed,  which  is  not 
to  be  done  till    the  arch  ceases  to   make 
any  visible  e  fforts. 
Chest.     See  Caisson, 
Coffer-dam.     ^ee  Battardeau. 
Drift,      "i  of  an  arch,   is  the  push  or 
Shoot,  or  >  forte  which  it  exerts  in  the 
Thrust,    j  direction   of  the   length  of 
the  bridge.     This    force  arises  from  the 
perpendicular  gravitation  of  the   stones 
of  the  arch,  which  being  kept   from  de- 
scending  by  the  form  of  the  arch,  and 
the  resistance  of  the  pier,  exert   their 

B  R  I 

(     65     ) 

B  R  I 

force  in  a  lateral  or  horizontal  direction. 
This  force  is  computed  in  Prop.  10,  of 
Mr.  Hutton's  Principles  of  Bridges, 
where  the  thickness  of  the  pier  is  deter- 
mined that  is  necessary  to  resist  it,  and 
is  greater  the  lower  the  arch  is,  ceteris 

Elevation,  the  orthographic  projec- 
tion of  the  front  of  a  bridge,  on  the  ver- 
tical plane,  parallel  to  its  length.  This 
is  necessary  to  shew  the  form  and  di- 
mensions of  the  arches  and  other  parts, 
as  to  height  and  breadth,  and  therefore 
has  a  plain  scale  annexed  to  it,  to  mea- 
sure the  parts  by.  It  also  shews  the 
manner  of  working  up  and  decorating 
the  fronts  of  the  bridge. 

Extrados,  the  exterior  curvature,  or 
line  of  an  arch.  In  the  propositions  of 
the  second  section  of  Professor  Hutton's 
Principles  of  Bridges,  it  is  the  outer  or 
upper  line  of  the  wall  above  the  arch, 
but  it  often  means  only  the  upper  or  ex- 
terior curve  of  the  voussoirs. 

Foundations,  the  bottoms  of  the  piers, 
&c.  or  the  bases  on  which  they  are  built. 
These  bottoms  are  always  to  be  made 
with  projections,  greater  or  less,  accord- 
ing to  the  spaces  on  which  they  are 
built.  Agreeable  to  the  nature  of  the 
ground,  depth  and  velocity  of  water, 
&c.  the  foundations  are  laid,  and  the 
piers  built  after  different  manners,  either 
in  caissons,  in  battardeaus,  on  stilts  with 
starlings,  ccc.  for  the  particular  method 
of  doing  which,  see  each  under  its  re- 
spective term. 

The  most  obvious  and  simple  method 
of  laying  the  foundations  and  raising  the 
piers  up  to  the  water-mark,  is  to  turn 
the  river  out  of  its  course  above  the 
place  of  the  bridge,  into  a  new  channel 
cut  for  it  near  the  place  where  it  makes 
an  elbow  or  turn ;  then  the  piers  are 
built  on  dry  ground,  and  the  water 
turned  into  its  old  course  again;  the 
new  one  being  securely  banked  up.  This 
is  certainly  the  best  method,  when  the 
new  channel  can  be  easily  and  conve- 
niently made.  It  is,  however,  seldom 
or  never  the  case. 

Another  method  is,  to  lay  only  the 
space  of  each  pier  dry  till  it  be  built,  by 
surrounding  it  with  piles  and  planks 
tlriven  down  into  the  bed  of  the  river, 
so  close  together  as  to  exclude  the  water 
from  coming  in ;  then  the  water  is 
pumped  out  of  the  enclosed  space,  the 
pier  built  in  it,  and  lastly  the  piles  and 
planks  drawn  up.      This  is  coffer-dam 

work,  hut  evidently  cannot  be  practised 
if  the  bottom  be  of  a  loose  consistence, 
admitting  the  water  to  ooze  and  spring 
up  through  it. 

When  neither  the  whole  nor  part  of 
the  river  can  be  easily  laid  dry  as  above, 
other  methods  are  to  be  used;  such  as 
to  build  either  on  caissons  or  on  stilts, 
both  which  methods  are  described  under 
their  proper  words;  or  yet  by  another 
method,  which  hath,  though  seldom, 
been  sometimes  used,  without  laying  the 
bottom  dry,  and  which  is  thus:  the  pier 
is  built  upon  strong  rafts  or  gratings  ot 
timber,  well  bound  together,  and  buoyed 
up  on  the  surface  of  the  water  by  strong 
cables,  fixed  to  the  other  floats  or  ma- 
chines till  the  pier  is  built;  the  whole  is 
then  gently  let  down  to  the  bottom, 
which  must  be  made  level  for  the  pur- 
pose: but  of  these  methods,  that  of 
building  in  caissons  is  best. 

But  before  the  pier  can  be  built  in  any 
manner,  the  ground  at  the  bottom  must 
be  well  secured,  and  made  quite  good 
and  safe,  if  it  be  not  so  naturally.  The 
space  must  be  bored  into,  to  try  the  con- 
sistence of  the  ground  ;  and  if  a  good 
bottom  of  stone,  or  firm  gravel,  clay, 
&c.  be  met  with,  within  a  moderate 
depth  below  the  bed  of  the  river,  the 
loose  sand,  &c.  must  be  removed  and 
digged  out  to  it,  and  the  foundation 
laid  on  the  firm  bottom  on  a  strong 
grating;  or  base  of   timber  made  much 

-  1 

broader  every  way   than    the  pier,  that 
there  may  be  the  greater  base  to  press 
on,  to  prevent  its  being  sunk.     But  if  a 
solid  bottom  cannot  be  found  at  a  con- 
venient depth  to  dig  to,  the  space  must 
then  be  driven  full  of  strong  piles,  whose 
fops   must   be  sawed  off  level  some  feet 
below   the  bed  of  the  water,  the    sand 
having  been  previously  dug  out  for  that 
purpose;  and   then   the  foundation  on ; 
a  grating  of  timber  laid  on  their  tops  as 
before:  or  when  the  bottom  is  not  good, 
if  it  be  made  level,  and  a  strong  grating 
of  timber,  2,  3,  or  4  times  as  large  as 
the  base  of  the  pier  be  made,  it  will 
form  a  good  base  to  build  on,  its  great 
size    preventing    it    from   sinking.      In 
driving  the  piles,  begin  at    the  middle, 
proceed    outwards  all   the  way  to    the 
borders  or  margin;  the  reason  of  which 
is,  that  if  the  outer  ones  were  driven 
first,  the  earth  of  the  inner  space  would 
be  thereby  so  jammed  together,   as  not 
to  allow  the   inner  piles  to  be  driven  : 
and  besides  the  piles  immediately  under 

B  R  I 

(    66    ) 

B  II  I 

the  pier?,  it  is  also  %ery  prudent  to  drive 
in  a  single,  doulile,  or  triple  row  of  them 
round,  and  close  to  the  frame  of  the 
foundation*  cutting  them  off  a  little 
nbove  it,  to  secure  it  from  slipping  aside 
out  of  its  place:  and  to  hind  the  ground 
under  the  pier  firmer,  for,  as  the  safety 
of  the  whole  bridge  depends  on  the 
foundation,  too  much  care  cannot  be 
used  to  have  the  bottom  made  quite  se- 

Jcttcc,  the  border  made  round  the 
Stilts  under  a  pier.     See  Starling. 

Impost  is  the  part  of  the  pier  on  which 
the  feet  of  the  arches  stand,  or  from 
which  they  spring. 

Key-stone,  the  middle  voussoir,  or  the 
arch-stone  in  the  top  or  immediately 
over  the  center  of  the  arch.  The  length 
of  the  key-stone,  or  thickness  of  the 
nrchivolt  at  top,  is  allowed  to  be  about 
l-15th  or  1-iGth  of  the  span  by  the  best 

Orthography,  the  elevation  of  a  bridge 
or  front  view,  as  seen  at  an  infinite  dis- 

Parapet,  the  breast-wall  made  on  the 
top  of  a  bridge  to  prevent  passengers 
from  failing  over.  In  good  bridges,  to 
build  the  parapet  but  a  little  part  of  its 
height  close  or  solid,  and  upon  that  a 
balustrade  to  above  a  man's  height,  has 
an  elegant  effect. 

Piers,  the  walls  built  for  the  support 
of  the  arches,  and  from  which  they 
spring  as  their  bases.  They  should  be 
built  of  large  blocks  of  stone,  solid 
throughout,  and  cramped  together  with 
iron,  which  will  make  the  whole  as  one 
solid  stone.  Their  faces  or  ends,  from 
the  base  up  to  high-water  mark,  should 
project  sharp  out  with  a  salient  angle,  to 
divide  the  stream:  or  perhaps  the  bot- 
tom of  the  pier  should  be  built  flat  or 
square  up  to  about  half  the  height  of 
low-water  mark,  to  allow  a  lodgment 
against  it  for  the  sand  and  mud,  to  go 
over  the  foundation;  lest,  by  being  kept 
bare,  the  water  should  in  time  under- 
mine, and  so  ruin  or  injure  it.  The 
best  form  of  the  projection  for  dividing 
the  stream,  is  the  triangle;  and  the 
longer  it  is,  or  the  more  acute  the  sa- 
lient angle,  the  better  it  will  divide  it, 
and  the  less  will  the  force  of  the  water 
he  against  the  pier;  but  it  may  he  suf- 
ficient to  make  that  angle  a  right  one, 
as  it  will  make  the  work  stronger;  and 
in  that  case  the  perpendicular  projec- 
tion will  be  equal  to  half  the  breadth  or 

thickness  of  the  pier.  In  rivers,  an 
which  large  heavy  craft  navigate  and 
pass  the  arches,  it  may,  perhaps,  he  bet- 
ter to  make  the  ends  semicircular:  tor, 
although  it  does  not  divide  the  water  so 
well  as  the  triangle,  it  will  both  better 
turn  off  and  hear  the  shock  of'  the  craft. 

The  thickness  of  the  piers  should  be 
such  as  will  make  them  of  weight,  or 
strength,  sufficient  to  support  their  in- 
terjacent arch,  independent  of  any  other 
arches;  and  then,  if  the  middle  of  the 
pier  he  run  up  to  its  full  height,  the  cen- 
tering may  be  struck  to  be  used  in  ano- 
ther arch  before  the  haunches  are  filled 
up.  The  whole  theory  of  the  piers  may 
be  seen  in  the  third  section  of  Professor 
Hut  ton's  Principles  of  Bridges. 

They  should  be  made  with  a  broad 
bottom  on  the  foundation,  and  gradually 
diminishing  in  thickness  by  off-sets  up  to 
lower  water-mark. 

Piles  are  timbers  driven  into  the  bed 
of  the  river  for  various  purposes,  and 
are  either  round,  square,  or  flat  like 
planks.  They  may  be  of  any  wood 
which  will  not  rot  underwater;  but  oak 
and  fir  are  mostly  used,  especially  the 
latter,  on  account  of  its  length,  straight- 
ness,  and  cheapness.  They  are  shod 
with  a  pointed  iron  at  the  bottom,  the 
better  to  penetrate  into  the  ground,  and 
are  bound  with  a  strong  iron-band  or 
ring  at  top,  to  prevent  them  from  being 
split  by  the  violent  strokes  of  the  ram 
by  which  they  are  driven  down. 

Piles  are  either  used  to  build  the 
foundations  on,  or  they  are  driven  about 
the  pier  as  a  border  of  defence,  or  to 
support  the  centers  on;  and  in  this  case, 
when  the  centering  is  removed,  they  must 
either  be  drawn  up,  or  sawed  off  very 
low  under  water;  but  it  is  perhaps  bet- 
ter to  saw  them  olFand  leave  them  stick- 
ing in  the  bottom,  lest  the  drawing  of 
them  out  should  loosen  the  ground  about 
the  foundation  of  the  pier. — Those  to 
build  on,  are  either  such  as  are  cut  off 
by  the  bottom  of  the  water,  or  rather  a 
few  feet  within  the  bed  of  the  river :  or 
else  such  as  are  cut  off  at  low  water 
mark,  and  then  they  are  called  stilts. 
Those  to  form  borders  of  defence  are 
rows  driven  in  close  by  the  frame  of  a 
foundation  to  keep  it  firm,  or  else  they 
are  to  form  a  case  or  jettee  about  the 
stilts,  to  keep  the  stones  within  it,  that 
are  thrown  in  to  fill  it  up:  in  this  case 
the  piles  are  grooved,  driven  at  a  little 
distance  from  each  other,  and  plank  piles 

BR  I 

(    67    ) 

B  R  I 

let  into  tfc  grooves  between  them,  and 
driven  d'wn  a'so'  li^  tne  whole  space  is 
surrounded.    Besides  using  this  for  stilts, 
it  is  spnet'nies  necessary  to  surround  a 
stoneP'er  with  a  starling  or  jettee,  and 
fill  i'  up  with  stones  to  secure  an  injured 
pic  from  being  still  more  damaged,  and 
tlit  whole  bridge  ruined.     The  piles  to 
sjpport  the  centers  may  also  serve  as  a 
border  of  piling  to  secure  the  founda- 
tion, cutting  them  off  low  enough  after 
the  center  is  removed. 

Pile-driver,  an  engine  for  drivingdown 
the  piles.  It  consists  of  a  large  ram 
or  iron  sliding  perpendicularly  down 
between  two  guide  posts;  which  being 
lifted  up  to  the  top  of  them,  and  there 
let  fail  from  a  great  height,  comes  down 
upon  the  top  of  the  pile  with  a  violent 
blow.  It  is  woiked  either  with  men  or 
horses,  and  either  with  or  without  wheel 
work.  That  which  was  used  at  the 
building  of  Westminster  bridge,  is  per- 
haps the  best  ever  invented. 

Pitch  of  an  arch,  the  perpendicular 
height  from  the  spring  or  impost  to  the 

Plan,  of  any  part,  as  of  the  founda- 
tions, or  piers,  or  superstructure,  is  the 
orthographic  projection  of  it  on  a  plane 
parallel  to  the  horizon. 

Push,  of  an  arch.  See  Drift. 
Salient  angle,  of  a  pier,  the  projec- 
tion of  the  end  against  the  stream,  to 
divide  itself.  The  right-lined  angle  best 
divides  the  stream,  and  the  more  acute, 
the  better  for  that  purpose;  but  the 
right  angle  is  generally  used,  as  making 
the  best  masonry.  A  semicircular  end, 
though  it  does  not  divide  the  stream  so 
well,  is  sometimes  preferable  in  large 
navigable  rivers,  as  it  carries  the  craft 
off,  or  bears  their  shocks  better. 
Shoot,  of  an  arch.  See  Drift. 
Springers  are  the  first  or  lowest 
stones  of  an  arch,  being  those  at  its 
feet,  and  bearing  immediately  on  the 

Starlingn,  or  Jetties,  a  kind  of  case 
made  about  a  pier  of  stilts,  &c.  to  secure 
it,  and  is  particularly  described  under 
the  next  word,  Stilts. 

Stilts,  a  set  of  piles  driven  into  the 
space  intended  for  the  pier,  whose  tops 
being  sawed  level  off,  above  low-water 
mark,  the  pier  is  then  raised  on  them. 
Thrust.  See  Drift. 
Voussoirs,  the  stones  which  immedi- 
diately  form  the  arch,  their  undersides 
constituting  the   intiados.    The  middle 

one,  or  key-stone,  should  be  about 
l-15th  or  l-16th  of  the  span,  as  has 
been  observed ;  and  the  rest  should  in- 
crease in  size  all  the  way  down  to  the 
impost;  the  more  they  increase  the  bet- 
ter, as  they  will  the  better  bear  the 
great  weight  which  rests  upon  them 
without  being  crushed ;  and  also  will 
bind  the  firmer  together.  Their  joints 
should  also  be  cut  perpendicular  to  the 
curve  of  the  intrados.  For  more  infor- 
mation, see  Professor  Hutton's  Prin- 
ciples  of  Bridges,N ewcastle,  1772,in8vo. 

Bri  dge,  in  gunnery,  the  two  pieces  of 
timber  which  go  between  the  two  tran- 
soms of  a  gun-carriage,  on  which  the 
coins  are  placed,  for  elevating  the  piece. 
See  Carriage. 

BRIDLE-«rw  Protect,  a  guard  used 
by  the  cavalry,  which  consists  in  having 
the  sword-hilt  above  the  helmet;  the 
biade  crossing  the  back  of  the  head,  the 
point  of  the  left  shoulder,  and  the 
bridle-arm;  its  edge  directed  to  the  left, 
and  turned  a  little  upwards  in  order  to 
bring  the  mounting  in  a  proper  direction 
to  protect  the  hand. 

BRIDON  or  Bridoox,  the  snaffle  and 
rein  of  a  military  bridle ;  which  acts  in- 
dependent of  the  bit  and  curb  at  the 
pleasure  of  the  rider. 

BRIGADE,  in  military  affairs,  im- 
plies a  party  or  division  of  a  body  of 
soldiers,  whether  horse,  foot,  or  artil- 
lery, under  the  command  of  a  brigadier. 
There  are,  properly  speaking,  three  sorts 
of  brigades,  viz.  the  brigade  of  an  army, 
the  brigade  of  a  troop  of  horse,  and  the 
brigade  of  artillery.  A  brigade  of  the 
army  is  either  foot  or  dragoons,  whose 
exact  number  is  not  fixed,  but  generally 
consists  of  3  regiments,  or  6  battalions: 
a  brigade  of  horse  may  consist  of  8,  10, 
or  12  squadrons;  and  that  of  artillery, 
of  five  guns  and  one  howitzer,  with 
their  appurtenances.  The  eldest  brigade 
takes  the  right  of  the  first  line,  the  se- 
cond of  the  second  line,  and  the  rest  in 
order;  the  youngest  always  possessing 
the  center.  The  cavalry  and  artillery 
observe  the  same  order. 

Brigade  Major,  an  officer  appointed 
bv  the  brigadier,  to  assist  him  in  the 
r.jmagement  of  his  brigade.  The  most 
experienced  captains  are  generally  nomi- 
nated to  this  post.  According  to  the 
regulations  published  by  authority,  a 
brigade-major  is  attached  to  the  bri- 
gade, and  not  to  any  particular  briga- 
dier-general, as  the  aide-de-camp  is. 
K  2 

B  R  I 

(     63     ) 

B  R  G 

Brigade-majors  must  be  taken  from 
the  regular  forces,  and  must  not  be  el- 
fective  field  officers.  If  they  are  sub- 
alterns, they  take  rank  in  tlu  brigade  or 
garrison,  in  which  they  are  serving,  as 
junior  captains. 

BfLiGADE-Major-Genernl.  The  niili- 
tary  commands  in  Great-Britain  being 
divided  into  districts,  an  office  has  been 
established  for  the  sole  transaction  of 
brigade  duties.  Through  this  office  all 
milt  rs  from  the  commander-in-chief  to 
the  generals  of  districts  relative  to  corps 
of  officers,  <slc.  must  pass.  This  ap- 
pointment is  now  absorbed  in  that  ol 
assistant  adjutant-general. 

Brigade  of  Engineers.  A  brigade  of 
engineers  may  consist  of  only  two  or 
three  officers,  who  are  attached  to  an 

To  Brigade,  (embrigader,  Fr.)  to 
make  any  given  number  of  regiments, 
•  or  battalions,  act  together  for  the  pur- 
poses of  service. 

BRIGADE,  Fr.  according  to  the 
French,  signifies  the  re-union  of  several 
squadrons  or  battalions,  under  the  com- 
mand of  one  colonel,  who  has  also  the 
rank  of  brigadier-general  in  the  army. 

Brigade  de  boulangers,  Fr.  It  was 
Usual  in  the  old  French  service  to  bri- 
gade the  bakers  belonging  to  the  army. 
Each  brigade  consisted  of  one  master 
and  three  boys. 

Irish  Brig ade,(/« brigade  Irelandaise, 
Fr.)  Irish  regiments  which  once  served 
in  France,  Spain,  and  Naples. 

BRIGADIER,  a  military  officer, 
whose  rank  is  next  above  that  of  a  colo- 
nel, appointed  to  command  a  corps,  con- 
sisting of  several  battalions  or  regi- 
ments, called  a  brigade.  This  title  in 
England  is  suppressed  in  time  of  peace, 
but  revived  in  actual  service  in  the  field. 
Every  brigadier  marches  at  the  head  of 
bis  brigade  upon  duty. 

Brigadier,  (Brigadier,  Fr.)  a  certain 
rank  which  is  given  to  a  mounted  sol- 
dier.    He  is  next  to  the  quarter-master. 

BRIGADIER  des  armies,Yr.  This 
corresponds  with  our  term  Brigadier- 
General.  A  brigadier-general  ranks 
above  a  colonel,  and  has  the  command 
of  a  brigade  of  cavalry,  dragoons,  or  in- 

Brigadier  cPZquipage,  Fr.  a  sort  of 
head  commissary  or  wagon-master-ge- 

BRIGAND,  Fr.  a  free-booter ;  every 
soldier,  who,  contrary  to  orders  and  the 

acknowledged  usages  of  w.r>  commits 
acts  of  plunder. 

BRIGANDINE  or  Brigaltine,  in 
alicient  military  history,  a  coat  if  mail, 
or  kind  ot  defensive  armour,  coisistiug 
of  tin;  so  called  from  the  troops  by 
which  it  was  first  worn,  who  were  cdled 
Bi  igands,  and  were  a  kind  of  light-ari\ed 
irregular  foot,  much  addicted  to  plun- 
der. The  brigandine  is  frequently  con- 
founded with  the  jack;  sometimes  with 
the  habergeon,  or  coat  of  plate  mail. 

BRIGUE,  Fr.  a  plot,  or  conspiracy 
which  is  formed  against  a  commanding 
officer,  to  deprive  him  of  his  situation. 

BRINGER,  a  term  used  iq  the  re- 
cruitiug  branch  of  the  British  service,  to 
signify  a  person  who  produces  a  man  or 
boy,  within  the  regulated  age,  that  is 
willing  to  enlist.  He  is  allowed  one 
guinea  for  his  trouble. 

Bringers-w/.>,  an  antiquated  military 
expression,  to  signify  the  whole  rear 
rank  of  a  battalion  drawn  up,  as  being 
the  hindmost  men  of  every  file. 

BRTN  d'estoe,  Fr.  quarter-staff. 

BoisJeBiUN,  fr.  solid  timber. 

BRINS  d'est,  Fr.  large  sticks  or 
poles  resembling  small  pickets,  with  irou 
at  each  end.  They  are  used  to  cross 
ditches,  particularly  in  Flanders. 

BRISER  les  jfers,  Fr.  to  break  the 
fetters;  to  obtain  liberty. 

BRISE,  Fr.  in  sluices,  a  beam  that  is 
placed,  swipe  fashion,  on  the  top  of  a 
large  pile,  upon  which  it  turns. 

Brise-com,  Fr.  a  break-neck  place;  as 
a  defect  in  a  staircase,  &c. 

BRisE-g/ace,  Fr.  starlings;  literally 
an  ice-breaker,  after  a  thaw. 

Lit  BRISE,  Fr.  a  folding  bed. 

BRISURE,  in  fortification,  is  a  line 
of  4  or  5  fathoms,  which  is  allowed  to  the 
curtain  and  orillon,  to  make  the  hol- 
low tower,  or  to  cover  the  concealed 

BROADSIDE,  in  a  sea-fight,  implies 
the  discharge  of  all  the  artillery  on  one 
side  of  a  ship  of  war. 

BROAD-SWORD,  a  sword  with  a 
broad  blade,  chiefly  designed  for  cut- 
ting; not  at  present  much  used  in  the 
British  service,  except  by  some  few  regi- 
ments of  cavalry  and  Highland  infantry. 
Among  the  cavalry,  this  weapon  has  in 
general  given  place  to  the  sabre. 

The  principal  guards  with  the  broad 
sword  are: 

The  inside  guard,  (similar  to  carte  in 
fencing,)  which  is  formed   by  directing 


(     69    ) 


your  poin*11  a  mie  about  6  inches  higher 
than  vou  antagonist's  left  eye,  the  hilt 
opposif  your  own  breast,  the  finger 
nails  t'rned  upwards,  and  the  edge  of  the 
sworr  to  the  left. 

T'e  outside  guard,  (resembling  tierce,) 
in  vhich  by  a  turn  of  the  wrist  from  the 
iVnier  position,  the  point  of  the  sword 
ji  directed  ahove  your  antagonist's  right 
eye,  and  'he  edge  turned  to  the  right,  to 
protect  the  outside  of  your  body  from 
the  attack. 

The  medium  guard,  which  is  a  posi- 
tion between  the  inside  and  outside 
guard,  seldom  used,  as  it  affords  very 
little  protection. 

The  hanging  guard,  (similar  to  prime 
and  seconde,)  in  which  the  hilt  of  your 
sword  is  raised  high  enough  to  view 
your  opponent  under  the  shell,  and  the 
point  directed  towards  his  body. 

The  St.  George's  guard,  which  pro- 
tects the  head,  and  differs  from  the  last 
described,  only  in  raising  the  hand  some- 
what higher,  and  bringing  the  point 
nearer  to  yourself. 

The  swords  worn  by  officers  of  the 
infantry  being  constructed  either  for 
cutting  or  thrusting,  it  is  necessary  for 
gentlemen  to  be  acquainted  both  with 
the  method  of  attacking  and  defending 
with  the  broad-sword  and  with  the  ra- 
pier. Those  who  have  not  the  opportu- 
nity of  regular  lessons  from  a  professed 
teacher,  may  obtain  much  useful  infor- 
mation from  a  work  entituled  the  Art  of 
Defence  on  Foot,  with  the  Broad-Sword, 
&c.  in  which  the  spadroon  or  cut  and 
thrust  sword  play  is  reduced  to  a  regu- 
lar system. 

BROCHOIR,  Fr.  a  smith's  shoeing 

BRODEQUINS,  Fr.  buskins  or  half 
boots.  They  are  generally  worn  by 
light  armed  troops. 

BROKEN-oWra.  A  horse  is  said  to 
be  broken  down,  when  he  is  shook  in  the 
shoulders,  hurt  in  the  loins,  or  lame 
about  the  feet  from  hard  riding  or  work- 
ing. The  malady  generally  lies  in  the 
feet  or  back  sinews. 

Broken-winded,  {poussif,  Fr.)  sub- 
ject to  a  difficulty  in  breathing. 

BROKERS,  persons  who  act  between 
two  trafficking  parties. 

Arwy-BRGkF.ii-,  persons  who  former- 
ly acted  between  army  agents  and  indi- 
viduals wishing  to  purchase,  sell,  or  ex- 
change commissions.  In  1806,  a  clause 
was  introduced  into  the  Mutiny  Bill  to 
prevent  this  species  of  traffic. 

BROND.     See  Brand. 

BRONZE,  Fr.  bronze ;  brass. 

d'  armes,  Fr.)  an  affectionate  and  en- 
dearing term  which  is  used  among  mili- 
tary men,  from  the  commander-in-chief 
of  an  army  to  the  lowest  drum-boy  in- 
clusive. Soldiers  ought,  in  fact,  to  con- 
stitute a  family  within  themselves.  The 
cause  they  have  to  defend,  and  the  dan- 
gers they  must  encounter,  are  so  many 
motives  for  mutual  attachment,  especi- 
ally in  a  foreign  country. 

BROUETTE,  Fr.  a  "wheelbarrow. 

B  BOUILLON,  Fr.  a  rough  copy; 
day  book. 

BROWNBILL,  the  ancient  weapon 
of  the  English  foot,  resembling  a  battle- 

BRUGNE.  The  hauberk  was  some- 
times so  called. 

BRULOT,  Fr.  a  fire-ship. 

BRUNT,  (choc,  Fr.)  the  principal 
shock  of  the  enemy  in  action. 

BRUSQUER  une  attaque,  Fr.  to  open 
the  trenches  in  the  nearest  approaches 
to  a  place,  completing  the  works  from 
the  front  towards  the  rear.  This  un- 
dertaking is  extremely  hazardous,  unless 
the  object  invested,  or  attacked,  be  ill- 
garrisoned,  have  a  narrow  front  to  be- 
siege, or  the  ditches  be  dry,  &c. 

Brusquer  V  affaire,  Fr.  to  attack 
suddenly,  and  without  attending  to  any 
regular  rule  of  military  manoeuvre. 

Brusquer  une  place,  Fr.  to  storm  a 

BRUT,  Fr.  any  thing  in  the  rough; 
as  stones  from  the  quarry. 

BUCCANEER,  Boucanier,  {fli- 
bustier,  Fr.)  in  military  history,  a  name 
frequently  applied  to  those  famous  ad- 
venturers, consisting  of  pirates,  &c.  from 
all  the  maritime  nations  of  Europe,  who 
formerly  joined  together,  and  made  war 
upon  the  Spaniards  in  America. 

BUCCINATEUR,  Fr.  a  trumpeter. 

BUCCINE,  Fr.  a  cornet. 

BUCKLER,  a  piece  of  defensive  ar- 
mour used  by  the  ancients.  It  was  al- 
ways worn  on  the  left  arm,  and  com- 
posed of  wicker-work,  of  the  lightest 
sort,  but  most  commonly  of  hides,  forti- 
fied with  plates  of  brass  or  other  metals. 
The  shape  of  it  varied  considerably,  be- 
ing sometimes  round,  sometimes  oval, 
and  often  nearly  square. 

BUDGE-Barre/s.     See  Barrel. 

BUFF- Leader,  in  military  accoutre- 
ments, is  a  sort  of  leather  prepared 
from  the  buffalo,  which,   dressed  with 

B  U  I 

(     70     ) 


•il,   after   the    manner    of    a    shainoy, 
makes  what  is  generally  called  buff-skin. 

BUGLE-HORN,  the  old  Saxon  horn; 
it  is  now  used  by  all  the  light  infantry 
in  the  British  service,  and  also  by  the 
horse  artillery,  and  some  regiments  of 
light  cavalry. 

BUGLER,  the  person  who  blows  the 

were  engines  used  in  former  times  for 
throwing  large  stones. 

BUILDING,  (edi/ke,  Fr.)  a  fabric 
erected  by  art. 

Military  Buildings  are  of  various 
sorts,  viz.  powder-magazines,  bridges, 
gates,  barracks,  hospitals,  store-houses, 
guard-rooms,  ike. 

Regular  Building  is  that  whose 
plan  is  square,  the  opposite  sides  equal, 
and  all  the  parts  disposed  with  symme- 

Irregular  Building,  that  whose  plan 
is  not  contained  within  equal  or  parallel 
lines,  and  whose  parts  are  not  relative  to 
one  another  in  the  elevation. 

Insulated  Building,  that  which  is 
not  contiguous  to  any  other,  but  is  en- 
compassed with  streets,  open  squares, 
tec.  or  any  building  which  stands  in  a 
river,  on  a  rock  surrounded  by  the  sea, 
marsh,  &c. 

Engaged  Building,  one  surrounded 
with  other  buildings,  having  no  front  to 
any  street  or  public  place,,nor  any  com- 
munication without,  but  by  a  common 

J nl erred  or  sialic  Building,  one 
whose  area  is  below  the  surface  of  the 
place  where  it  stands,  and  of  which  the 
lowest  courses  of  stone  are  concealed. 

In  buildi)ig  there  are  three  things  to 
be  considered,  viz.  commodity  or  con- 
veniency;  secondly,  firmness  or  stabi- 
lity; thirdly,  delight. 

To  accomplish  which  ends,  Sir  Henry 
Wotton  considers  the  whole  subject 
under  two  heads,  namely,  the  seat  or 
situation,  and  the  work. 

J.  As  for  the  seat,  cither  that  of  the 
whole  is  to  be  considered,  or  that  of  its 

2.  As  to  the  situation,  regard  is  to  be 
had  to  the  quality,  temperature,  and  sa- 
lubrity, or  healthiness  of  the  air;  that  it 
be  a  good  healthy  air,  not  subject  to 
foggy  noisomeness  from  adjacent  fens 
or  marshes;  also  free  from  noxious  mi- 
neral exhalations  ;  nor  should  the  place 
want  the  sweet  influence   of   the  sun- 

beams, nor  be  wholly  destiUte  of  the 
breezes  of  wind,  that  will  faii<nd  purge 
the  air;  the  want  of  which  wou<j  render 
it  like  a  stagnated  pool,  and  vv)U|d  be 
very  unhealthy. 

In  the  foundationsof  buildings,  \*uru- 
vius  orders  the  ground  to  be  dug  ii),  to 
examine  its  firmness;  that  an  apparent 
solidity  is  not  to  be  trusted,  unless  ire 
whole  mould  cut  through  be  sound  ano 
solid  :  it  is  true,  he  does  not  say  to  what 
depth  it  shouid  be  dug;  but  Palladio  de- 
termines it  to  be  a  sixth  part  of  the 
height  of  the  building. 

The  great  laws  of  walling  are:— 
1.  That  the  walls  stand  perpendicular 
on  the  ground-work,  the  right  angle  be- 
ing the  foundation  of  all  stability.  2. 
That  the  largest  and  heaviest  mate  rials 
be  the  lowest,  as  more  proper  to  sustain 
others  than  to  be  sustained  themselves. 
3.  That  the  work  diminish  in  thickness, 
as  it  rises,  both  for  the  ease  of  weight, 
and  to  lessen  the  expense.  4.  That 
certain  courses,  or  lodges,  of  more 
strength  than  the  rest,  be  interlaid,  like 
bones,  to  sustain  the  wall  from  total 
ruin,  if  some  of  the  under  paits  chance 
to  decay.  5.  Lastly,  that  the  angles  be 
firmly  bound,  they  being  the  nerves  of 
the  whole  fabric.  These  are  sometimes 
fortified  on  each  side  the  comers,  even 
in  brick  buildings,  with  square  stones; 
which  add  both  beauty  and  strength  to 
the  edifice. 

BU1NDES,  Fr.  a  shield  used  by  the 
Turks  and  Tartars  when  they  fight  with 

BULLETIN,  Fr.  any  official  account 
which  is  given  of  public  transactions. 
See  Gazette. 

Bulletin  also  signifies  any  account 
which  is  given  of  the  stale  of  a  person's 
health,  &c.  Likewise  a  specific  account 
of  military  transactions;  hence  Bulletin 
de  I'arnite. 

BULLETS,  {balks,  boulets,  Fr.)  are 
leaden  balls,  wherewith  all  kinds  of 
small  fire-arms  are  loaded.  The  diame- 
ter of  any  bullet  is  found,  by  dividing 
1.G706  by  the  cube  root  of  the  number, 
which  shews  how  many  of  them  make  a 
pound ;  or  it  may  he  done  in  a  shorter 
way.  From  the  logarithm  . 2228756  of 
of  1.6706  subtract  continually  the  third 
part  of  the  logarithm  of  the  number  of 
bullets  in  the  pound,  and  the  difference 
will  lie  the  logarithm  of  the  diameter 

Thus  the  diameter  of  a  bullet,  where- 


(  n   ) 


of  12  weigh  a  pound,  is  found  by  sub- 
tracting .3597270,  a  third  part  of  the 
logarithm  of  12,  from  the  given  lo- 
garithm .2228756,  or,  when  the  lo- 
garithm is  less  than  the  former,  an  unit 
must  he  added,  so  as  to  have  1.2228756, 
and  the  difference  .8631486  will  be  the 
logarithm  of  the  diameter  sought,  which 
is  .7297  inches;  observing  that  the  num- 
ber found  will  always  be  a  decimal, 
when  the  logarithm,  which  is  to  be  sub- 
tracted is  greater  than  that  of  one 
pound;  because  the  divisor  is  greater 
than  the  dividend  in  this  case. 

Hence,  from  the  specific  gravity  of 
lead,  the  diameter  of  any  bullet  may  be 
found  from  its  given  weight:  for,  since 
a  cube  foot  weighs  11325  ounces,  and 
678  is  to  355  as  the  cube  1728  of  a  foot, 
or  12  inches,  is  the  content  of  the 
sphere,  which  therefore  is  5929.7  ounces; 
and  since  spheres  are  as  the  cubes  of 
their  diameters;  the  weight  5929.7  is  to 
16  ounces,  or  a  pound,  as  the  Cube  1728 
is  to  the  cube  of  the  diameter  of  a 
sphere  which  weighs  a  pound;  which 
cube  therefore  is  4.66263,  and  its  root 
1.6706  inches,  the  diameter  sought. 

The  diameter  of  musket  bullets  dif- 
fers but  l-50th  part  from  that  of  the 
musket  bore;  for  if  the  shot  but  just 
rolls  into  the  barrel,  it  is  sufficient. 
Government  allows  11  bullets  in  the 
pound  for  the  proof  of  muskets,  and  14 
in  the  pound,  or  29  in  two  pounds,  for 
service;  17  for  the  proof  of  carbines, 
and  20  for  service;  and  2S  in  the  pound 
for  the  proof  of  pistols,  and  34  for  ser- 

Bullet,  ball  or  shot,  have  various 
denominations  according  to  the  use  that 
is  made  of  them,  viz. 

Hollow  Bullets,  or  shells,  of  a  cy- 
lindrical shape.  These  have  an  open- 
ing and  a  fuze  at  the  end,  by  which  fire 
is  communicated  to  the  combustibles 
within,  and  an  explosion  takes  place, 
similar  to  that  occasioned  by  the  blow- 
ing up  of  a  mine. 

Chain  Bullets.     See  Chain  Balls. 

Brunch  Bullets,  two  balls  joined  to- 
gether by  an  iron  bar. 

Two-headed  Bullets,  sometimes 
called  angles,  are  two  halves  of  a  bullet 
which  are  kept  together  by  means  of  a 
bar  or  chain. 

B\JLLOCK-Se?jeant,  Ind.  a  non-com- 
missioned officer  in  India  who  has  the 
care  and  superintendance  of  the  bul- 
locks on  service. 

BULWARK,  the  ancient  name  fof 
bastion  or  rampart. 

BUNGALOW,  Lid.  a  house  with  a 
thatched  roof.  The  rent  of  a  bungalow 
is  from  forty  to  fifty  rupees  per  month. 
But  those  persons,  who  have  ready 
money,  generally  build  themselves,  and 
when  they  leave  the  place,  especially  if 
in  the  military  service,  they  either  sell 
their  bungalows,  or  let  them.  The  rent 
is  sometimes  as  high  as  sixty  or  eighty 
rupees;  and  the  expense  of  building  is 
from  1000  to  1200  rupees. 

BURDEN,    >  in  a  general  sense  im- 

BURTHEN,  S  plies  a  load  or  weight, 
supposed  to  be  as  much  as  a  man,  horse, 
&c.  can  well  carry.  A  sj^und  healthful 
man  can  raise  a  weight  equal  to  his  own, 
can  also  draw  and  carry'oOlb.  a  mode- 
rate distance.  An  able  horse  can  draw 
3501b.  though  in  length  of  time  300  is 
sufficient,  Hence  all  artillery  calcula- 
tions are  made.  One  horse  will  draw  as 
much  as  7  men,  and  7  oxen  will  draw  as 
much  as  11  or  12  horses.  Burthen,  in 
a  figurative  sense,  means  impost,  tax,  &c. 

Beast  of  Burden,  {bete  de  somme, 
Fr.)  an  animal  that  is  used  to  carry 
loads  of  every  kind. 

BUREAU,  Fr.  office. 

Bureau  de  la  Guerre,  Fr.  War-Of- 

Bureau  du  Timbre,T?r. Stamp-Office. 

BURGANET  or  Burgonet,  Fr.  a 
kind  of  helmet  used  by  the  French. 

BURIALS,  as  practised  by  the  mili- 
tary, are  as  follow,  viz.  The  funeral  of 
a  field-marshal  shall  be  saluted  with  3 
rounds  of  15  pieces  of  cannon,  attended 
by  6  battalions,  and  8  squadrons. 

That  of  a  general,  with  3  rounds  of 
11  pieces  of  cannon,  4  battalions,  and  6 

That  of  a  lieutenant-general,  with  3 
rounds  of  9  pieces  of  canon,  3  battali- 
ons, and  4  squadrons. 

That  of  a  major-general,  with  3  rounds 
of  7  pieces  of  cannon,  2  battalions,  and 
3  squadrons. 

That  of  a  brigadier-general,  3  rounds 
of  5  pieces  of  cannon,  1  battalion,  and 
2  squadrons. 

That  of  a  colonel,  by  his  own  battali- 
on, or  an  equal  number  by  detachment, 
with  3  rounds  of  small  arms. 

That  of  a  lieutenant-colonel,  by  300 
men  and  officers,  with  3  rounds  of  small 

That  of  a  major,  by  200  men  and 
officers,  with  3  rounds  of  small  arms. 

C  A  B 

(     73     ) 


That  of  a  captain,  by  his  own  com- 
pany, or  70  rank  and  lile,  with  3  rounds 
of  small  arms. 

That  of  a  lieutenant,  by  1  lieutenant, 
1  serjeant,  1  drummer,  1  lifer,  and  Sfl 
rank  and  tile,  with  3  rounds. 

That  of  an  ensign,  by  an  ensign,  a 
serjeant,  and  drummer,  and  '27  rank  and 
lile,  with  3  rounds. 

That  of  an  adjutant,  surgeon,  and 
quarter-master,  the  same  party  as  an 

That  of  a  serjeant,  by  a  serjeant,  and 
19  rank  and  lile,  with  3  rounds  of  small 

That  of  a  corporal,  musician,  private 
man,  drummer,  and  fife,  by  1  serjeant, 
and  13  rank  and  file,  with  3  rounds  of 
small  arms. 

All  officers,  attending  the  funerals  of 
even  their  nearest  relations,  shall  not- 
withstanding wear  their  regimentals,  and 
only  have  a  black  crape  round  their  left 

The  pall  to  be  supported  by  officers 
of  the  same  rank  with  that  of  the  de- 
ceased :  if  the  number  cannot  he  had, 
officers  next  in  seniority  are  to  supply 
their  place. 

The  order  of  march  to  be  observed  in 
military  funerals  is  reversed  with  re- 
spect to  rank.  For  instance,  if  an  offi- 
cer is  buried  in  a  garrison  town  or  from 
a  camp,  it  is  customary  for  the  officers 
belonging  to  other  corps  to  pay  his  re- 
mains the  compliment  of  attendance.  In 
which  case  the  youngest  ensign  marches 
at  the  head  immediately  after  the  pall, 
and  the  general,  if  there  be  one,  in  the 
rear  of  the  commissioned  officers,  who 
take  their  posts  in  reversed  order  ac- 
cording to  seniority.  The  battalion, 
troop,  or  company,  follow  the  same  rule. 

The  expense  for  a  regimental  burial 
is  to  be  charged  against  the  captains  of 
the  respective  troop-,  or  companies. 

BURR,  in  gunnery,  a  round  iron  ring, 
which  serves  to  rivet  the  end  of  the 
bolt,  so  as  to  form  a  round  head;  also  a 
broad  iron  ring  for  a  lance. 

BURRF.L-s/m/,  small  bullets,  nails 
and  stones  discharged  from  any  piece  of 

BUSC  d'icluse,  Fr.  the  salient  point 
which  is  made  by  two  flood-gates  that 
are  shut;  presenting  an  angle  towards 
the  body  ol'  water  which  it  sustains. 

BUTER,  /•'/•.  to  support  a  wall,  or  to  it  from  bellying  out,  by  means 
of  an  arch  or  buttress. 

BUTIERE,  Fr.  a  species  of  large 
fire-arm,  which  was  formerly  used 
among  the  French  to  fire  point-blank. 

BUTIN,  Fr.  hootv  or  pillage. 

BUTMENTS.     See  Bridges. 

BUTT,  in  gunnery,  is  a  solid  earthen 
parapet,  to  fire  against  in  the  proving  of 
guns,  or  in  practice. 

Butt  or  Butt-end,  {couche,  Fr.) 
that  extremity  of  a  firelock  which  rests 
against  the  shoulder  when  it  is  brought 
up  to  a  position  of  levelling,  or  when  it 
rests  upon  the  hand. 

BUTTON,  in  gunnery,  a  part  of  the 
cascable,  in  either  a  gun  or  howitzer, 
and  in  the  hind  part  of  the  piece,  made 
round  in  the  form  of  a  ball.  See 

BUTTRESS.    Sec  Counterfort. 

BUZE,  a  wooden,  or  ieaden  pipe,  to 
convey  the  air  into  mines. 

BY-PROFITS,  {tour  du  baton,  Fr.) 
certain  advantages  or  emoluments  which 
are  gained  by  individuals  over  and  ahove 
their  regular  salaries  or  wages.  Thej 
are  also  called  By-gains. 

/^ABANE,  Fr.  a  flat-bottomed  boat 
with  a  deck,  used  on  the  river  Loire 
for  the  accommodation  of  passengers. 

CABAS,  Fr.  a  basket  made  of  rushes, 
which  is  used  in  Languedoc  and  Rous- 
sillon,  for  the  purpose  of  conveying  stores 
and  ammunition. 

CABASSET,  Fr.  a  piece  of  armour 
which  was  formerly  used  by  foot-soldiers 
to  cover  the  head.  A  slight  kind  of 

CABESTAN,  Fr.    See  Capstan. 

CABINET,  (cabinet,  Fr.)  a  private 
room  in  which  consultations  are  held. 

Cabinet  Council,  a  council  held  with 
privacy  and  unbounded  confidence. — 
Hence  Cabinet  minister. 

CABLE  ou  Chable,  Fr.  a  large  rope 
which  is  used  in  the  French  artillery. 
This  word  is  likewise  used,  in  French,  to 
signify  all  kinds  of  ropes  that  are  neces- 


(     7»    ) 

C  A  I 

sary  in   dragging,   or  raising  loads,   or 
things  of  bnrthen. 

CABOCHE,  Fr.  a  long-headed  nail. 
CABOOSE,  Fr.  the  cooking-place  of 
a  ship. 

CABOTAGE,  Fr.  coasting. 

CABOTER,  Fr.  to  coast. 
CABRER,  Fr.  to  rear  as  a  horse  does 
when  he  is  improperly  checked,  &c. 

CABRIOLET,  Fr.  a  light  low  chaise. 

CABROUET,  Fr.  a  cart. 

CABROUETTIER,  Fr.  a  carman  or 

CACADE,  Fr.  a  word  used  among 
the  French  to  signify  an  unlucky  enter- 
prize  in  war,  occasioned  by  an  ill-con- 
certed measure  for  the  prosecution  of  it, 
and  by  ignorance  or  want  of  courage  in 
its  execution. 

CADENCE,  in  tactics,  implies  a  very 
regular  and  uniform  method  of  marching: 
it  may  not  be  improperly  called  mathe- 
matical marching;  for  after  the  length  of 
a  step  is  determined,  the  time  and  dis- 
tance may  be  found. 

Cadence  or  Cadency,  in  cavalry,  is  an 
equal  measure  or  proportion,  which  a 
horse  observes  in  all  his  motions. 

CADET,  among  the  military,  is  a 
young  gentleman,  who  applies  himself 
to  the  study  of  fortification  and  gun- 
nery, &c.  and  who  sometimes  serves  in 
the  army,  with  or  without  pay,  till  a 
vacancy  happens  for  his  promotion. 
There  is  a  company  of  gentlemen  cadets 
maintained  at  Woolwich,  at  the  King's 
expense,  where  they  are  taught  all  the 
sciences  necessary  to  form  a  complete 
officer.  Their  number  has  lately  been 
increased,  and  commissions  are  given  to 
them  when  qualified.  The  proper  signi- 
fication of  the  word  is,  younger  brother. 
See  Academy. 

Gebtlkm  ah -Cadet,  a  term  applied  to 
every  youth  belonging  to  the  company 
of  cadets,  consisting  of  one  hundred  in- 
dividuals, who  are  educated  at  the  Royal 
Military  College  at  Great  Marlow,  in  the 
county  of  Bucks,  and  also  to  the  com- 
pany of  cadets  at  Woolwich. — For  parti- 
culars, see  vol.i.  p.  116,  Regimental  Com- 

CADET,  Fr.  differs  in  its  signification 
from  the  term  as  it  is  used  in  our  lan- 
guage. A  cadet  in  the  French  service 
did  not  receive  any  pay,  but  entered  as 
a  volunteer  in  a  troop  or  company,  for 
the  specific  purpose  of  becoming  master 
of  military  tactics. 

Cadet,  Fr.  likewise  means  any  offi- 
cer that  is  junior  to  another. 

CADRE,  Fr.  literary  a  frame;  this 
word  is  used  in  France  to  denote  the 
proposed  establishment  of  a  regiment. 

,E«-CADRER,  Fr.  to  place  an  officer 
or  soldier  in  some  particular  regiment. 

CiEMENT,    )  among     engineers,     a 

CEMENT,  >  strong  sort  of  mortar, 
used  to  bind  bricks  or  stones  together 
for  some  kind  of  moulding;  or  in  ce- 
menting a  block  of  bricks  for  the  carv- 
ing of  capitals,  scrolls,  or  the  like. — 
There  are  two  sorts,  i.  e.  hot  cement, 
which  is  the  most  common,  made  of 
resin,  bees-wax,  brick-dust,  and  chalk, 
boiled  together ;  the  bricks  to  be  ce- 
mented with  this  mixture  must  be  made 
hot  in  the  fire,  and  rubbed  to  and  fro 
after  the  cement  is  spread,  in  the  same 
manner  as  joiners  do  when  they  glue  two 
boards  together.  Cold  cement,  made  of 
Cheshire  cheese,  milk,  quick  lime,  and 
whites  of  eggs.  This  cement  is  less 
used  than  the  former,  and  is  accounted 
a  secret  known  but  to  very  few  brick- 

CiESTUS,  in  military  antiquity,  was 
a  large  gauntlet,  composed  of  raw  hides, 
used  by  pugilists  at  the  public  games. 

CAFFTAN,  the  name  of  a  vest  worn 
among  the  Turks. 

CAGE,  a  machine  which  was  for- 
merly used  in  this  island  for  the  security 
of  a  prisoner  of  war.  Rymer  gives  a  sin- 
gular account  respecting  the  imprison- 
ment of  the  Countess  of  Baghun,  or 
Buchan,  a  Scotch  prisoner,  in  the  reign 
of  Edward  I.  A.D.  1306.— The  sister  of 
Robert  Bruce  was  prisoner  at  the  same 
time.  This  cage  was  built  of  lattice- 
work, constructed  with  stout  posts  and 
bars,  and  well  strengthened  with  iron. 
It  was  so  contrived,  that  the  prisoner 
might  have  the  convenience  of  a  privy, 
and  it  was  placed  in  one  of  the  turrets  of 
the  castle  of  Berwick  upon  Tweed.  So 
much  for  the  chivalry  of  those  times ! 
and  the  homage  said  to  have  been  paid 
to  the  fair  sex  ! 

CAGE  de  la  bascule,  Fr.  a  space 
into  which  one  part  of  the  draw-bridge 
falls,  whilst  the  other  rises  and  conceals 
the  gate. 

CAHUTE,  Fr.  a  small  hut  or  cabin 
which  soldiers  make  to  defend  them 
against  the  inclemency  of  the  wea- 

CAIC,  CAIQUE,  Fr.  a  galley  boat, 

C  A  L 

(     74     ) 

C  A  L 

CAILLOUX,  Fr.  small  pebbles  used 
in  paving  aqueducts,  grottoes,  &c. 

C  \LMACAN,  an  officer  among  the 
Turks,  nearly  answering  to  our  lieute- 

CAISSE,  Fr.  a  sort  of  wooden  box  in 
which  the  necessary  charge  tor  the  ex- 
plosion of  a     line  is  deposited. 

Caisse,  Fr.  die  military  chest,  con- 
taining the  necessary  funds  for  the  pay- 
ment of  a  troup  or  company,  regiment  or 
arm  v.  / 

Caisse  also  signifies  a  drum. 

CAISSIER,  Fr.  a  treasurer;  any 
person  entrusted  with  regimental  monies; 
a  paymaster. 

CAISSON,  (caisson,  Fr.)  a  wooden 
frame  or  chest,  made  square,  the  side 
planks  about  two  inches  thick  :  it  may  be 
made  to  contain  from  4  to  20  loaded 
shells,  according  to  the  execution  they 
are  to  do,  or  as  the  ground  is  firmer  or 
looser.  The  sides  mu^t  be  high  enough, 
that  when  the  cover  is  nailed  on,  the 
fuzes  may  nut  be  damaged.  Caissons 
are  buried  under  ground  at  the  depth 
of  5  or  6  feet,  under  some  work  the 
enemy  intends  to  possess  himself  of;  and 
when  he  becomes  master  of  it,  fire  is  put 
to  the  traiu  conveyed  through  a  pipe, 
which  inflames  the  shells,  and  blows  up 
the  assailants.  Sometimes  a  quantity 
of  loose  powder  is  put  into  the  chest, 
on  which  the  shells  are  placed,  sufheieut 
to  put  them  in  motion,  and  raise  them 
above  ground;  at  the  same  time  that  the 
blast  of  powder  sets  fire  to  the  fuze  in 
the  shells,  which  must  be  calculated  to 
burn  from  1  to  2\  seconds.  When  no 
powder  is  put  under  the  shells,  a  small 
quantity  of  mealed  powder  must  be 
strewed  over  them,  having  a  communi- 
cation with  the  saucisson,  in  order  to 
convey  the  fire  to  the  fuzes. 

Caisson  signifies  also  a  covered 
wagon,  to  carry  bread  or  ammunition. 

CALATRAVA,  a  Spanish  military 
order,  so  called  from  a  fort  of  that 

The  knights  of  Calatrava  bear  a  cross; 
gules,  fleur-de-lissed  with  green,  ore. 

CALCULATION,  in  military  affairs, 
is  the  art  of  computing  the  amplitudes 
of  shells,  time  of  flight,  projectile  curve, 
velocity  of  shots,  charges  of  mines,  &c. 
together  with  the  necessary  tables  for 

Military  Calculation,  (calcul  mili- 
taire,  Fr.)  a  consideration  of  things  and 
events  in  a  military  manner;  a  view  of 

all   the  geographical  bearings,  political 
relations,    and    effective   forces   for   or 
against  a  country,  &c. 
CALF,  Fr.  creek. 

La  Cai.e,  Fr.  a  punishment  among 
the  French,  which  is  inflicted  when  one 
soldier,  or  sailor,  wounds  another  mali- 
ciously.    The  culprit  is  lied  to  the,  yard- 
arm,  and  suddenly  plunged   into  the  sea, 
and   hauled   up  again.     It  corresponds, 
in  s>>me  degree,  with  our  keel-hauhng. 
Cai.e,  on  fond  de  cale,  Fr.  ship's  hold. 
CALER,  Fr.  in  architecture,  to  place 
a  piece  of  thin  wood  under  a  stone,  in 
order  to  determine  the  width  of  the  seam 
or  joint  that  i«  to  be  filled. 
CALFATER,  Fr.  to  calk. 
CALIBER,  in  gunnery,  signifies  the 
same  as  the  bore  or  opening;  and  the 
diameter  of  the  bore  is  called   the  dia- 
meter  of  its  caliber.     This  expression 
regards  all  pieces  of  artillery. 

CALiBFR-cowjDasses,  )  the  name  of  a 
CALUPzn-compasses,  )  particular  in- 
strument used  by  gunners,  for  measuring 
the  diameters  of  shot,  shells,  &o.  as  also 
the  cylinders  of  cannon,  mortars,  and 
howitzers.  They  resemble  other  com- 
passes, except  in  their  legs,  which  are 
arched,  in  order  that  the  points  may 
touch  the  extremities  of  the  arch.  To 
find  the  true  diameter  of  a  circle,  they 
have  a  quadrant  fastened  to  one  leg,  and 
passing  through  the  other,  marked  with 
inches  and  parts,  to  express  the  diameter 
required:  the  length  of  each  ruler  or 
plate  is  usually  between  the  limits  of  6 
inches  and  a  foot.  On  these  rulers  are 
a  variety  of  scales,  tables,  proportions, 
&c.  such  as  are  esteemed  useful  to  be 
known  by  gunners.  The  following  ar- 
ticles are  on  the  completest  gunners- 
callipers,  viz.  1.  The  measure  of  con- 
vex diameters  in  inches.  2.  Of  concave 
ditto.  3.  The  weight  of  iron  shot  from 
given  diameters.  4.  The  weight  of 
iron  shot  from  given  gun  bores.  5. 
The  degrees  of  a  semicircle.  6.  The 
proportion  of  troy  and  avoirdupois 
weight.  7.  The  proportion  of  English 
and  French  feet  and  pounds.  8.  Factors 
used  in  circular  and  spherical  figures. 
9.  Tables  of  the  specific  gravity  and 
weight  of  bodies.  10.  Tables  of  the 
quantity  of  powder  necessary  for  proof 
and  service  of  brass  and  iron  guns.  11. 
Rules  for  computing  the  number  of  shot 
or  shells,  in  a  finished  pile.  12.  Rule  con- 
cerning the  fall  of  heavy  bodies.  13.  Rules 
for  raising  water.     14.  Rules  for  firing 

C  A  L 

(    75     ) 

C  A  M 

artillery  and  mortars.  15.  A  line  of 
inches.  16.  Logarithmetic  scales  of 
numbers, sines,  versed  sines  and  tangents. 
17.  A  sectoral  line  of  equal  parts,  or  the 
line  of  lines.  18.  A  sectoral  line  of 
plans,  and  superficies.  19.  A  sectoral 
line  of  solids. 

CALIBRE,  Fr.    See  Caliber. 

Calibre,  Fr.  signifies,  in  a  figurative 
sense,  cast,  weight  or  character ;  as  un 
homme  de  ce  calibre,  a  man  of  this  cast,  or 

CALIBRER,  Fr.  to  take  the  measure- 
ment of  the  caliber  of  a  gun. 

CALIVER,  an  old  term  for  an  arque- 
buse  or  musket. 

CALOMNIERE,  Fr.  a  pop-gun. 

CALOTE,  Fr.  a  species  of  skull-cap 
wbich  officers  and  soldiers  wear  under 
their  hats  in  the  French  cavalry,  and 
which  is  proof  against  a  sabre  or  sword. 
Calotes  are  usually  made  of  iron,  wick, 
or  dressed  leather,  and  every  officer 
chuses  the  sort  he  likes  best.  Those  deli- 
vered out  to  the  troops  are  made  of  iron. 

The  CALOTE,  a  term  used  in  the 
French  service  for  the  Lieutenants' 
Court,  at  which  the  first  lieutenant  of 
the  regiment,  for  the  time  being,  always 
presided.  The  form  of  a  calote  shews 
its  connexion  with  the  English  expres- 
sion Round  Robin,  (which  see  ;)  the  lat- 
ter taking  its  allusion  from  a  circle,  and 
the  former  from  the  sphere. 

Its  object  was  to  watch  over  the  con- 
duct of  the  subalterns :  and  the  presi- 
dent instructed  young  men,  on  their  ar- 
rival, in  all  the  private  regulations  of 
the  corps,  as  also  in  the  general  rules 
necessary  for  going  through  the  service 
with  honour. 

It  took  cognizance,  as  a  court  of 
honour,  of  all  disputes  and  quarrels  in 
which  the  laws  of  honour,  or  of  good 
breeding,  had  been  violated.  Our  regi- 
mental committees,  in  some  degree,  re- 
semble the  Calote,  especially  with  re- 
gard to  the  expulsion  of  an  officer,  or 
the  sending  of  him  to  Coventry. 

Calote  spherique,  Fr.  the  section  of 
a  sphere,  having  a  circle  for  its  basis. 

Calote  also  signifies  a  tonsure,  or 
that  back  part  of  the  head  which  is 
shaved  to  denote  a  person  in  orders,  ac- 
cording to  the  rites  of  the  Romish  church. 

CALOTIN,  one  who  has  the  tonsure. 
This  term  has  been  generally  used  by  the 
French,  especially  the  soldiery,  since  the 
commencement  of  the  Revolution,  in  de- 
rision of  the  priesthood;  and  is  one  of 

the  many  proofs  of  contempt  into  which 
every  sort  of  religion  has  fallen,  and  to 
which  the  immorality  of  the  nation  may 
be  attributed. 

CALQUER,  Fr.  to  take  oft' a  counter- 
part of  any  drawing  or  design,  by  friction 
or  impression. 

CALQUING,  1  (calquer,  Fr.)  tbe  art 

CALKING,  S  »f  tracing  any  kind  of 
a  military  drawing,&c.  upon  some  plate, 
paper,  &c.  It  is  performed  by  covering 
the  backside  of  the  drawing  with  a  black 
or  red  colour,  and  fixing  the  side  so 
covered  upon  a  piece  of  paper,  waxed 
plate,  &c.  This  done,  every  line  in  the 
drawing  is  to  be  traced  over  with  a 
point,  by  which  means  all  the  outlines 
will  be  transferred  to  the  paper  or  plate, 

CALTROPS,  pieces  of  iron  having 
four  points,  so  disposed  that  three  of 
them  always  rest  upon  the  ground,  and 
the  fourth  stands  upwards  in  a  perpen- 
dicular direction.  Each  point  is  three  or 
four  inches  long.  They  are  scattered 
over  the  ground  and  passages  where  the 
enemy  is  expected  to  march,  especially 
the  cavalry,  in  order  to  embarrass  their 

CAMARADE,  Fr.     See  Comrade. 

CAMBRE,  on  Cambrure,  Fr.  the  bend- 
ing of  a  piece  of  timber,  or  the  curve  of 
an  arch. 

CAMBRER,  Fr.  to  vault;  to  bend. 
Also  to  fit  pannel  squares,  boards,  and 
other  pieces  of  timber  to  curved  dimen- 
sions, by  means  of  fire,  &c. 

CAMION,  Fr.  a  species  of  cart  or 
dray  with  three  wheels,  which  is  drawn 
by  two  men,  and  serves  to  convey  can- 
non-balls, &c.  These  carts  are  very 
useful  in  fortified  towns. 

It  is  also  called  petit  tombereuu,  small 

CAMISADE  or  Camisatjo,  Fr.  in 
military  transactions,  an  attack  by  sur- 
prise, either  during  the  night,  or  at 
break  of  day,  when  the  enemy  is  sup- 
posed to  be  asleep,  or  off" his  guard;  it  is 
so  called  from  the  soldiers  wearing  their 
shirts  outside,  in  order  to  know  one  an- 
other in  the  darkness. 

CAMOUFLET,  Fr.  in  war,  a  kind  of 
stinking  combustible  blown  out  of  paper 
cases  into  the  miners'  faces,  when  thev 
are  at  work  in  the  galleries  of  the  coun- 

Camouflf.t  also  signifies  the  sudden 
explosion  of  a  pistol,  &c.  wbich  takes 
place  when  miners  encounter  one  ah- 


(   ro   ) 


otlicr;  hence  donner  Ic  camouftet,  to  take 
another  by  surprise,  or  (ire  at  him  unex- 

CAMP,  the  extent  of  ground  oc- 
cupied by  an  army  pitching  its  tents 
when  in  the  field, and  upon  which  all  it* 
baggage  and  apparatus  are  lodged.  It 
is  marked  out  by  the  quarter-master-ge- 
neral, who  allots  to  every  regiment  its 
ground.  The  extent  of  the  front  of  a 
regiment  of  infantry  is  200  yards,  in- 
cluding the  two  battalion  guns,  and 
depth  320,  when  the  regiment  contains 
9  companies,  each  of  100  private  men, 
and  the  companies' tents  in  two  rows; 
but  when  the  companies  tents  stand  in 
one  row,  and  about  70  private  men  to 
each  row,  the  front  is  then  but  155  yards. 
A  squadron  of  horse  has  120  yards  in 
front,  and  100  for  an  interval  between 
each  regiment. 

The  nature  of  the  ground  must  also 
be  consulted,  both  for  defence  against 
the  enemy,  and  for  supplies  to  the 
army.  It  should  have  a  communication 
with  that  army's  garrisons,  and  have 
plenty  of  water,  forage,  fuel,  and  either 
rivers,  marshes,  hills,  or  woods  to  cover 
it.  An  army  always  encamps  fronting 
the  enemy,  and  generally  in  two  parallel 
lines,  besides  a  corps  de  reserve,  about 
500  yards  distant  from  each  other;  the 
horse  and  dragoons  on  the  wings,  and 
the  foot  in  the  center.  Where  and  how 
the  train  of  artillery  is  encamped,  see 
Park  of  artillery,  and  Encampment  of  a 
regiment  if  artillery,  under  the  word 

In  a  siege,  the  camp  is  placed  all  along 
the  line  of  circumvallation,  or  rather  in 
the  rear  of  the  approaches,  out  of  can- 
non-shot; the  army  faces  the  circumval- 
lation, if  there  be  any. 

There  is  one  thing  very  essential  in  the 
establishing  a  camp,  and  which  should  be 
particularly  attended  to,  if  the  enemy  is 
near,  which  is,  that  there  should  not  only 
be  a  commodious  spot  of  ground  at  the 
head  of  the  camp,  where  the  army,  in 
case  of  surprise,  may  in  a  moment  be 
under  arms,  and  in  condition  to  repulse 
the  enemy;  but  also  a  convenient  field 
of  battle  at  a  small  distance,  and  of  a 
sufficient  extent  for  them  to  form  ad- 
vantageously, and  to  move  with  facility. 

The  arrangement  of  the  tents  in  camp 
is  nearly  the  same  all  over  Europe, 
which  is  to  dispose  them  in  such  a  man- 
ner, that  the  troops  may  form  with  safety 
and  expedition. 

To  answer  this  end,  the  troops  arc 
encamped  in  the  same  order  as  that  in 
which  they  are  to  engage,  which  is  by 
battalions  and  squadrons;  hence,  the 
post  of  each  battalion  and  squadron  in 
the  line  of  battle  must  necessarily  be  at 
the  head  of  its  own  encampment.  Gus- 
tavus  Adolphus,  king  of  Sweden,  was  the 
first  who  formed  encampments  according 
to  the  order  of  battle. 

By  this  disposition,  the  extent  of  tha 
camp  from  right  to  left,  of  each  battalion 
and  squadron,  will  be  equal  to  the  front 
of  each  in  line  of  battle:  and  conse- 
quently, the  extent  from  right  to  left  of 
the  whole  camp,  should  be  equal  to  the 
front  of  the  whole  army  when  drawn  up 
in  line  of  battle,  with  the  same  intervals 
between  the  several  encampments  of  the 
battalions  and  squadrons,  as  are  in  the 

There  is  no  fixed  rule  for  the  inter- 
vals :  some  will  have  no  intervals,  some 
small  ones,  and  others  are  for  intervals 
equal  to  the  front  of  the  battalion  or 
squadron.  The  most  general  method  is, 
an  interval  of  60  feet  between  each  bat- 
talion, and  of  3G  feet  between  each 

Distribution  of  the  front  and  depth  of 
the  Camp  for  a  battalion  of  infantry. 
The  present  mode  of  encampments  dif- 
fers from  what  was  formerly  adopted. 
The  front  of  the  camp  for  a  battalion  of 
10  companies  of  60  men  each,  is  at  pre- 
sent 400  feet,  and  during  the  late  wars 
only  360  feet;  the  depth  at  present 
759  feet,  and  during  the  late  war  960. 
The  front  of  the  camp  of  a  battalion  of 
10  companies  of  100  men  each  is  at 
present  668  feet,  and  formerly  only  592. 
The  breadth  of  the  streets  from  45  to 
55  feet,  excepting  the  main  street,  which 
is  sometimes  from  60  to  90  feet  broad. 

Of  the  Camp  of  a  battalion  by  a  nez$ 
method.  This  is,  by  placing  the  tents 
in  3  rows  parallel  to  the  principal  front 
of  the  camp ;  which  is  suitable  to  the 
3  ranks  in  which  the  battalion  is  drawn 
up:  the  tents  of  the  first  row,  which 
front  the  camp,  are  for  the  men  of  the 
front  rank :  the  tents  of  the  second  row 
front  the  rear,  and  are  for  the  men  of 
the  second  rank ;  and  the  tents  of  the 
third  row,  which  front  the  center  row, 
are  for  the  men  of  the  rear  rank. 

When  two  field-pieces  are  allowed  to 
each  battalion,  they  are  posted  to  the 
right  of  it.  Gustavus  Adolphus,  king 
of  Sweden,  was  the  first  who  ordered 


(    77    ) 


two  field-pieces  to  each  battalion,  which 
are  generally  light  6  pounders. 

Camp  of  Cavalry.  The  tents  for  the 
cavalry,  as  well  as  for  the  infantry,  are 
placed  in  rows  perpendicular  to  the 
principal  front  of  the  camp  ;  and  their 
number  is  conformable  to  the  number 
of  troops.  The  horses  of  each  troop  are 
placed  in  a  line  parallel  to  the  tents, 
with  their  head  towards  them. 

The  number  of  tents  in  each  row  is 
regulated  by  the  strength  of  the  troops, 
and  the  number  of  troopers  allotted  to 
each  tent  is  5 :  it  follows,  that  a  troop 
of  30  men  will  require  6  tents,  a  troop 
of  60  men  12  tents,  and  a  troop  of  100 
men  '20  tents.  The  tents  for  the  caval- 
ry are  of  the  same  form  as  those  of  the 
infantry,  but  more  spacious,  the  better 
to  contain  the  fire-arms,  accoutrements, 
saddles,  bridles,  boots,  &c.    See  Tents. 

Distribution  of  the  front  and  depth  of 
a  Camp  of  Cavalry.  Supposing  the  re- 
giment to  consist  of  2  squadrons,  of  3 
troops  each,  and  of  50  men  in  each 
troop,  the  extent  of  the  front  will  be 
450  feet,  if  drawn  up  in  2  ranks;  but 
if  drawn  up  in  3  ranks,  the  front  will  be 
only  300  feet,  the  depth  220,  and  the 
breadth  of  the  back  streets  30  feet,  and 
the  other  streets  46  feet  each.  In  the 
last  war  600  feet  were  allowed  each  re- 
giment of  cavalry  in  front,  774  feet  for 
the  depth,  and  the  breadth  of  the  streets 
as  above. 

The  standard-guard  tents  are  pitched 
in  the  center,  in  a  line  with  the  quarter- 
master's. The  camp-colours  of  the  ca- 
valry are  also  of  the  same  colour  as  the 
facings  of  the  regiments,  with  the  rank 
of  the  regiment  in  the  center :  those  of 
the  horse  are  square,  like  those  of  the 
foot;  and  those  of  the  dragoons  are 
swallow-tailed.  The  dung  of  each  troop 
is  laid  up  behind  the  horses. 

Camp  duty  consists  in  guards,  both 
ordinary  and  extraordinary:  the  ordi- 
nary guards  are  relieved  regularly  at  a 
certain  hour  every  day  (generally  about 
9  or  10  o'clock  in  the  morning);  the 
extraordinary  guards  are  all  kinds  of 
detachments  commanded  on  particular 
occasions  for  the  further  security  of  the 
camp,  for  covering  the  foragers,  for  con- 
voys, escorts,  or  expeditions. 

The  ordinary  guards  are  distinguished 
into  grand  guards,  standard,  and  quarter 
guards;  rear  guards,  picket  guards,  and 
guards  for  the  general  officers ;  train  of 
artillery,  bread  wagons,  paymaster  ge- 

neral, quarter-master  general,  majors  of 
brigade,  judge  advocate,  and  provost 
marshal  guards. 

The  number  and  strength  of  the  grand 
guards  and  out-posts,  whether  of  cavalry 
or  infantry,  depend  on  the  situation  of 
the  camp,  nature  of  the  country,  and  the 
position  of  the  enemy.  The  strength 
of  general  officers  guards  is  limited. 

Camp  maxims  are,  1.  The  principal 
rule  in  forming  a  camp,  is  to  give  it  the 
same  front  the  troops  occupy  in  order 
of  battle. 

2.  The  method  of  encamping  is  by 
battalions  and  squadrons,  except  the 
royal  regiment  of  artillery,  which  is  en- 
camped on  the  right  and  left  of  the  park 
of  artillery. 

3.  Each  man  is  allowed  2  feet  in  the 
ranks  of  the  battalion,  and  3  feet  in  the 
squadron:  thence  the  front  of  a  batta- 
lion of  900  men,  formed  3  deep,  will  be 
600  feet;  and  the  front  of  a  squadron 
of  150  men,  formed  2  deep,  will  be  225 

4.  The  depth  of  the  camp  when  the 
army  is  encamped  in  3  lines,  is  at  least 
2750  feet;  that  is,  750  feet  for  the 
depth  of  each  line,  and  250  feet  for  the 
space  between  each  of  those  lines. 

5.  The  park  of  artillery  should  always 
be  placed  on  a  dry  rising  ground,  if  any 
such  situation  offers;  either  in  the  center 
of  the  front  line,  or  in  the  rear  of  the 
second  line;  with  all  the  train  horses 
encamped  in  the  rear  of  the  park. 

6.  The  bread-wagons  should  be  sta- 
tioned in  the  rear  of  the  camp,  and  as 
near  as  possible  to  the  center,  that  the 
distribution  of  bread  may  be  rendered 

7.  When  the  commander  in  chief 
encamps,  it  is  generally  in  the  center 
of  the  army ;  and  the  town  or  village 
chosen  for  his  residence  is  called  head- 

8.  That  general  is  inexcusable,  who, 
for  his  own  personal  accommodation, 
makes  choice  of  quarters  that  are  not 
properly  secured,  or  lie  at  too  great  a 
distance  to  have  an  easy  communication 
with  the  camp. 

9.  If  the  ground  permits,  the  troops 
should  be  encamped  as  near  to  good 
water  as  possible. 

10.  When  there  are  hussars,  they  are 
generally  posted  near  the  head-quarters, 
or  in  the  front  of  the  army. 

11.  The  ground  taken  up  by  the  en- 
campment of  an  army  should  be  equally 

C  A  M 

(    78    ) 

C  A  M 

distributed,  and,  if  possible,  in  a  straight 
line;  as  the  whole  will  have  more  grace; 
for  a  crooked  line,  and  an  inequality  of 
disposition,  afford  a  very  unpleasing 
view,  both  of  the  camp  and  of  the  troops 
when  they  are  under  arms. 

12.  Cleanliness  is  essentially  neces- 
sary to  the  health  of  a  camp,  especially 
when  it  is  to  remain  for  any  length  of 
time.  To  maintain  this,  the  privies 
should  be  often  filled  up,  and  others 
opened;  at  least  every  6  days.  The 
offal  of  cattle,  and  the  carcasses  of  dead 
horses,  should  be  buried  very  deep;  and 
all  kinds  of  corrupt  effluvia,  that  may 
infect  the  air  and  produce  epidemical 
disorders,  should  be  constantly  removed. 

Choice  of  Camps.  1.  At  the  begin- 
ning of  a  campaign,  when  the  enemy  is 
at  too  great  a  distance  to  occasion  any 
alarm,  all  situations  for  camps  that  are 
healthy  are  good,  provided  the  troops 
have  room,  and  are  within  reach  of  wa- 
ter, wood,  and  provisions.  More  ground 
should  be  allowed  to  the  troops  in  sta- 
tionary camps,  than  in  tempurary  ones. 

2.  Camps  should  be  situated  as  near 
as  possible  to  navigable  rivers  to  facili- 
tate the  conveyance  of  all  manner  of 
supplies;  for  convenience  and  safety 
are  the  principal  objects  for  camps. 

3.  A  camp  should  never  be  placed  too 
near  heights  from  whence  the  enemy 
may  overlook  it ;  nor  too  near  woods, 
from  whence  the  enemy  may  surprise  it. 
If  there  are  eminences,  not  commanded 
by  others,  they  should  be  taken  into  the 
camp ;  and  when  that  cannot  be  done, 
they  should  be  fortified. 

4.  The  choice  of  a  camp  depends  in 
a  great  measure  on  the  position  of  the 
enemy,  on  his  strength,  and  on  the  na- 
ture and  situation  of  the  country. 

5.  A  skilful  general  will  avail  himself 
of  all  the  advantages  for  a  camp,  which 
nature  may  present,  whether  in  plains, 
mountains,  ravines,  hollows,  woods, 
lakes,  inclosures,  rivers,  rivulets,  &c. 

6.  The  disposition  of  the  troops  in 
camp  should  depend  on  the  nature  and 
situation  of  the  ground;  as  there  are 
occasions  which  require  all  the  infantry 
to  encamp  on  the  right,  and  the  cavalry 
on  the  left;  and  there  are  others  which 
require  the  cavalry  to  form  in  the  cen- 
ter, and  the  infantry  on  the  wings. 

7.  A  camp  should  never  be  formed  on 
the  banks  of  a  river,  without  the  space 
of  at  least  2  or  3,000  feet,  for  drawing 
out  the  army  in   order  of  battle:  the 

enemy  cannot  then  easily  alarm  th« 
camp,  by  artillery  and  small  arms  from 
the  other  side. 

8.  Camps  should  never  be  situated 
near  rivers  that  are  subject  to  be  over- 
flowed, either  by  the  melting  of  the 
snow,  or  by  accidental  torrents  from  the 
mountains.  Marshy  grounds  should  also 
be  avoided,  on  account  of  the  vapours 
arising  from  stagnant  waters,  which  in- 
fect the  air. 

9.  On  the  choice  of  camps  and  posts, 
frequently  depends  the  success  of  a 
campaign,  and  even  sometimes  of  a  war. 

Camp  guards.  They  are  of  two 
sorts :  the  one  serves  to  maintain  good 
order  within  the  camp;  and  the  other, 
which  is  stationed  without  the  camp, 
serves  to  cover  and  secure  it  against  the 
enemy.  These  guards  are  formed  of 
both  infantry  and  cavalry  ;  and  in  pro- 
portion to  the  strength  of  the  army, 
situation  of  the  camp,  and  disposition  of 
the  enemy.  Sometimes  it  is  required, 
that  these  guards  should  consist  of  the 
8th  part  of  the  army  ;  at  others,  of  the 
3d  part;  and  when  an  attack  from  the 
enemy  is  apprehended,  even  of  the  half. 

Manner  of  stationing  the  Camp 
guards.  It  is  of  the  utmost  conse- 
quence to  station  the  guards  in  such 
places,  as  may  enable  them  to  discover 
easily  whatever  approaches  the  camp. 

2.  The  guards  of  the  cavalry  are  ge- 
nerally removed  farther  from  the  camp, 
than  those  of  the  infantry;  but  never 
at  so  great  a  distance,  as  to  endanger 
their  being  cut  off:  within  cannon-shot 
is  a  very  good  distance.  They  are  often 
stationed  in  highways,  in  open  places, 
and  on  small  heights;  but  they  are 
always  so  disposed  as  to  see  and  com- 
municate with  one  another. 

3.  The  vedettes  to  the  out-posts  must 
be  double;  for  should  they  make  a  dis- 
covery, one  may  be  detached  to  inform 
the  officer  commanding  the  out-post,  and 
the  other  remain  on  duty;  they  should 
not  be  at  too  great  a  distance  from  their 
detachment;  probably,  about  50  or  60 
paces  will  be  sufficient. 

4.  The  guards  of  infantry  have  dif- 
ferent objects,  and  are  differently  sta- 
tioned :  their  duty  is,  to  receive  and 
support  the  guards  of  cavalry  in  cases 
of  need;  to  protect  the  troops  sent  out 
for  wood,  forage,  or  water ;  in  short  to 
prevent  any  approaches  from  the  small 
parties  of  the  enemy.  Some  are  sta- 
tioned   in  the  churches  of  the  neigh- 

C  A  M 

(    79    ) 

C  A  M 


bouring  villages,  in  castles,  houses,  and 
in  passages  and  avenues  of  woods; 
others  are  stationed  on  the  borders  of 
rivulets,  and  in  every  place  necessary  to 
secure  the  camp.  Guards  tliat  are  sta- 
tioned in  churches,  steeples,  in  woods, 
or  among  trees,  castles,  and  houses, 
should,  if  possible,  be  seen  from  the 
armv,  or  at  least  from  some  grand  guard 
in  its  neighbourhood,  that  signals  may 
be  readily  perceived  and  repeated. 

5.  The  guards  of  infantry  are  gene- 
rally fixed  ;  that  is,  they  have  the  same 
post  both  day  and  night,  except  such  as 
are  to  support  and  protect  the  guards  of 
cavalry,  and  to  cover  the  forage  grounds. 
All  out-guards  should  have  intrenching- 
tools  with  them. 

6.  The  guards  of  cavalry  have  gene- 
rally a  day-post  and  a  night-post;  the 
latter  is  seldom  more  than  4  or  500 
paces  from  the  camp  ;  one  third  should 
be  mounted,  one  third  bridled,  and  one 
third  feeding  their  horses;  but  when 
near  the  enemy,  the  whole  guard  should 
be  kept  mounted  during  the  night. 

7.  The  security  and  tranquillity  of  a 
camp  depending  upon  the  vigilance  of 
the  guards,  the  officers  who  command 
them  cannot  be  too  active  in  preventing 
surprises  :  a  neglect  in  this  particular  is 
often  of  fatal  consequence.  Though 
an  officer  must,  at  all  times,  be  strictly 
attentive  to  every  part  of  the  service, 
yet  he  should  be  more  particularly 
watchful  in  the  night  than  in  the  day. 
The  night  is  the  time  most  favourable 
for  surprises;  as  those  who  are  not  on 
duty,  are  generally  asleep,  and  cannot 
immediately  afford  assistance;  but  in 
the  day  time,  the  attention  of  all  the 
troops  is  turned  to  the  movements  of 
the  enemy ;  they  are  sooner  under 
arms,  sooner  in  readiness  to  march,  and 
in  much  less  danger  of  being  thrown 
into  confusion.  It  ought  also  to  be 
remembered,  that  the  officer  of  the 
quarter-guard  and  the  advanced  sen- 
tries should  never  permit  any  person  in 
coloured  clothes  to  pass  the  front  line 
of  the  camp,  or  in  any  shape  enter  it, 
without  being  minutely  questioned  as  to 
his  situe-tion  in  life,  &c.  For  this  end, 
he  should  be  conducted  to  the  quarter- 
guard,  there  to  give  in  writing  the  ne- 
cessary information.  Those  who  wish 
to  be  better  acquainted  with  the  nature 
and  mode  of  encampments,  may  read 
Mr.  Lochee's  useful  Essay  on  Castrame- 

Concerning  the  healthiness  of  the 
different  seasons  of  a  campaign,  the  in- 
genious Dr.  Pringle  has  the  following 
observations.  The  first  three  weeks  are  al- 
ways sickly;  after  which  the  sickness 
decreases,  and  the  men  enjoy  a  tole- 
rable degree  of  health  throughout  the 
summer,  unless  they  get  wet  clothes. 
The  most  sickly  part  of  the  campaign 
is  towards  the  end  of  August,  whilst  the 
days  are  still  hot,  but  the  nights  cold 
and  damp  with  fogs  and  dews;  then,  if 
not  sooner,  the  dysentery  prevails;  and 
though  its  violence  is  over  by  the  begin- 
ning oi"  October,  yet  the  remitting  fever, 
gaining  ground,  continues  throughout 
the  rest  of  the  campaign,  and  never  en- 
tirely ceases,  even  in  winter  quarters, 
till  the  frost  begins.  He  likewise  ob- 
serves, that  the  last  14  days  of  a  cam- 
paign, if  protracted  till  the  beginning  of 
November,  are  attended  with  more 
sickness  than  the  two  first  months  of 
the  encampment.  As  to  winter  expe- 
ditions, though  severe  in  appearance,  he 
tells  us  they  are  attended  with  little 
sickness,  if  the  men  have  strong  and 
good  shoes,  warm  quarters,  fuel,  and 
provisions  enough. 

CAMP-Colour-men,  men  who  carry 
the  camp-colours.  Each  regiment  has 
generally  6,  and  sometimes  1  per  com- 
pany; they  always  march  with  the 
quarter-master,  to  assist  in  making  the 
necessary  preparations  against  the  ar- 
rival of  the  regiment  in  a  new  encamp- 
ment. They  also  carry  the  triangles 
when  a  soldier  is  to  be  flogged. 

CAMP-Fight,  (combat  en  champ  chx, 
Fr.)  When  an  engagement  takes  place 
within  certain  lines  of  a  camp  or  in- 
closed position,  it  is  called  a  camp-fight. 
Camp-fight  was  also  formerly  used  to 
signify  combat. 

Fly  i7ig-C  amp,  or  army,  generally 
means  a  strong  body  of  horse  and  foot, 
commanded  for  the  most  part  by  a 
lieutenant-general,  which  is  always  in 
motion,  both  to  cover  its  own  garrisons, 
and  to  keep  the  enemy's  army  in  conti- 
nual alarm.  It  is  sometimes  used  to 
signify  the  ground  on  which  such  a  body 
of  men  encamp. 

Camp  -utensils,  hatchets,  shovels,  mat- 
tocks, blankets,  camp-kettles,  canteens, 
tents,  poles,  and  pins:  each  company 
has  10  shovels  and  5  mattocks;  each 
tent  1  hatchet,  2  blankets,  1  camp-ket- 
tle, with  its  linen  bag;  and  each  soldier 
1  canteen,  1  knapsack,  and  1  havre-sack. 

C  A  M 

(     80    ) 


C/iMV-discases,  are  chiefly  bilious  fe- 
vers, malignant  fevers,  fluxes,  scurvy, 
rheumatism,  &c. 

Camp  is  also  used  by  the  Siamese  and 
some  other  nations  in  the  East  Indies, 
to  express  the  quarters  where  the  per- 
sons from  different  countries,  who  come 
to  trade  with  them,  usually  reside. 

CAMP  d'assemblce,  Fr.  the  first  ground 
which  is  taken  when  troops  are  encamp- 
ed on  the  opening  of  a  campaign. 

Camp  a  cheval,  Fr.  a  ground  of  en- 
campment across  which  any  river  runs, 

Camp  d'ecousu,  Fr.  a  ground  of  en- 
campment, which  is  occupied  by  dif- 
ferent regiments,  without  any  attention 
being  paid  to  a  regular  line,  &c. 

Camp  desemparc,  Fr.  a  ground  upon 
which  the  enemy  has  been  encamped 
the  preceding  day,  or  during  the  course 
of  the  one  on  which  the  ground  is  re- 

Camp  detendu,  Fr.  a  ground  of  en- 
campment upon  which  the  tents  are 
struck,  either  for  the  purpose  of  engag- 
ing the  enemy,  of  marching  from  him, 
or  of  making  any  particular  movement. 

Camp  en  echelons,  Fr.  a  ground  of 
encampment  which  is  taken  up  in  such 
a  manner,  that  the  different  regiments 
lie  obliquely  in  advance  one  to  the  other. 
By  means  of  this  disposition  the  flanks 
nearest  to  the  enemy  are  supported  by 
those  that  are  farther  from  him,  and  are 
not  exposed  to  have  their  wing  turned. 

CAMP^xe,  Fr.  a  regular,  or  stationary 

Camp  bien  ordonn'c,  Fr.  a  well  regu- 
lated camp. 

Camp  d 'instruction,  ou  de  discipline, 
Fr.  a  ground  of  encampment  which  is 
occupied  for  the  purpose  of  training 
troops,  &c. 

Camp  momentani,  Fr.  a  ground  of  en- 
campment which  is  taken  for  a  short  in- 

Camp  de. passage,Yr.  ground  taken  for 
the  purpose  of  passing  through  a  coun- 
try, crossing  a  river,  &c. 

Camp  de  plaisancc,  Fr.  a  camp  which 
is  taken  for  the  purposes  of  parade. 

Camp  de  position,  Fr. ground  taken  to 
enable  an  army  to  act  offensively,  or  de- 
fensively, against  any  opposing  force. 

Camp  rctrunch'c,  Fr.  an  entrenched 
camp.     See  Camp. 

Camp  tendu,  Fr.  a  ground  of  encamp- 
ment, where  tents,  &c.  are  regularly 

Camp  volant,  Fr.  a  flying  camp,  one 
which  is  formed  and  broken  up  from 
day  to  day. 

Camp  de  Mars,  Fr.  apiece  of  ground 
in  the  vicinity  of  Paris,  where  troops 
are  occasionally  exercised,  and  public 
festivals  kept. 

CAMPAGNE,  Fr.  campaign. 

Se  mettre  en  Campagne,  Fr.  to  take 
the  field. 

Tenir  la  Campagne,  Fr.  to  keep  the 
field,  or  remain  encamped. 

CAMPAIGN,  in  military  affairs,  the 
time  every  year  that  an  army  continues 
in  the  field,  in  war  time.  The  word  is 
also  used  for  an  open  country  before 
any  town.  &c. 

CAMPEMENT,  Fr.  an  encampment. 
This  word  is  also  used  to  denote  a  de- 
tachment sent  before  the  army  to  mark 
out  the  ground  for  a  camp. 

CAMPER,  Fr.  to  encamp. 

CAMPUS  Maii,  an  anniversary  as- 
sembly which  was  observed  by  our  an- 
cestors on  May-day,  when  they  mutually 
pledged  themselves  to  one  another  for 
the  defence  of  the  country  against 
foreign  and  domestic  foes.  Of  this  de- 
scription was  the  famous  Champ  de  Mai 
when  Bonaparte  assembled  the  troops 
and  citizens  of  Paris  in  1815. 

Campus  Martins,  a  public  place  so 
called  among  the  llomaus,  from  Mars, 
the  God  of  War. 

Champ  de  Mai,  Fr.  See  Campus 

CANAL  de  lumilre,  Fr.  the  aperture, 
or  touch-hole,  which  leads  from  the  pan 
to  the  barrel  of  a  fire  arm. 

CANAL,  {canal,  Fr.)  that  part  of  a 
stone,  or  wooden  aqueduct,  through 
which  the  water  passes. 

CANAPSA,  Fr.  knapsack;  more 
properly  an  old  leathern  bag  or  satchel, 
which  a  beggar  or  soldier's  boy  carries. 

Canapsa  also  means  the  individual 
who  carries  the  bag. 

CANARDER,  Fr.  to  pelt,  to  shoot; 
to  fire  from  any  secret  place. 

CANEVAS,  Fr.  canvass ;  rough 

CANIVEAUX,  Fr.  a  strong  pave- 
ment which  runs  across  a  street  where 
wagons  pass. 

CANNIPERS.     See  Callipers. 

CANNON,  or  pieces  o/Ordnance,  in 
the  military  art,  imply  machines  having 
tubes  of  brass,  or  iron.  They  are 
charged  with  powder  and  ball,  or  some- 
times cartridges,  grape  and  tin-shot,  &o. 


C    81     ) 


The  length  is  distinguished  by  three 
parts;  the  first  re-in  force,  the  second 
re-inforce,  and  the  chace:  the  first  re- 
inforce is  2-7 ths,  and  the  second  l-7th 
and  a  half  of  the  diameter  of  the  shor. 
The  inside  hollow,  wherein  the  powder 
and  shot  are  lodged,  is  called  the  bore, 

History  o/"Cannon'  or  pieces  nfOr.D- 
nance.     They  were  originally  made  of 
iron  bars  soldered  together,  and  fortified 
with  strong  iron  hoops;  some  of  which 
are  still  to  he  seen,  viz.  one  in  the  tower 
of  London,  two  at  Woolwich,  and  one  in 
the    royal  arsenal  at  Lisbon.      Others 
were  made  of  thin  sheets  of  iron  rolled 
up  together,  and  hooped;  and  on  emer- 
gencies they  were  made  of  leather,  with 
plates  of  iron  or  copper.     These  pieces 
were  made  in  a  rude  and  imperfect  man- 
ner, like  the   first  essays  of  many  new 
inventions.      Stone   balls    were    thrown 
out  of  these  cannon,  and  a  small  quantity 
of   powder    used    on  account   of   their 
weakness.     These  pieces  have  no  orna- 
ments, are  placed  on  their  carriages  by 
rings,  and  are  of  cylindrical  form.  When 
or  by  whom   they  were  made,  is  uncer- 
tain: however,  we  read  of  cannon  being 
used  as  early  as  the  13th  century,  in  a 
sea  engagement   between    the   king   of 
Tunis  and  the  Moorish  king   of  Seville. 
The  Venetians  used   cannon  at  the  siege 
of  Claudia  Jessa,  now  called  Chioggia, 
in   1366,  which  were  brought  thither  by 
two  Germans,  with   some  powder  and 
leaden  balls;  as  likewise  in   their   wars 
with  the  Genoese  in  1379.     Our  glorious 
king  Edward  III.  made  use  of  cannon  at 
the  battle  of  Cressy  in  1346.     On   this 
occasion   the   English    had   4   pieces   of 
ordnance  planted    upon  a  height,  which 
caused  such  a  panic  in  the  French  troops, 
that  Edward  defeated   Philip  of  Valois, 
who  commanded    his   army   in    person, 
without  experiencing  much  opposition. 
Cannon  was  employed  at  the  siege  of 
Calais    in    1347.      Pieces  of  ordnance 
were  made  use  of  by  the  Turks  at  the 
siege  of  Constantinople,  then  in    pos- 
session  of  the  Christians,  in  1394,  or  in 
that    of   1452,   that    threw   a   weight  of 
10061b.  hut  they  generally  burst,  either 
the  first,  second,   or  third  shot.     Louis 
XII.  had  one  cast  at  Tours,  of  the  same 
size,  which  threw  a  ball  from  the  Bastille 
to   Charenton.     One    of   those   fatuous 
cannon   was  taken  at  the  siege  of  Dieu, 
in  1546,  bv  Don  John  de  Castro,  and  is 
in  the  castle  of  St.  Juk;d  da  Barra,  10 
miles  from  Lisbon;  its  length  is  20  feet 

7  inches,  diameter  at  the  center  6  feet  3 
inches,  and  discharges  a  ball  of  10001b. 
It  has  neither  dolphins,  rings,  nor  but- 
ton, is  of  a  curious  kind  of  metal,  and 
has  a  large  Indostan  inscription  upon  it, 
which  says  it  was  cast  in  1400. 

Ancient  am/present  names  o/'Cannon. 
Formerly  they  were  dignified  with  un- 
common names;  for  in  1503  Louis  XII. 
had  12  brass  cannon  cast,  of  an  uncom- 
mon size,  called  after  the  names  of  the 
12  peers  of  Fiance.  The  Spanish  and 
Portugueze  called  them  after  their 
saints.  The  emperor  Charles  V.  when 
he  marched  before  Tunis,  founded  the 
12  Apostles.  At  Milan  there  is  a  70- 
pounder,  called  the  1'imontelle;  and  one 
at  Bois-le-duc,  called  the  Devil.  A  60- 
pounder  at  Dover  castle,  called  Queen 
Elizabeth's  Pocket-pistol.  An  80-pounder 
in  the  tower  of  London  (formerly  in 
Edinburgh  castle)  called  Mounts-meg. 
An  80-pounder  in  the  royal  arsenal  at 
Berlin,  called  the  Thunderer.  An  80- 
pounder  at  Malaga,  called  the  Teirible. 
Two  curious  60-pounders  in  the  arsenal 
at  Bremen,  called  the  Messengers  of  bad 
news.  And  lastly  an  uncommon  70- 
pounder  in  the  castle  of  St.  Angelo  at 
Rome,  made  of  the  nails  that  fasteued 
the  copper  plates  which  covered  the  an- 
cient Pantheon,  with  this  inscription 
upon  it:  Ex  claris  trubulibus  por tints 

In  addition  to  the  above  curiosities, 
there  are  two  leather  field  pieces  in  the 
Tower,  and  one  in  the  armoury  at  Malta; 
there  is  also  a  very  singular  old  piece  of 
brass  ordnance  in  the  island  of  Rhodes, 
about  20  feet  in  length,  with  a  chamber 
5  feet  long,  to  contain  the  charge  of 
powder,  which  screws  on  at  the  breech 
ot  the  gun.  The  calibre  of  the  piece  is 
24  inches,  carrying  a  spherical  stone 
ball,  and  seems  to  have  been  used  at  a 
very  early  period.  There  is  likewise  an 
ancient  piece  of  brass  ordnance,  sup- 
posed to  be  Turkish,  in  St.  James's  Park, 
brought  home  from  one  of  the  arsenals 
in  Alexandria,  when  the  British  troops, 
under  the  command  of  Lord  Hutchinson, 
conquered  the  French  in  Egypt. 

In  the  beginning  of  the  loth  century 
the  uncommon  names  of  Terrib'e,  Devil, 
&c.  were  generally  abolished,  and  the 
following  more  universal  ones  took 
place,  viz. 

rounders.         Cwt. 

Cannon  royal,  or  1    




—  48 

about  90 


(     82     ) 

C  A  N 

Bastard  cannon,  ) 
or  i  carthoun  j 
•*  carthoun 
Whole  culverins 
Demy  culverins 

Slowest  sort  ~ 
ordinary       =r 
largest  size  rz 
Basilisk  := 

Serpentine  — 

Aspik  — 


=  3ti 

=  21 
=  18 
—     9 

=     G 











=  43 

=:     4 
—     2 

=     G 

=  GO 

=     8,  2,  Hi  1 

Moyens,  which  carried  a  ball  of  10  or  12 

ounces,  &c. 
Rabinet,  which   carried    a    ball   of   10 


These  curious  names  of  beasts  and 
birds  of  prey  were  adopted,  on  account 
of  their  swiftness  in  motion,  or  of  their 
cruelty;  as  the  falconet,  falcon,, 
and  culverin,  ccc.  for  their  swiftness  in 
flying;  the  basilisk,  serpentine,  aspik; 
dragon,  syren,  &c.  for  their  cruelty.  See 
the  Latin  poet  Forcastarius. 

At  present  cannon,  or  pieces  of  ord- 
nance, take  their  names  from  the  weight 
of  the  ball  they  discharge:  thus  a  piece 
that  discharges  a  ball  of  24  pounds,  is 
called  a  24-pounder;  one  that  carries  a 
ball  of  12  pounds, is  called  a  12-pouuder; 
nnd  so  of  the  rest,  divided  into  the  fol- 
lowing sorts,  viz. 

Ship-guns,  consisting  in  42,  32,24,  18, 
12,  9,  6,  and  8  pounders. 

Garrison-guns,  in  42,  32,  24,  18,  12, 
9,  and  G  pounders. 

Battermg-guns,  in  24,  18,  and  12 

Field-pieces,  in  18,  12,  9,  G,  3,  2,  If, 
1,  and  \  pounders. 

The  British  seldom  use  any  of  lower 
calibre  than  G  in  the  field. 

The  metal  of  which  brass  cannon  is 
made,  is  in  a  manner  kept  a  secret  by 
the  founders:  yet,  with  all  their  art  and 
6ecrecy,  they  have  not  hitherto  found 
cut  a  composition  that  will  stand  a  hot 
engagement  without  melting,  or  at  least 
being  rendered  useless.  Those  cast  at 
Woolwich  bid  fairest  towards  this 
amendment.  The  respective  quantities 
which  should  enter  into  this  composition, 
is  a  point  not  decided;  every  founder 
has  his  own  proportions,  which  are  pecu- 
liar to  himself.  The  most  common  pro- 
portions of  the  ingredients  are  the  fol- 

lowing, viz.  To  2401b.  <>f  metal  fit  for 
casting,  they  put  G8lb.  of  copper,  52lb. 
of  brass,  and  12lh.  of  tin.  To  42001b. 
(if  metal  lit  for  casting,  the  Germans  put 
3687 |j  of  copper,  204$$lb.  of  brass,  and 
S07|flb.of  tin.  Others  again  use  1001b. 
of  copper,  Gib.  of  brass,  and  9lb.  of  tin; 
and  lastly,  others,  1001b.  of  copper,  101b. 
of  brass,  and  15lb.  of  tin.  With  respect 
to  iron  guns,  their  structure  is  the  same 
as  that  of  the  others,  and  they  generally 
stand  the  most  severe  engagements,  be- 
ing frequently  used  on  ship-board.  Seve- 
ral experiments  have  taught  us  that  the 
Swedish  iron  guns  are  preferable  to  all 

Cannon  is  now  generally  cast  solid, 
and  th«  cavity  bored  afterwards  by  a 
very  curious  machine  for  that  purpose, 
where  the  gun  is  placed  in  a  perpendicu- 
lar position;  but  of  late  these  machines 
have  been  made  to  bore  horizontally, 
and  much  truer  than  those  that  bore  in 
a  vertical  form.  This  new  machine  was 
was  first  invented  at  Strasburgh,  and 
greatly  improved  by  Mr.  Verbruggen,  a 
Dutchman,  who  was  bead  founder  at 
the  royal  foundery  at  Woolwich,  where 
probably  the  best  horizontal-boring  ma- 
chine in  Europe  has  been  lately  fixed; 
it  both  bores  the  inside,  and  turns  and 
polishes  the  outside  at  once. 

Kunus  of  the  several  parts  of  a  Can- 

The  grand  divisions  exterior  are  as 
follows,  viz.  First  re-inf'oree  is  that  part 
ofa  gun  next  the  breech,  which  i'-  made 
-tronger  to  resist  the  force  of  pow- 

Second  re-inforce.  This  begins  where 
the  first  ends,  and  is  made  something 
smaller  than  the  first. 

The  chace  is  the  whole  space  from 
the  trunnions  to  the  muzzle. 

The  muzzle,  properly  so  called,  is  the 
part  from  the  muz/.le  astragal  to  the  end 
of  the  piece. 

Small  divisions  exterior. 

The.  cascable,  the  hindermost  part  of 
the  breech,  from  the  base-ring  to  the 
end  of  the  button. 

The  cascabte-uslragal  is  the  diminish- 
ing part  between  the  two  breech-mould- 

The  neck  of  the  cascable  is  the  nar- 
row space  between  the  breech-moulding 
and  the  button. 

The  breech  is  the  solid  piece  of  metal 
behind,  between  the  vent  and  the  extre- 
mity of  the  base-ring,  and  which  termi- 


(     33     ) 


nafes  the  hind  part  of  the  gun,  exclusive 
of  t lie  cascable. 

The  breech-mouldings  are  the  eminent 
parts,  as  squares  or  rounds,  which  serve 
only  tor  ornaments  to  the  piece,  &c. 

The  base-ring  and  ogee  are  orna- 
mental mouldings:  the  latter  is  always 
in  the  shape  of  an  S,  taken  from  civil 
architecture,  and  used  in  guns,  mortars, 
and  howitzers. 

The  vent-field  is  the  part  from  the 
vent  to  the  first  re- in  force  astragal. 

The  vent  astragal  and  fillets  are  the 
mouldings  and  fillets  at  or  near  the 

The  charging  ci/linder  is  all  the 
space  from  the  chace-astragal  to  the 

The  first  re-inforce  ring  and  ogee  are 
the  ornaments  on  the  second  re-inforce. 

The  fintt  re-inforce  astragal  is  the 
ornament  between  the  first  and  second 

The  chace  girdle  is  the  ornament 
close  to  the  trunnions. 

The  trunnions  are  two  solid  cylindri- 
cal pieces  of  metal  in  every  gun,  which 
project  from  the  piece,  and  by  which  it 
is  supported  upon  its  carriage. 

The  dolphins  are  two  handles,  placed 
on  the  second  re-inforcte  ring  of  brass 
guns,  resembling  the  fish  of  that  name: 
they  serve  for  mounting  and  dismount- 
ing the  guns. 

The  second  re-inforce  ring  and  ogee 
are  the  two  ornaments  joining  the  trun- 

The  second  re-inforce  astragal  is  the 
moulding  nearest  the  trunnions. 

The  chace-astragal  and  fillets,  the  two 
last-mentioned  ornaments  jointly. 

The  muzzle-astragal  and  fillets,  the 
joint  ornaments  nearest  the  muzzle. 

The  muzzle-mouldings,  the  ornaments 
at  the  very  muzzle  of  the  piece. 

The  swelling  of  the  muzzle,  the  pro- 
jected part  behind  the  muzzle-mould- 

Interior  parts. 

The  mouth,  or  entrance  of  the  bore,  is 
that  part  where  both  powder  and  ball 
are  put  in,  or  the  hollow  part  which  re- 
ceives the  charge. 

The  vent,  in  all  kinds  of  fire-arms,  is 
commonly  called  the  touch-hole:  it  is  a 
small  hole  pierced  at  the  end,  or  near 
it,  of  the  bore  or  chamber,  to  prime  the 
piece  with  powder,  or  to  introduce  the 
tube,  in  order,  when  lighted,  to  set  fire 
to  the  charge. 

The  chamber  is  the  -place  where  the 
powder  is  lodged,  which  forms  the 

Tools  for  loading  and  firing  Cannon 
are  rammers,  sponges,  ladles,  worms, 
handspikes,  wedges,  and  screws. 

Coins,  or  wedges,  to  lay  under  the 
breech  of  the  gun,  in  order  to  elevate  or 
depress  it. 

Handspikes  serve  to  move  and  to 
lay  the  gun. 

Ladles  serve  to  load  the  gun  with 
loose  powder. 

Rammas  are  cylinders  of  wood, 
whose  diameters  and  ares  are  equal  to 
those  of  the  shot:  they  serve  to  ram 
home  the  wads  put  upon  the  powder 
and  shot. 

Sponge  is  fixed  at  the  opposite  end  of 
the  rammer,  covered  with  lamb-skin, 
and  serves  to  clean  the  gun  when  fired. 

Screics  are  used  to  field-pieces  in- 
stead of  coins,  by  which  the  gun  is  kept 
to  the  same  elevation. 

Tools  necessiny  for  proving  Cannon 
are,  a  searcher  with  a  reliever,  and  a 
searcher  with  one  point. 

Searcher  is  an  iron,  hollow  at  one  end 
to  receive  a  wooden  handle,  and  on  the 
other  end  has  from  4  to  8  flat  springs  of 
about  8  or  10  inches  long,  pointed  and 
turned  outwards  at  the  ends. 

The  Reliever  is  an  iron  flat  ring,  with 
a  wooden  handle,  at  right  angles  to  it. 
When  a  gun  is  to  be  searched  after  it 
has  been  fired,  the  searcher  is  intro- 
duced; and  turned  every  way,  from  end 
to  end,  and  if  there  is  any  hole,  the 
point  of  one  or  other  of  the  springs  gets 
into  it,  and  remains  till  the  reliever, 
passing  round  the  handle  of  the  searcher, 
and  pressing  the  springs  together,  re- 
lieves it. 

When  there  is  any  hole  or  roughness 
in  the  gun,  the  distance  from  the  mouth 
is  marked  on  the  outside  with  chalk. 

The  other  searcher  has  also  a  wooden 
handle,  and  a  point  at  the  fore  end,  of 
about  an  inch  long,  at  right  angles  to 
the  length:  about  this  point  is  put  some 
wax  mixed  with  tallow,  which,  when  in- 
troduced into  the  hole  or  cavity,  is  press- 
ed in,  when  the  impression  upon  the 
wax  gives  the  depth,  and  the  length  is 
known  by  the  motion  of  the  searcher 
backwards  and  forwards:  if  the  fissure 
be  1-ninth  of  an  inch  deep,  the  gun  is 
rejected.     See  Instruments. 

N.  B.    The   strength   of    gunpowder 
having  been  considerably  increased  by 


(     81    ) 


the  late  Lieutenant  General  Sir  William 

Congreve,  of  the   Royal  Artillery,  the 

quantity  for  service  lias  heen  somewhat 

reduced;    that  for  proof   remaining  as 


r,  i  Bull.     See  Balls. 

Cannon    {  .,,   ,      c„  „  c„„„. 
I  Shot,     hee  shot. 

Cannon-B«aAW.?.     See  Gabions. 

To  nail  C a  n  NON.     See  N  a  t  l. 

Cannon.  Tlie  author  of  Maxima,  page  125,  says,  "  Le  canon 
est  le  dernier  moyen  des  rois,  (ultima 
ratio  region,)  comme  I' insurrection  est  le 
dernier  moyen  des  pcuples.  Les  maux 
qui  en  resultent  sont certains,  Its  remedes 
douteux ;  il  est  done  aussi  insensi  que 
coupable,  de  ne  fas  ipuiser  toutes  les  res- 
sources  de  la  moderation  et  de  la  patience 
avant  ePe'n  venira  ces-crueltes extrimites." 
This  sound  doctrine  holds  good  with  re- 
spect to  king  and  people.  Let  the  social 
compact  which  ought  to  hind  the  ruler 
and  the  ruled  he  honestly  followed,  and 
there  will  he  little  occasion  for  can- 

CANNONADF,  the  direction  of  the 
powers  of  artillery  against  some  distant 
ohject  intended  to  he  seized  or  destroy- 
ed, as  the  troops  in  battle,  battery,  for- 
tress, or  out-work. 

To  Cannonade,  (cautioner,  Fr.)  to 
fire  against  any  thing  with  cannon,  or 
pieces  of  ordnance. 

CANNONEER,  (canonnier,  Fr.)  the 
person  who  manages  the  gun.  See 

CANON,  Fr.  See  Cannon.  Cannon 
also  means  in  French  the  barrel  of  any 
fire-arm,  great  or  small. 

Canon  chambr'e,  Fr.  a  piece  that  has 
not  heen  well  cast,  and  could  not  he 
used  without  danger,  on  account  of  the 
defective  cavities  which  exist  in  the 
body  of  the  metal. 

Canon  secret,  Fr.  one,  or  several 
pieces  of  ordnance  placed  on  a  battery, 
unperceived  by  the  enemy.  These  are 
used  by  the  besieged  for  the  defence  of 
breaches,  and  by  the  besiegers  to  oppose 
a  sortie. 

Canon  d  la  Sualois,  Fr.  a  piece  of 
ordnance  adopted  by  the  French,  and 
so  called  from  the  Swedish  pieces,  of 
which  it  is  an  imitation.  It  is  very  con- 
venient in  long  marches,  as  being  very 
light.  The  weight  at  most  o^olb.  the 
ball  4lb.  weight. 

Canon  double,  Fr.     See  lieveil  matin. 

Canon   Ruyi;  Fr.  a  rifle  gun.     See 


CANON  Bit,  that  part  of  the  bit 
which  is  let  into  the  horse's  mouth. 

CANONNADE,  Fr.  See  Cannon- 

CANONNTERE,  on  Embrasure,  Fr. 
an  opening  which  is  made  in  the  parapet 
of  a  work  for  the  purpose  of  pointing 
cannon  against  any  particular  object. 

Canon  nieiie,  Fr.  a  sort  of  shed  co- 
vered over  with  canvass  for  the  accom- 
modation of  soldiers  and  sutlers. 

CANONNER,  Fr.  to  fire  against 
any  fortified  place  or  body  of  armed 
men  with  heavy  ordnance,  ixc. 

CANONS  de  goutiere,  Fr.  in  archi- 
tecture, the  extremities  or  mouths  of 
copper  or  leaden  pipe*,  which  serve  tO 
carry  off  the  water  from  aroof,&C 

Military  CANT  terms,  familiar  ex- 
pressions which  obtain  currency  among 
military  men,  when  they  are  employed 
in  garrison, or  elsewhere.  These  phrases 
are  too  numerous  to  be  recited,  especi- 
ally as  they  prevail  differently  in  differ- 
ent corps.  The  Guards,  for  instance, 
have  phrases  peculiar  to  themselves. 
Instead  of  no  parish  business,  theGuards 
say  7io  pipe  clay,  when  they  wish  to  put 
an  end  to  regimental  discussion;  and  in- 
stead of  scabbarding  a  soldier,  as  in  the 
infantry  of  the  line,  or  booting  him,  as  in 
the  cavalry,  theycallitfarrrngauaaO,  ecc. 

CANTABRES,  Fr.  soldiers  held  in 
high  lepute  at  the  time  of  the  Romans: 
and,  in  fact,  the  renown  of  the  gallant 
Cantabres  was  such,  that  a  great  number 
of  the  Spanish  provinces  reckoned  it  a 
great  honour  to  be  comprehended  w  ithin 
the  limits  of  ancient  Cantabria.  In  the 
year  1745,  Lewis  XV.  formed  a  regiment 
of  Cantabres,  which  since  were  called 
Royal  Cantabres. 

CANTABRUM,  a  standard  intro- 
duced  during  the  reign  of  the  Roman 
Emperors,  and  which  differed  from  the 
vexillum.  This  latter  was  a  large 
standard,  distinguished  by  its  particular 
colour  and  motto;  whereas  the  canta- 
bruni  was  only  a  small  flag,  with  its  par- 
ticular colour  also,  and  used  as  a  signal 
for  the  troops  to  rally. 

CANTEEN,  a  suttling-house  for  the 
convenience  of  officers  and  soldiers; 
also  a  machine  made  of  wood  or  leather 
with  compartments  for  several  utensils, 
generally  used  by  officers.  The  tin  ves- 
sels used  by  the  soldiers  on  a  march, 
&c.  to  carry  water  or  other  liquor  in, 
each  holding  about  2  quarts,  are  also 
called  canteens. 


(     85     ) 


To  CANTER,  (aller  au  petit-galop, 
Fr.)  to  go  a  hand-gallop,  or  three- 
quarter  speed.     See  Hand. 

CANTINE,  IV.  See  Canteen. 
Cantine  is  sometimes  used  among  the 
French  to  signify  the  meat,  &c.  that  is 
ready  drest. 

CANTiNIER,  Ft.  the  person  who 
keeps  a  canteen,  booth,  or  suttling 

To  CANTON,  (cantonner,  Fr.)  to 
disperse  troops  into  winter  or  summer 

CANTONMENTS  are  distinct  situ- 
ations, in  towns  and  villages,  where  the 
different  parts  of  an  army  lie  as  near  to 
each  other  as  possible,'  and  in  the  same 
manner  as  they  encamp  in  the  held. 
The  chief  reasons  for  cantoning  an  army 
are,  first,  when  the  campaign  begins 
carlv;  on  which  occasion,  in  cantoning 
your  troops,  two  objects  demand  atten- 
tion, viz.  the  military  object,  and  that  of 
subsistence:  the  second  is,  when  an  ar- 
my lias  finished  a  siege  early,  the  troops 
are  allowed  to  repose  till  the  fields  pro- 
duce forage  for  their  subsistence:  the 
third  reason  is,  when  the  autumn  proves 
rainy,  and  forage  scarce,  the  troops  are 
cantoned  to  protect  them  from  the  bad 

CANVASS-BAGS.  See  Bags,  Sand- 
Bags,  &c. 

CAPA-AGA,  an  old  and  experienced 
officer  of  the  Seraglio,  who  has  the 
charge  of  instructing  and  superintending 
the  Ichonoglans ;  which  office  he  fulfils 
with  the  utmost  severity,  in  order  to  ac- 
custom them  to  subordination  and  dis- 
cipline, and  that  they  may  be  the  bet- 
ter qualified  to  command  in  their  turns. 

CAPARISON.  Under  this  term  is 
included  ihe  bridle,  saddle,  and  housing 
of  a  military  horse. 

CAPE  du  batardeau,  Fr.  a  roof 
sloping  on  both  sides,  which  covers  the 
upper  part  of  the  batardeau  constructed 
in  the  ditch  at  the  salient  angle  of  a 
bastion.  A  small  turret  about  six  or 
,seven  feet  high  is  erected  in  the  center 
of  the  cape,  to  prevent  desertion. 

CAPELINE,  a  kind  of  iron  helmet 
worn  by  the  cavalry,  under  John,  Duke 
of  Britauy. 

C/inEf  LETT!,  a  Venetian  militia, 
composed  of  Sclavonians,  Dalmatians, 
Albanians,  Mo'lachians,  and  formerly 
reckoned  the  best  troops  in  the  service 
of  the  state  of  Venice. 

CAPICULY,  otherwise  called  Jani- 

zaries, the  first  corps  of  the  Turkish  in- 

CAPITAINE  en  pied,  Fr.  an  officer 
who  is  in  actual  pay  and  does  duty. 

Capitaine  reforme,  Fr.  a  reduced 

Capitaine  general  des  vivres,  Fr. 
the  person  who  has  the  chief  manage- 
ment and  superintendance  of  military 
stores  and  provisions. 

Capii  aixe  des  guides,  Fr.  a  person 
appointed  to  direct  the  roads  by  which 
the  armv  is  to  march:  he  must  be  well 
versed  in  topography,  is  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  quarter-master  general, 
and  is  obliged  to  provide  guides  for  all 
general  officers,  detachments,  and  con- 

Capitaine  des  charrois,  Fr.  captain 
of  the  wagon-train. 

Capitaine  general  des  chariots  de 
munition,  Fr.  the  person  who  commands 
the  whole  of  the  ammunition  wagons, 
and  zcagon-train. 

Capitaine  des  mulets,  Fr.  His  func- 
tions are  the  same  as  those  of  the  capi- 
taine des  charrois,  with  this  difference, 
that  he  sometimes  has  a  hundred,  or  a 
hundred  and  fifty  mules  under  his  ma- 
nagement :  this  branch  of  service  is  of 
great  importance  when  the  war  is  carried 
on  in  a  mountainous  country,  where  the 
progress  of  the  caissons  is  rendered  verv 

Capitaine  des  ouvriers,  Fr.  one  who 
commands  the  carpenters,  wheelwrights, 
and  other  workmen  in  the  artillery;  and 
among  the  engineers,  he  superintends 
the  workmen  employed  by  those  corps. 

Capita i nes  conducteurs  d'artillerie, 
Fr.  persons  entrusted  in  the  armies  and 
fortified  towns  with  the  particular  details 
of  the  functions  of  the  Captain  General. 

Capitaine  des  portes,  Fr.  a  commis- 
sioned officer  who  resides  in  a  garrison 
town,  and  whose  sole  duty  is  to  receive 
the  keys  of  the  gates  from  the  Governor 
every  morning,  and  to  deliver  them  to 
hini  every  night,  at  appointed  hours. 

CAPITAL,  in  fortification,  is  an  ima- 
ginary line  which  divides  any  work  into 
two  equal  and  similar  parts.  It  signifies 
also,  a  line  drawn  from'  the  angle  of  a 
polygon  to  the  point  of  the  bastion,  or 
from  the  point  of  the  bastion  to  the  mid- 
dle of  the  gorge. 

CAPITAN,  Fr.  an  unconscionable 
vaunter,  who  boasts  of  incredible  acts  of 
bravery,  although  he  be  a  real  coward. 
A  capitan  also  signifies  in  harsher  Ian- 


(     86     ) 


guage,   a  coward;    every  military   man 
who  has  been  once  found  guilty  of  cow- 
ardice is  ruined  beyond  recovery. 
CAPITOUL,  Fr,  chief  magistrate  of 


lb  CAPITULATE,  to  surrender  any 
place,  or  body  of  troops,  to  the  enemy, 
on  certain  stipulated  conditions. 

CAPITULATION,  in  military  af- 
fairs, implies  the  conditions  on  which  the 
garrison  of  a  place  besieged  agrees  to  de- 
liver it  up,  &c. 

CAPITULATION,  Fr.  is  sometimes 
used  to  denote  an  agreement  which  is 
made  on  enlisting  upon  certain  terms 
or  conditions.  The  capitulations  of  the 
foreign  corps  that  have  been  taken  into 
the  British  service  are  of  this  descrip- 

CAPONNIERE,  in  fortification,  is  a 
passage  made  from  one  work  to  another, 
of  10  or  12  feet  wide,  and  about  5  feet 
deep,  covered  on  each  side  by  a  parapet, 
terminating  in  a  glacis.  Capon niers  are 
sometimes  covered  with  planks  and  earth. 
See  Fortifk  atjon. 

Dt'/Hi-CAPONMEitr.,  Fr.  a  passage 
which  is  made  in  the  bottom  of  a  dry 
ditch,  and  which  is  only  defended  to- 
wards the  enemy  by  a  parapet  or  glacis. 
Its  object  is  to  protect  the  branch  or 
passage  belonging  to  the  ditch  which  is 
directly  in  front. 

CAPORAL,  Fr.  corporal. 

CAPOTE  dc  faction,  Fr.  a  large 
great  coat  with  a  hood  or  cowl,  which  is 
worn  by  sentinels  in  bad  weather. 

CAPS,  in  gunnery,  are  made  of  lea- 
ther, and  used  for  the  same  purpose 
that  tampions  were,  to  prevent  rain  or 
rubbish  from  collecting  in  the  bore  of 
the  guns  and  howitzers.  There  are  also 
canvass  caps  for  similar  purposes  used  for 

CkP-Sguarcs.    See  Carriages. 

Cap-a-pef.  implies  being  clothed  in 
armour  from  head  to  foot,  or  fully  ac- 

CAPSTAN,      )  a  strong  massy  piece 

CAPSTERN,  >  of  timber  in  the  form 
of  a  truncated  cone,  having  its  upper 
part,  called  the  drum-head,  pierced  with 
a  number  of  square  holes,  for  receiving 
the  levers.  By  turning  it  round,  several 
actions  may  be  performed  that  require 
an  extraordinary  power. 

CAPTAIN  is  a  military  officer,  who 
is  the  commander  of  a  troop  of  horse  or 
dragoons,  or  of  a  company  of  foot  or 
artillery.     The  name  of  captain  was  the 

first  term  made  use  of  to  express  the 
chief  or  head  of  a  company,  troop,  or 
body  of  men.  He  is  both  to  march  and 
fight  at  the  head  of  his  company.  Cap- 
tains of  artillery  and  engineers  ought  to 
be  more  masters  of  the  attack  and  defence 
of  fortified  places  than  either  a  captain 
of  infantry  or  cavalry;  because  they 
must  be  good  mathematicians,  and  un- 
derstand the  raising  of  all  kinds  of  bat- 
teries, to  open  the  trenches,  to  conduct 
the  sap,  to  make  mines  and  fougasses, 
and  to  calculate  their  charges.  They 
ought  farther  to  be  well  acquainted  with 
the  power  of  artillery,  the  doctrine  of 
the  military  projectile,  and  the  laws  of 
motion,  together  with  the  system  of  me- 
chanics ;  and  should  be  good  draughts- 
men. A  captain  has,  in  most  services, 
the  power  of  appointing  his  own  Ser- 
jeants and  corporals,  but  cannot  by  his 
own  authority  reduce  or  break  them; 
neither  can  he  punish  a  soldier  with 
death,  unless  he  revolts  against  him  on 

Captain  General.  By  the  constitu- 
tion, the  King  is  Captain  General  of  all 
the  forces  of  Great  Britain.  This  term 
implies  the  first  rank,  power,  and  autho- 
rity known  in  the  British  army.  His 
Majesty  was  pleased  to  delegate  this  rank, 
and  the  powers  annexed  to  it,  to  his  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  York,  in  1799. 

C  apt  Aix-Lieutenant,  formerly  the 
commanding  ofticer  of  the  colonel's  troop 
or  company  in  every  regiment,  in  case 
the  colonel  is  absent,  or  he  s;ivcs  up  the 
command  of  it  to  him.  This  rank  has 
been  abolished  in  the  British  army. 

Captain  reformed,  one  who,  upon  a 
reduction  of  the  forces  on  the  termina- 
tion of  war,  loses  his  company,  yet 
keeps  his  rank  and  pay,  whether  on  duty 
or  not. 

Captain  on  half  pay  is  one  who 
loses  his  company  on  the  reduction  of 
an  army,  and  retires  on  half-pay,  until 
seniority  puts  him  into  duty  and  full  pay 

Captain  en  second,  or  second  captain, 
is  one  whose  company  has  been  broke, 
and  who  is  joined  to  another,  to  serve 
under  the  captain  of  it. 

Captain, (Capitaine,  Fr.)  In  the  high- 
est acceptation  of  the  term,  this  word  sig- 
nifies a  man  of  great  talents,  genius,  and 
perseverance,  who  can  undertake  the  ma- 
nagement of  a  whole  army  and  conduct 
it  to  victory;  few  such  men  exist.  Hence 
Un  grand  capitaine,  a  great  captain,  as 


(     37     ) 


the  Duke  of  Wellington  has  been  justly 

Captains  of  halberts,  or  black-fulls, 
certain  persons  who,  during  the  reign  oi 
our  ancient  kings,  and  as  late  down  as 
the  reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  had  the 
charge  and  direction  of  a  body  of  men 
called  Halberts  and  Black-bills,  who  were 
always  in  the  heat  of  a  battle.  In  the 
armies  of  king  Henry  VIII.  Mary,  and 
Elizabeth,  there  were  a  great  number  of 

According  to  some  writers,  the  deno- 
mination of  captain  and  lieutenant,  ap- 
plied to  officers  commanding  small  bodies 
of  men,  equivalent  to  our  troops  and 
companies,  was  scarcely  introduced  into 
our  armies  before  the  reign  of  Henry 
VII.  and  VIII.  where  we  find  them  borne 
by  the  officers  commanding  the  yeomen 
of  the  guard  and  the  band  of  gentlemen 
pensioners,  and  their  occasional  repre- 

CAPTIVE,  (captif,  Fr.)  a  prisoner  of 

CAPTIVI,  the  name  given  by  the 
Romans  to  their  prisoners  of  war,  who 
were  generally  loaded  with  chains,  and 
placed  near  the  colours.  The  captive 
kings  had  their  heads  shaved,  and  were 
sent  to  Rome,  to  enhance  the  splendour 
of  the  triumph. 

CAPTURE,  Fr.  any  seizure  or  cap- 
ture which  is  made  against  the  enemy. 

CAQUE  de  poudre,  Fr.  a  term  syno- 
nimous  to  a  tun  or  barrel  of  powder. 

CAR,  in  military  antiquity,  a  kind  of 
small  carriage;  figuratively,  used  by  the 
poets  for  a  chariot:  it  is  mounted  on 
wheels,  representing  a  stately  throne, 
used  in  triumphs  and  on  other  solemn  oc- 

CAR-taker  to  His  Majesty;  a  sine- 
cure which  is  enjoyed  by  the  entering 
clerk  at  the  Pay-office,  value  39l.  per 
annum  net. 

Car,  {char,  on  chariot  a  deux  roues, 
Fr.)  a  carriage  with  two  wheels,  fitted 
up  with  boxes  to  contain  ammunition, 
and  to  carry  artillery  men  chat  are  at- 
tached and  formed  into  brigades,  For  the 
purpose  of  accompanying  field  ordnance. 
This  car  is  considered  an  important  im- 
provement in  artillery  equipment,  and 
was  first  introduced  into  the  service  by 
the  Hon.  W.  W.  Pole,  when  clerk  of  the 
ordnance.  It  is  now  universally  used 
for  all  natures  of  field  ordnance,  instead 
ot  the  covered  ammunition  wagons  with 
low  wheels,  which  are  not  constructed 

upon  a  principle  equal  to  move  with  the 
same  rapidity  as  the  guns  themselves. 
An  improvement  has  lately  been  made 
in  the  principle  of  the  wheel-car,  by  a 
spare  gun-carriage,  of  the  nature  of  the 
guns  attached  to  the  brigade,  being  sub- 
stituted to  carry  the  spare  wheels,  &c. 
before  mentioned. 

CARABINE,  Fr.  a  carbine. 

CARABINIERS,  Fr.  One  complete 
regiment  of  carabiniers  was  formed 
during  the  monarchy  of  France,  out  of 
the  different  corps  of  cavalry.  They  were 
usually  distributed  among  other  bodies 
of  troops,  and  it  was  their  duty  to  charge 
the  advanced  posts  of  the  enemy.  See 

CARABINS,  Fr.  these  were  light 
armed  horsemen,  who  sometimes  acted 
on  foot.  They  were  generally  stationed 
in  the  outposts,  for  the  purpose  of  ha- 
rassing the  enemy,  defending  narrow 
passes,  &c.  In  action,  they  usually 
fought  in  front  of  the  dragoons,  or  upon 
the  wings  of  the  first  line.  Their  name 
is  derived  from  the  Arabian  word  Karab, 
which  signifies,  generally,  any  warlike 

CARACOLE,  a  semi-circular  motion 
or  half  wheel,  chiefly  applied  to  that 
used  either  by  individuals,  or  squadrons 
of  cavalry,  to  prevent  an  enemy  from 
discovering  where  they  intend  to  make 
their  attack. 

CARACOLER  autour  d'une  troupe 
ennemie,  Fr.  to  hang  upon  the  flanks  of 
an  enemy,  in  order  to  take  him  by  sur- 
prize, or  otherwise  perplex  him. 

CAPtACORE,  an  Indian  vessel  be- 
longing to  the  island  of  Borneo. 

CARAVAN,  (caravanne,  Fr.)  from  a 
Turkish  word,  which  signifies  a  troop  of 
travellers,  pilgiiin*,  or  merchants,  form- 
ed in  a  body,  and  who  journey  across  the 
deserts,  under  an  escort  commanded  by 
a  chief  who  is  called  an  Aga.  There  are 
guides  attached  to  the  caravans,  who 
direct  them  to  encamp  near  those  places 
where  water  can  be  procured.  With  re- 
gard to  other  provisions,  the  travellers 
take  care  to  provide  a  large  quantity, 
which  they  share  with  the  Arabs,  in  case 
they  should  appear  in  great  numbers; 
but  if  the  escort  are  confident  of  their 
superiority,  they  will  engage  and  some- 
times give  a  severe  drubbing  to  those  in- 
truders. The  appellation  of  caravanne 
is  also  given  to  the  first  voyages  op 
cruizes  which  the  knights  of  Malta  are 
obliged  to  undertake  before  they  become 


(     88     ) 


graduates,  or  can  be  promoted  to  the 
commanderies  of  tlie  order. 

CARAVELLE,  IV.  caravel;  a  small 
expeditious  Portugueze  vessel,  square 
Itemed,  and  with  lateen  sails. 

CARBINE,  a  fire-arm,  somewhat 
smaller  than  the  firelock  of  the  infantry, 
and  used  by  the  cavalry. 

CARBINEERS,  OTcarabineers,horse- 
men  armed  with  carbines,  who  occasi- 
onally act  as  infantry.  All  regiments 
of  light-armed  horse  were  Formerly  called 
carbineers;  but  since  the  establishing  of 
hussars  and  chasseurs,  they  have  iost 
that  denomination,  and  now  all  the  fo- 
reign heavy  cavalry  are  called  carbi- 

CARCAMOUSE,  Mouton,  Marmou- 
tun,  Fr.  the  battering-ram  which  was  used 
by  the  ancients. 

CARCAN,  Jr.  an  iron  collar. 

CARCASS,  (carcasse,  Fr.)  a  composi- 
tion of  combustibles.  Carcasses  are  of 
two  sorts,  oblong  and  round:  the  uncer- 
tain flight  of  the  first  sort  has  almost  ren- 
dered them  useless.  They  are  prepared 
in  the  following  manner:  boil  12  or  1511). 
of  pitch  in  a  glazed  earthen  pot;  mix  with 
that  Sib.  of  tallow,  30lb.  of  powder, 
till>.  of  salt-petre,  and  as  many  stopins 
as  can  be  put  in.  Before  the  composi- 
tion is  cold,  the  carcass  musj  be  filled; 
to  do  which,  smear  your  hands  with 
oil  or  tallow,  and  fill  the  carcass  one  third 
full  with  the  above  composition;  then 
put  in  loaded  pieces  of  gun  or  pistol 
barrels,  loaded  grenades,  and  fill  the 
intervals  with  composition;  cover  the 
whole  over  with  coarse  cloth,  well  sewed 
together,  keeping  it  in  a  round  form. 
Then  put  it  into  the  carcass,  having  a 
hollow  top  and  bottom,  with  bars  run- 
ning between  them  to  hold  them  toge- 
ther, and  composed  of  four  slips  of  iron 
joined  at  top,  and  fixed  at  the  bottom, 
at  equal  distances,  to  a  piece  of  iron 
which,  together  with  the  hoops,  when 
filled,  form  a  complete  globular  body. 
When  quite  finished  and  cold,  the  car- 
cass must  be  steeped  in  melted  pitch, 
and  then  instantly  immerged  in  cold 
water.  Lastly,  bore  three  or  four  holes 
at  top,  and  fill  the  same  with  fuze  com- 
position, covering  the  holes  with  pitch 
until  used.  Carcasses  are  thrown  out 
of  mortars,  and  weigh  from  50  to230lbs. 
according  to  the  size  of  the  mortars  out 
of  which  they  are  to  be  thrown.  There 
are  other  carcasses  for  the  sea-service, 
which  differ  from  a  shell  only  in  the  com- 

position, and  in  the  4  holes  from  which 
it  burns  when  fired. 

Oblong  Carcasses  are  obsolete  in  the 
British  service,  and  the  round  carcasses 
are  applicable  for  howitzers  as  well  as 
mortars.  The  13-inch  round  carcass 
weighs  about  212lb.  10-inch  P6lb.  8- 
inch  -18lb.  and  5^-inch  l(3lb.  Carcasses 
are  seldom  or  ever  fired  from  guns  and 
carronades  in  the  land  service,  or  in  the 
sea  service  excepting  in  bomb  vessels, 
and  then  only  from  mortars. 

After  the  first  invention  of  bombs, 
that  of  carcasses  and  grenades  naturally 
followed.  They  are  said  to  have  been 
first  used  in  1594,  and  afterwards  by  the 
Bishop  of  Minister,  at  the  siege  of  Groll, 
in  1672,  where  the  Duke  of  Luxemburg 

CARELET,  Fr.    See  Semeli.e. 

C  A  RENE,  Fr.  all  the  parts  of  a  ship 
under  water. 

CARIPI,  a  kind  of  cavalry  in  the 
Turkish  army,  which  to  the  number  of 
1000  are  not  slaves,  nor  bred  up  in  the 
seraglio,  like  the  rest,  but  are  generally 
Moors,  or  renegado  Christians,  who  have 
obtained  the  rank  of  horse-guards  to  the 
Grand  Signior. 

CARMAGNOLE,  Fr.  a  name  given 
to  the  French  soldiers  who  first  engaged 
in  the  cause  of  republicanism.  It  comes 
from  a  place  in  Italy,  situate  in  Pied- 
mont, near  the  Po. 

CARMINE,  a  bright  scarlet  colour 
which  is  used  in  plans  of  fortification, 
and  serves  to  describe  those  lines  that 
have  mason  work. 

C  A  RNAG  E,  {carnage,  Fr.)  the  slaugh- 
ter which  takes  place  in  consequence  of 
a  desperate  action  between  two  bodies 
of  armed  men. 

CARNEY,  a  disease  in  horses  by 
which  their  mouths  become  so  furred  and 
clammy  that  they  cannot  feed. 

C  aRNOUSE,  the  base  ring  about  the 
breech  of  a  gun. 

CAROLUS,  a  broad  piece  of  gold  of 
King  Charles  the  First,  made  then  for 
20  shillings,  and  since  current  at  23. 

CAROUSAL,  (Carrousel,  Fr.)  in  mili- 
tary history  signifies  a  magnificent  enter- 
tainment, exhibited  by  princes  or  other 
great  personages,  on  some  public  occa- 
sion, consisting  of  cavalcades  of  gentle- 
men, richly  dressed  and  equipped,  after 
the  manner  of  the  ancient  cavaliers,  di- 
vided into  squadrons,  meeting  in  some 
public  place,  and  performing  justs,  tour- 
naments, ccc.     It  also  signifies   among 

C  A  It 

(    89    ) 


the  French,  from  whom  the  term  is 
taken, the  place  where  tournaments,  &c. 
were  formerly  exhibited.  Thus  the 
Place  Carrousel  in  Paris,  which  is  con- 
tiguous to  the  palaces  of  the  Louvre 
and  the  Tuileries,  was  appropriated  to 
this  purpose  as  late  down  as  the  sixteenth 
century.  According  to  Madame  Genlis, 
this  place  received  its  appellation  from 
the  feasts  and  torn  nana. lis  which  were 
exhibited  by  order  of  Louis  the  XlVtli, 
to  please  iiis  mistress  Madame  de  la 

CARQUOIS,  Fr.  a  quiver. 

CARRE,  Fr.  square. 

CARREYU,  Fr.  in  a  military  sense, 
the  ground.  Voucher  sur  It  currcuu,  Fr. 
to  lay  low  ;  to  knock  down. 

Carreac,  Fr.  a  verv  ancient  sort  of 
arrow.  The  carrcuu  was  trimmed  with 
brass  instead  of  being  feathered,  and  was 
thrown  from  a  buiistu ;  whereas  the  arrow 
was  trimmed  with  feather,  and  shot  from 
a  bow. 

Careeai',  Fr.  a  square  piece  of  stone 
which  is  broader  upon  the  superficies  of 
a  wall  than  it  is  within. 

Carreau  de  plaucher,  Fr.  clay  made 
into  different  shapes  and  sizes,  for  the 
pavement  of  floors,  &c. :  as  flat  tiles,  &c. 

Carreau  de  Hollonde,  Fr.  Dutch  tile. 

CARREAUX,  FV.the  bends,  or  wales 
of  a  ship. 

CARREFOUR,  Fr.  a  cross-wav. 

CARRELaGK,  Fr.  »!]  works" which 
are  made  of  clay,  stone,  or  marble,  are 
distinguished  under  this  term. 

CARRELER,  Fr,  to  pave  or  cover 
over  with  square  tiles. 

CAlililAGYlru/astcr-gciK  ra!,  or  v.n- 
gon-master-genera!,  an  office  of  great 
trust  and  much  labour.  Amongst  the 
iloinaus  he  was  called  Impcdimentorum 
tiiapisler,  the  master  of  the  impediments 
or  hindrances  in  the  wars. 

CARRIAGES,  in  military  affairs,  are 
of  various  kinds,  viz. 

Ammunition  Limber  Care  I  ages  have 
been  constructed  of  late  with  four  wheels, 
fitted  up  with  boxes  for  the  conveyance 
of  ammunition, and  tocarryartillery  men. 
This  alteration,  or  rather  improvement, 
possesses  many  advantages  over  the  com- 
mon ammunition  wagon,  which  i=  calcu- 
lated to  carry  ammunition  only. 

Garrison  Carriages  are  those  on 
which  all  &Ofts  of  garrison  pieces  are 
mounted.  They  are  made  much  shorter  field  carriages.  Those  for  land 
service  are   carried    upon  iron   trucks, 

and  those  for  sea  service  upon  wooden 
ones.  Iron  trucks  however  destroy  the 
decks  and  platforms,  which  is  the  only 
objectiim  against  them.  Travelling  car- 
riages for  the  natures  of  24  and  1% 
pounders  are  used  upon  garrison  service, 
or  more  particularly  in  the  field,  where 
platforms  cannot  be  provided. 

N.  B.  As  the  trucks  of  garrison  car- 
riages are  generally  made  of  cast-iron, 
their  axle-trees  should  havecopper  clouts 
underneath,  to  diminish  the  friction  of 
the  iron  against  the  wood. 

Traielling-CARRiACES  are  such  as 
guns  are  mounted  on  for  sieges,  and  for 
the  field;  they  are  much  longer,  and  dif- 
ferently constructed  from  garrison-car- 
riages; having  4  wheels,  2  for  the  car* 
riage,  and  2  for  the  limber,  which  last  are 
only  used  on  marches.  Travelling  car- 
riages are  in  many  respects  very  unfit  for 
garrison  service,  though  they  are  fre^ 
quentlv  used. 

FYcW-Carriages  are  both  shorter  and 
lighter  than  those  before  mentioned, 
bearing  a  proportion  to  the  pieces  mount- 
ed upon  them.  They  consist  of  the  na- 
tures of  2i-pounders  and  12-pounders, 
for  iron  guns,  mostly  used  in  the  field 
against  fortified  places.  The  proper  car- 
riages under  the  denomination  of  field 
carriages  are  of  the  natures  of  12-pound- 
ers medium  and  light,  9-pounders,  6- 
pounders  heavy  and  light,  3-pounders 
heavy  and  light,  8-inch  howitzers  and 
51-inch  heavy  and  light  with  iimbers; 
the  whole  of  which  are  now,  upon  the 
principle  introduced  into  the  service  by 
General  Lawson,  of  the  Royal  Artillery, 
constructed  with  block  trails,  and  fitted 
with  boxes  upon  the  limbers  to  carry  am- 
munition; upon  which  boxes  the  artillery 
men  are  usually  seated,  in  order  to  ac- 
company the  brigades.  Tie  quantity  of 
ammunition  carried  into  the  field  with 
each  nature  of  carriage  is  as  follows,  viz. 

,       i  medium   12  rounds. 
12-pounders  (  ^  ^  ^ 


,        (  heavy       43  do. 
o-pounders  {  ,-   ,   •        10  A 
1  ( light         48  do. 

Q  ,       S  heavy 

3-pounders  j  ^ 

8-inch  howitzers  none. 
5^-inch         {  heavy       21  do. 
howitzers       (  light         24  do. 
Besides   the   proportion  of  ammuni- 
tion which  is  carried  in  the  limber  boxes 
of  the  field  carriages,  there  are  cars  or 
limber  carriages  upon  a  new  principle 


(    oo   ) 


loaded  with  ammunition  to  accompany 
each  piece  of  ordnance.  All  the  Held 
pieces  (except  iron  84-pounders  and  Im- 
pounders) are  elevat<  I  by  means  of  a 
screw  fixed  in  thecarriagi  s, between  the 
cheeks,  and  to  the  breech  of  the  guns, 
or  how it/cis.  The  iron  24- pounder  and 
12-pounder  guns,  as  also  the  \\  hole  of  the 
guns  mounted  upon  garrison, or  ship, car- 
riages, are  elevated  by  coins  of  wood,  and 
not  hy  screws. 

Galloper-(  serve  for  l\ 
pounders.  These  carriages  are  made 
with  shafts,  so  as  to  he  drawn  without 
a  limber.  The  king  of  Prussia  once 
mounted  light  S-pounders  on  these  car- 
riages, which  answered  very  well.  This 
description  of  carriage  is  now  obsolete 
in  the  British  service. 

Moanfatn-CAR-RTAGE,  a  carriage  pe- 
culiarly constructed  lor  the  use  of  the 
artillery  in  mountainous  countries. 

Hoo^^-Carriages  are  made  on  the 
same  principle  as  field  carriages, which  see. 

J'umlucl-C arri age.    See  Tumbrel. 

Ji/ocA--C  arri  age,  a  carriage  which  is 
made  from  a  solid  piece  of  timber,  hol- 
lowed out  so  as  to  receive  the  gun  or 
howitzer  into  the  cap-squares;  the  lower 
part  of  the  cap-square  is  ht  into  the 
solid  wood,  and  the  gnu  or  howitzer  is 
either  elevated  or  depressed  by  a  screw, 
as  in  other  carriages.  The  limber  for 
this  carriage  carries  two  large  chests  for 
ammunition,  and  takes  four  men.  The 
pintie  of  the  limber  is  so  constructed  as 
to  receive  the  gudgeon  of  the  carriage; 
by  which  means  a  greater  relief  is  utYord- 
ed  when  the  carriage  passes  over  rou'di 

Block-C  arri  ages  are  also  used  by  the 
horse  artillery  as  curricles.  They  are 
particularly  useful  on  service.  The  ori- 
ginal inventor  of  them  was  the  late  Gene- 
ral Sir  William  Congreve,  I\.  A.  to  whom 
the  Board  of  Ordnance  was  not  a  little 
indebted  for  many  improvements, and  of 
whose  services  the  most  unquestionable 
records  are  preserved. 

DtivV-C ARRiAcr.s  are  carriages  upon 
a  very  strong  construction,  with  four 
wheels;  the  two  hind  wheels  being  very 
high,  and  the  two  fore,  or  limber  wheels, 
being  much  smaller.  These  carriages 
are  used  for  transporting  heavy  guns, 
which  cannot  be  conveyed  upon  theii 
own  carriages.  The  garrison  carriage  of 
the  gun,  so  carried,  is  placed  upon  th< 
carriage  in  a  very  compact  maimer  for 
travelling.  I 

P/tiffarm-C arri agf.±  are  constructed 
with  four  wheels,  haying  a  platform  fitted 
up  to  carry  one  heavy  gun  or  mortar, 
with  its  carriage  or  bed,  and  is  of  a  si- 
milar u*>e  with  the  devil-carriage. 

ZVttcft-C*  p.riages  are  to  carry  tim- 
ber and  other  heavy  burthens  from  one 
place  to  another,  at  no  great  distance: 
they  serve  also  to  convey  guns  or  mor- 
tars upon  a  battery,  whither  their  own 
carriages  cannot  go,  and  are  drawn  by 
men  as  well  as  horses. 

Povtoon-CARRIAGES.  Carriagesof  this> 
kind  are  solely  for  transporting  the  pon- 
toon-,; they  had  formerly  but  two  wheels, 
but  are  generally  now  made  with  four. 
The  making  use  of  two-wheel  carriages 
for  travelling  a  great  way,  is  contrary 
to  sense  and  reason;  because  the  whole 
weight  lying  upon  the  two  wheels,  must 
make  them  sink  deeper  into  the  ground 
than  those  of  a  four-wheel  carriage. 

Spare-Gun  Carriages  have  lately 
been  introduced  into  the  field  artillery 
service,  and  independent  of  being  spare 
gun  carriages,  are  fitted  up  to  carry 
spare  wheels,  with  a  proportion  of  tools 
and  materials  for  a  collar-marker  and 
wheeler,  who  ride  upon  the  carriage. 
One  of  these  carriages  is  attached  to 
each  brigade  of  field  ordnance. 

CARRIER,  a  kind  of  pigeon,  so 
called  from  its  having  been  used  in  ar- 
mies, to  carry  orders  from  one  division 
of  an  army  to  another,  or  intelligence  to 
some  officer  commanding  a  post,  or  army, 
at  a  distance. 

CAR1UERE,  Fr.  a  large  spot  intend- 
ed for  tournaments,  races,  and  other 
exercises;  also  a  quarry. 

Prendre  Carriers,  Fr.  to  commence 
the  full  speed  at  which  cavalry  charge. 

M.  de  Folard  says,  that  the  cavalry 
is  to  start  (prendre carriire)  from  sixty 
paces  distance  to  charge  the  enemy. 

CARRONADE,  a  very  short  pieca 
of  iron  ordnance,  originally  made  at 
Canon,  a  river  in  Scotland,  from  whence 
the  Carron  company,  or  foundery,  de- 
rives its  name. 

It  is  different  from  ordnance  in  gene- 
ral, h  iving  no  trunnions,  and  being  ele- 
vated upon  a  joint  and  bolt.  The 
length  of  the  calibre  seldom  exceeds 
'hue  feet;  on  which  account  a  thin 
projection  of  metal  is  cast  upon  the 
muzzle,  to  carry  the  explosion  of  the 
charge  more  clear  of  the  sides  and  rig- 
ging of  ships.  All  carronades  have 
cha»»ujers,  and  much  less  windage  than 


(     91     ) 


guns,  by  which  means  they  make  a  con- 
siderable range,  and  a  recoil  that  is 
almost  ungovernable. 

To  CARRY,  to  obtain  possession  of 
by  force;  as,  To  carry  the  outworks. 

To  Carry  on,  in  a  military  sense  to 
prosecute,  to  continue,  as  to  carry  on 
the  war. 

CART,  (chariot, Fr.)  a  vehicle  mount- 
ed on  two  wheels,  and  drawn  by  one  or 
more  horses;  of  which  there  are  several 
sorts,  viz. 

Ball  Cartridge  Carts,  constructed  to 
draw  wiih  two  horses  abreast.  They 
are  common  sized  carts  with  sides, 
which  let  down  occasionally,  and  have 
wooden  tops,  covered  with  canvass,  for 
the  security  of  the  ammunition.  Each 
cart  will  contain  11,000  hall  cartridges, 
and  1000  flints  in  elevpn  half  barrels. 

Ibrge-CART*,  or  IW^p-Wagons,  are 
travelling  machines  hired  up  for  the 
purpose  of  assisting  the  artillery  in  the 
field,  and  in  repairing  or  replacing  any 
iron  work,  when  no  other  means  can  he 
obtained.  Each  cart,  or  wagon,  has  four 
wheels — the  hind  part  of  the  carriage 
has  a  body  in  which  a  pair  of  small  bel- 
lows are  fixed.  In  the  front  of  the 
body  are  a  tire  place,  and  a  trough  for 
carrying  coals  and  water.  There  is  also 
a  box  at  the  hind  part  of  the  cart  for 
carrying  the  smith's  tools.  The  two 
front  wheels  are  merely  a  limber  for  the 
support  of  the  body  of  the  cart,  which 
limber  is  generally  taken  oft*,  and  the 
body  supported  by  a  prop,  when  the 
cart  is  in  actual  use. 

Powder-CA rts,  for  carrying  powder 
with  the  army;  they  are  divided  into  4 
parts,  by  boards  of  an  inch  thick,  which 
enter  about  an  inch  into  the  shafts 
Each  of  these  caits  can  only  stow  4  bar- 
rels of  powder.  The  roof  is  covered 
with  an  oil-cloth,  to  prevent  dampness 
from  coming  to  the  powder.  These 
carts  are  not  at  present  used  in  the 
British  service. 

S/  have  two  strong  wheels 
fitted  up  with  rollers,  pall,  handspikes, 
and  ropes,  and  are  used  to  carry  mortars 
or  heavy  guns  from  one  place  to  another 
at  a  small  distance,  hut  chiefly  to  trans- 
port guns  from  the  water-side  to  the 
proof-place, and  from  thence  back  auain; 
as  also  to  convey  artillery  to  the  batte- 
ries in  a  fortification, &c. 

Tinnbrel-CARTs  are  carts  with  two 
wheels,  and  square  bodies,  with  a  can- 
vass painted  top,  for  the  conveyance  of 

ammunition.     These  carts  are  not  much 
used  in  the  field  artillery  service. 

ifa«rf-CARTS  are  low  small  carts  with 
two  wheelsand  iron  arms. 

T/chcA-Carts  are  precisely  upon  the 
same  principle  with  hand-carts,  except- 
ing that  they  have  wooden  axles,  and  are 
calculated  to  carry  heavier  weights. 
They  are  found  to  be  useful  in  carrying 
mortars  and  their  beds,  ammunition,  &c. 

CARTE  is  a  thrust  with  a  sword  at 
the  inside  of  the  upper  part  of  the 
body,  with  the  nails  of  your  sword  hand 
upward.  Low  carte  is  a  thrust  at  the 
inside  of  the  lower  half  of  the  body;  the 
position  of  the  hand  being  the  same  as 
in  the  former. 

Carte  also  signifies  bill  of  fare,  such 
as  is  given  at  a  tavern. 

CARTL-btanchc,  Fr.  a  full  and  abso- 
lute power  which  is  lodged  in  the  hands 
of  a  general  of  an  army,  to  act  according 
to  the  best  of  his  judgment,  without 
waiting  for  superior  instructions,  or  or- 
ders. It  likewise  strictly  means  a  blank 
paper:  a  paper  to  be  tilled  up  with  such 
conditions  as  the  person  to  whom  it  is 
sent  thinks  proper. 

Carte  deiaillee  d'un  pays,  Fr.  a  cor- 
rect drawinu;  of  a  country,  so  that  all  its 
various  localities  may  be  seen  with  a 
bird's  eve  view. 

CARTF.L,  in  military  transactions,  an 
agreement  between  two  states  at  war  for 
the  mutual  exchange  of  prisoners. 

CARTEL,  Fr.  a  challenge  or  rendez- 
vous given  by  two  persons  whose  inten- 
tions are  to  tight. 

CARTOUCH,  a  case  of  wood  about' 3 
inches  thick  at  bottom,  bound  about  with 
marline,  holding  about  400  musket-balls, 
besides  8  or  10  iron  balls  of  a  pound  each, 
to  be  ti red  out  of  a  howitzer,  for  the  de- 
fence of  a  pass,  6vC  Cartouches  with 
musket-balls  are  at  present  not  much 
used  in  the  British  service.  See  Grape 

CARTOUCHE,  IV.  a  charge;  a  car- 

Cartouche,  Fr.  in  geographical,  or 
topographical,  design,  a  particular  species 
or  mode  of  sketching  out  with  a  crow's 
quil",  and  with  Indian  ink.  This  sketch 
is  made  on  the  left  of  one  of  the  lower 
angles;  and  if  there  be  two  sketches, 
the  least  of  the  two  is  always  on  the 

Cartouche  infumante,  Cartouche 
jaune,  Fr.  a  discharge  given  to  a  soldier 
in  the  French  service  in  consequence  of 
N  2 

C  A  S 

C    9*    ) 


his  being  rendered  unworthy  to  carry'  company  wore  a  camque  of  a  particular 
arm-,  after  having  been  degraded  and  colour,  it  was  easily  known  at  once 
punched.     It  is  printedon  vellow  paper,    what  company  the  delinquent  belonged 

to.  When  the  casuqiir  was  abolished, 
scarfs  o(  different  colours  were  intro- 
duced in  lieu  of  it. 

I  ASCADE,fV.  This  literally  means 
a  «ater  fall;  a  cascade.  In  mining,  it 
nullifies  the  several  descents  or  accents 
which  are  made.  Hence  Ckemmur  par 
•  i  make  wav  by  intermediate 
descent*,  or  ascents. 

CASI  *NS,  (f«Jcon«,  Fr.)  holes  in 
the  form  of  wells,  serving  as  entrances 
to  galleries,  or  living  vent  to  the  ene- 
my's mines.     See  Fortification. 

CASEMATE, m  fortification, a  vault, 
or  arch  of  BMW  work,  in  that  part  of 
the  (lank  of  a  bastion  which  i?  next  the 
curtain,  made  to  defend  the  ditch,  and 
the  face  of  the  opposite  bastion.  See 

Casemates  nouvelles,  Fr.  arched  bat- 
teries which  are  constructed  under  all 
the  openings  of  revetments,  or  ramparts. 
The  diriereut  forts  at  Cherbourg  are  de- 

CARTOUCHBS»in  artiliery,  are  made 
of  leather,  to  sling  over  the  shoulder  of 
the  gunner,  who  therein  carries  the  am- 
munition from  the  magazine  or  w  3 
for  the  service  of  the  artillery,  when  at 
exercise  or  real  service, 

CiRTOUCHFS.  on  J'ormules,  Fr.  mili- 
tary paaeea  which  were  given  to  soldiers 
g  jing  on  furlough. 

CARTOUCHIER,  m  Portc-Car- 
touche.  Fr.  a  cartouch-bo\. 

I  ARTKIDGE,  a  case  of  paper, 
parchment  or  flannel,  ritred  to  the  bore 
ot  the  piece,  and  holding  exactly  its 
proper  charge.  Musket  and  pistol  car- 
t  ges  are  always  made  of  strong  paper; 
hetween  SO  or  40  of  which  are  made 
from  1  pound  of  powder,  including  their 
priming.  The  French  musket  ball-car- 
tridges are  capped  with  flannel  or  coarse 

Cartridges  for  heavy  guns  are  now 
partly  made  of  cured  paper  onlv,  and 
partly  of  cured  paper  with  flannel  h>t-  fended  by  these  casemates:  the  works 
toms.  Those  for  field  ordnance  are  all  j  which  baive  been  thrown  Up  during  the 
made  of  flannel,  and  their  nature  and  '  late  war  round  Dover  Castle,  come  like* 
size  suited   to  the  bore,  or  chamber  of I  wise  under  the  description. 

pieces  fot  which  they  are  intended 
Cartridges    for   small   aims.      The 

CASERNER  une  troupe,  Fr.  to  put  a 
troop  into  barracks. 

ball  cartridges  for  wall  piece*,  muskets,  CASERNES,  in  fortification,  large 
carbines  and  pistols  are  made  of  whited  buildings  for  the  soldiers  of  the  garrison 
brown  paper,  on  former- of  wood.  One '  to  live  in;  generally  erected  between 
sheet    of  paper   will    make  6"    f>r  wall    the  houses  of   fortiied  towns,  and  the 

pieces,  12  for  muskets,  sixteen  for  car-   rampart 

bines,  and  24  for  pistols.     The  quantity        CaSEBHES,   in  a  general 

Of  powder  contained  in  the  above  car-    signify  barracks. 

tridges   is,  for  wall   pieces,    10   drams, 

musket  6.  carbine  4.  and  pistol  3  drams. 

Blank  cartridges  for  musket*,  carbines, 

See  Shot,   and  Labo- 

(  ASE-SAot. 


Spheria.I C ±SL-Shot.    See  Spherical 

and  pistols  are  made  of  blue  paper,  to   or  Siirapml. 
preserve    a    distinction     between    ball        CASES  qf  wood  are  made  of  wood, 
and    blank,   and    to   prevent   the   pos-  the  exact  size  of  the  different  natai 
sibility  of  accidents  happening  from  the   cartridges  of  powder,  for  the  purpose  ot 
ball   cartridges    being   n.ixed    with   the,  carrying  the  cartridges  from  the  mugav 


Cartridge-Pot,  a  case  of  wood  car- 
ried by  a  soldier,  which  contains  his  se- 
veral rounds  of  ball,  ink,  cartridges. 
When  firelocks  v<ere  first  used,  cartridge 
boxes  were  introduced  instead  01  the 
bandelet. s;  the  imperfections  of  which 
are  fully  stated  by  Lord  Orrery.  See 
Port  h. 

CASAQUE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  coat  that 
not    sit   so   tight  as  the  common 

zine,  with  safety,  to  the  guns,  either  in 
batteries  or  on  board  of  ship.  There 
are  also  a  number  of  square  deal  cases 
used  in  packing  laboratory  stores. 

(  ASIIEERING,  now  generally 
spelt,  Cashiering,  from  the  French  Ca.%ser, 
•  to  break,  signifies  a  dishonourable  dis- 
missal of  an  officer,  or  soldier.  In  the 
ca-e  of  an  officer  this  punishment  ad- 
mits of  four  degrees. 

The  first  is  simply  a  dismission  from 

coat.     This  was  formerly  the  regimental  I  his    niiployment;    the    commauder-in- 
dress  of  the  French  troops,  and  as  each1  chief,  or  the  secretary  at  war,  (should 


(    93     ) 


the  former  be  out  of  office,)  signifying 
bv  a  letter  to  him  that  the  king  has  nu 
further  occasion  for  his  services;  or  by 
the  sentence  of  a  court-martial. 

The  second  mode,  which  first  occurred 
in  1800,  when  =even  o'ficers  belonging  to 
the  85th  regiment  of  foot  were  dismissed 
without  a  trial,  is  culled  displacing;  bv 
which  an  officer  is  dismissed  from  same 
particular  regiment. 

The  third  is  dismissing  an  officer 
from  the  service,  and  rendering  him  in- 
capable of  serving  for  the  future  in  any 
military  capacity. 

The  fourth  is  dismission  with  infamy, 
and  degradation  from  the  rank  of  a  sol- 
dier and  a  gentleman,  as  wus  the  c.;<-e  of 
a  member  of  parliament  wiieu  colonel 
of  a  militia  regiment. 

CASK,  or  Casqle,  the  ancient  hel- 
met or  armour  for  the  head. 

CASSETTE,  Fr.  casket;  also  privy 
purse,  as  lu  Cassette  du  Rui,  the  King's 
privy  purse. 

CASSI-^srAer,  the  provost  marshal 
in  a  Turkish  army. 

CASSINE,  Fr.  a  house  surrounded 
by  a  ditch.  Cassines  are  verv  conveni- 
ent to  post  small  parties  in,  where  they 
will  be  shelteied  from  any  sudden  at- 
tack, and  will  even  make  head  till  the 
nearest  detachments  can  come  and  re- 
lieve them. 

CASSIONS.     See  Caissons. 

CASSIS,  Fr.  casque,  or  helmet. 

CASTELLATED,  (entouri,  Fr.)  en- 
closed within  a  building. 

CASTILLE,  Fr.  a  term  formerly 
used  to  signify  the  attack  of  a  tower  or 
castie.  It  also  became  a  species  of  mili- 
tary amusement,in  which  the  combatants 
threw  snow-balls  at  one  another.  In 
1546,  a  difference  took  place  among;  the 
sham-lighters  at  Roche-Guvoii.  and  rose 
to  such  a  pitchjthat  the  DukeD'Enghien 
lost  his  life  in  the  struggle.  This  event 
put  an  end  to  the  game  of  Castilie,  as 
did  the  melancholy  fate  of  Henry  the 
Third  of  France  to  tournaments. 

CASTING,  in  founding  guns,  implies 
the  operation  of  running  an*  sort  of 
metal  into  a  mould  prepared  for  that 

CASTLE,  a  fortified  place,  or  strong 
hold,  to  defend  a  town  or  city  from  an 
enemy.  Castles  are  for  the  most  part 
no  higher  in  antiquity  than  the  con- 
quest; or  rather  about  the  middle  of 
king  Stephen's  reign.  Castles  were 
erected  in  almost  all  parts  of  the  king- 

dom, by  the  several  contending  parties; 
and  each  owner  of  a  castle  was  a  kind 
ot  petty  prince,  coining  his  own  moneT, 
and  exercising  Mvuusgn  jurisdiction 
over  his  people.  History  informs  us 
that  1017  castles  were  built  in  this  reign. 

The  Castle,  a  figurative  name  for  a 
clo~e  iiead-piece,  deduced  from  its  in- 
ching and  defending  the  head,  as  a 
castle  did  the  whole  bedv;  or  a  corrup- 
tion from  the  old  French  word  casquelct, 
a  small  or  light  helmet. 

CASTRAMETATJON  is  the  art  of 
measuring,  or  tracing  out,  the  form  of  a 
'camp  on  the  ground;  yet  it  sometimes 
a  more  extensive  signification,  by 
;  including  all  the  views  and  designs  of  a 
j  general;  the  one  requires  only  the  know- 
ledge of  a  mathematician,  the  other  the 
experience  of  an  old  soldier.  The  an- 
cients were  accustomed  to  fortifv  their 
camps  by  throwing  up  entrenchments 
round  tbein.  The  Turks,  and  other 
Asiatic  nations,  fortify  themselves,  when 
in  an  open  country,  with  their  wagons 
and  other  carriages.  The  practice  of 
the  Europeans  is  quite  different;  for  the 
surety  of  their  camp  consists  in  the  faci- 
lity and  convenience  of  drawing  out 
their  troops  at  the  bead  of  their  en- 
campment; for  which  reason,  whatever 
particular  order  of  battle  is  regarded  as 
the  best  disposition  for  fighting,  it  fol- 
lows of  course,  that  we  should  encamp 
in  such  a  maimer  as  to  assemble  and 
parade  cur  troops  in  that  order  and  dis- 
position as  soon  as  possible.  It  is  there- 
fore the  order  of  battle  that  should  re- 
gulate the  order  of  encampment;  that  is 
to  say,  the  post  of  each  regiment  in  the 
:ine  of  battle  should  I  e  at  the  head  of 
its  own  encampment;  from  whence  it 
follows,  that  the  extent  of  the  line  of 
battle  from  right  to  left  of  the  camp 
should  be  equal  to  rhe  front  of  the 
troops  in  Hue  of  battle,  with  the  same 
intervals  in  the  camp  as  in  the  line.  Bv 
this  means  every  battalion  covers  its 
own  tents,  and  the  soldiers  can  all  lod.e 
themselves, or  turn  out  in  case  of  neces-  a  minute's  warning. 

It  the  front  of  the  camp  is  greater 
than  the  line,  the  troops  must  leave 
large  intervals,  or  expose  their  flanks: 
if  less,  the  troops  will  not  have  room  to 
form  with  the  proper  intervals. 

The  front  or  principal  line  of  the 
camp  is  commonly  directed  to  face  the 
enemy.     See  Camp. 

CASUALS,  a  term  seme  times  adopted 


(     94     ) 


in  the  general  and  regimental  returns  of 
the  British   army,  signifying  men  chat 

are  (fend,  (since  liist  enlisted,)  i hat  have 
been  discharged,  or  have  deserted.  The 
term  casualties  is  nunc-  generally  used, 
and  is  certainly  mine  correct. 

CAT,  CATTUS,  or  GATTUS,  also' 
CAT-HOI  SK,  a  covered  shed,  occasion- 
ally fixed  "it  wheels,  and  formerly  used 
for  covering  soldiers  employed  in  filling 
up  the  ditch,  preparing  the  way  for  the 
moveable  tower,  or  mining  the  wall.  It 
was  called  cat,  because  under  it  soldiers 
lav  in  watch,  like  a  cat  for  its  prey. 

Castellated  CATS,  cat-  that  had  cic-! 
nelles  or  loop-holes,  whe  ice  ihe  archers] 
could  discharge   their   annus.      Some- 
times under  the  cover  of  this  machine, 
the  besiegers  worked  a  small   kind  ol 

CAT  a' nine  tails,  a  whip  with  nine 
knotted  cords,  with  winch  the  British 
soldiers  ami  sailors  are  punished.  Some- 
times it  has  uiilv  live  en  ds. 

To  Comb  I  lie  Cat,  a  term  used  among 
Bailor*  and  soidie  s,  signify ing  to  arrange 
the  different  coids  of  a  cat  o'nine  tails 
so  as  tu  make  them  more  uniform.  This 
is  done  by  untangling  them,  and  draw- 
ing the  while  through  the  fingers. 

CATACOMBS,  grottoes,  or  subter- 
raneous places  for  the  burial  of  the 
dead;  also  divisions  in  a  cellar  to  stow 
wine,  &c.  in. 

CATADROME,  an  engine  like  a 
crane,  used  by  builders  in  lifting  up  and 
letting  down  anv  tiieat  weights. 

CATAFALCO,  in  military  architec- 
ture, a  scaffold  of  timber,  decorated 
with  sculpture,  painting,  cvc.  tor  sup- 
porting the  cothn  of  a  deceased  hero, 
during  the  funeral  solemnity. 

CATAMARAN,  a  sort  of  floating 
raft,  originally  used  in  China,  and 
anions:  the  Portuguese  as  a  fishing  boat. 
The  Catamarans  in  India  consist  of  two 
loij.s  of  wood  upon  which  the  natives 
float,  and  go  through  the  heaviest  surf 
to  carry  or  bring  letters  on  shore. 
.  This  name  has  also  been  given  to 
case  tilled  with  combustibles,  and  con- 
trived to  remain  so  low  in  the  water  as 
to  be  almost  imueiceptiWe.  Thisbeing 
towed  to  the  building,  or  ship,  against 
which  the  attack  is  to  be  directed,  is 
left  to  explode  by  means  of  machhit  1  v 
within  1  self,  when  its  operation  is  some- 
times v<-  v  destructive. 

CATAPHRACT.tb'e  old  Roman  term 
for  a  horseman  in  complete  armour. 

CATAPIIRACTA,  in  the  ancient 
military  art,  a  piece  of  heavy  defensive 
armour,  formed  of  cloth  or  leather,  for- 
tified with  iron  scales  or  links,  where- 
with sometimes  only  the  bieast,  some- 
times the  whole  body,  and  sometimes 
the  horse  too  was  covered 

CATAPHRASTARII,  horsemen  in 
the  Roman  army. 

CATAPULTA,  in  military  antiquity, 
tin  engine  contrived  for  the  throwing  01 
arrows,  darts  and  stones,  upon  the  ene- 
my. Some  of  these  engines  were  so 
large  and  of  such  fort  e,that  they  would 
throw  stones  of  an  hundred  weight. 
Josephus  takes  notice  of  the  surprising 
effects  of  these  engines,  and  says,  that 
the  stones  thrown  out  of  them  beat 
down  the  battlements,  knocked  off  the 
ang  es  of  the  tower-,  aud  b  id  tone  suf- 
ficient to  level  a  very  deep  file  of  sol- 

CATATROME.     See  Crane. 
C  VTEJA,  a   kind  of  ai  row  formerly 
in  us.'  amongst   the  Teutonians  and  the 
Gauls,  made  of  very  heavy  wood. 

CATELLA,  a  small  chain  which  the 
Romans  used  to  wear  about  their  necks: 
a  part  of  the  military  recompenses. 

CATERVA,  among  ancient  military 
writers,  a  term  used  in  speaking  of  the 
Gaulish  or  Celtiberian  armies,  denoting 
a  body  of  6000  tinned  men.  The  word 
is  also  used  to  denote  a  party  of  soldiers 
in  disarray;  in  opposition  to  cohort  or 
turma,  which  signifies  in  good  order. 

(ATI!  KITS,  in  geometry,  a  perpen- 
dicular, or  a  hue,  or  radius  falling  per- 
pendicularly on  another  line  or  surface. 

CATHOLES,  holes  above  the  gun- 
room port,  through  which  a  ship  may 
be  heaved  astern. 

CATOPTRICS,  the  science  of  refle 
vision,  or  that  branch  of  optics,  which 
treats  of,   or  gives  the  laws   of  light   re- 
flected from  mirrors,  &C. 

CAVALCADK.a  pompous  procession 
of  horsemen,  equipages,  &c.  by  way  of 
parade,  to  »race  a  triumph,  public  entry, 
or  the  like. 

CAVALIER,  l'r  a  horseman. 
Cavalier,  a   work  raised  within  the 
body  of  the  place,  10  or  12  feet. higher 
than  the  rest  of  the  works. 

Trench-C av alier,  (caru/icr  de  tran- 
elie'e,  Fr.)  in  the  attacks,  is  an  elevation 
which  the  besiegers  make  by  means  of 
earth  or  gabions,  within  half-way,  or 
two  thirds  of  the  glacis,  to  discover,  or 
to  enfilade  the  covert  way. 

C  A  U 

(     95     ) 

C  E  L 

CAVALOT,  Fr.  an  ancient  piece  of 
ordnance  about  5  French  feet  in  length, 
carrying  about  8  or  900  paces,  and  ge- 
nerally loaded  with  a  ball  of  1  pound 
weight,  and  a  pound  of  gunpowder. 

CAVALQUET,  Fr.  a  particular 
sound  of  t lie  trumpet  which  is  used 
among  the  French,  when  troops  of  horse 
come  hear,  or  pass  through,  a  town. 

CAVALRY,  that  body  of  soldiers 
which  serves  and  tights  on  horseback. 
Under  this  denomination  are  included 

Horse,  that  is,  regiments  or  troops  ot 
horse.  In  England  there  are,  the  Horse- 
guards,  commonly  called  the  first  and 
second  regiments  of  life  guards,  and  the 
Oxford  blues;  formerly  there  was  the 
rot/al  regiment  of  horse  grenadier  guards, 
which  is  now  reduced.  The  first  troop 
of  horse  was  raised  in  1660. 

Dragoons,  which  are  likewise  regi- 
ments of  horse,  but  distinguished  from 
the  former  by  being  obliged  to  fight 
both  on  foot  and  on  horseback.  In 
England  there  are  7  regiments  of  dra- 
goon-guards, 5  regiments  of  dragoons, 
and  19  regiments  of  light  dragoons.  The 
first  regiment  of  dragoons  was  raised  in 

Light-horse,  regiments  of  cavalry, 
mounted  on  light,  swift  horses,  whose 
men  are  of  a  middling  stature,  and 
lightly  accoutred.  They  were  first  raised 
in  1757. 

Hussars,  properly  Hungarian  horse. 
Their  uniform  is  a  large  furred  cap, 
adorned  with  a  cock's  feather;  those  of 
the  officers,  either  with  an  eagle's  or  a 
heron's;  a  very  short  waistcoat,  with  a 
pair  of  breeches  and  stockings  in  one; 
short  light  boots,  generally  of  red  or 
yellow  leather;  with  a  curious  doublet, 
having  five  rows  of  buttons,  which  hang 
loosely  on  the  left  shoulder.  Their 
arms  are  a  long  crooked  sabre,  light  car- 
bines, and  pistols.  Most  of  the  Ger- 
man powers  have  troops  under  this 
name,  and  so  has  France;  into  which 
country  they  were  originally  introduced 
under  Louis  the  XIII.  and  were  calied 
Hungarian  cavalry.  There  are  also 
several  regiments  of  hussars  in  the 
British  service. 

CAUD1NE  Forks,  {Fourchettes  Cau- 
dines,  Fr.)  from  the  Latin  Caudina 
Furcte;  projecting  or  forky  hills,  near 
Caudium,  in  the  country  of  the  Sam- 
nites,  where  the  Roman  army  was  de- 
feated under  Titus  Veturius  and  Sp. 
Posthumius,  and    the    prisoners,    after 

having  been  stripped  to  the  waist,  'were 
disgracefully  passed  under  the  yoke,  and 
sent  back  to  R  nne.  Bonaparte,  in  his 
address  to  his  army,  previous  to  the  bat- 
tle of  Waterloo,  made  a  pointed  allusion 
to  this  event.  For  the  Roman  particu- 
lars see  Livy,  lib    ix.  cap.  v. 

CAVEA TING,  in  fencing,  implies  a 
motion  whereby  a  person  in  an  instant 
brings  his  sword,  which  was  presented 
to  one  side  of  his  adversary,  to  the  op- 
posite side. 

CAVESSON,  Fr.  an  iron  instrument 
fixed  to  the  nostrils  of  a  horse,  to  curb, 
or  render  him  manageable,  through  th« 
poin  it  occasions. 

CAVTN,  in  military  affairs,  implies  a 
natural  hollow,  sufficiently  capacious  to 
lodge  a  body  of  troops,  and  facilitate 
their  approach  to  a  place.  If  it  be 
within  musket-shot,  it  is  a  place  of  arms 
ready  made,  and  serves  for  opening  the 
trenches,  t\ee  from  the  enemy's  shot. 

Cavin,  Fr.  in  fortification,  a  hollow 
way  which  runs  round  the  works  of  a 
fortified  place,  and  which  answers  the 
purpose  of  a  trench. 

CAUTION,  an  explanation  given 
previous  to  the  word  of  command,  by 
which  the  soldiers  are  called  to  atten- 
tion, that  they  may  execute  any  given 
movement  with  unanimity  and  correct- 

CAZEMATTE,  (Cazamates,)  Place 
basse  or  Flanc  bus.     See  Casemate. 

CAZEMATE.     See  Casemate. 

CAZ ERNES,  Fr.     See  Casernes. 

CEILING,  the  upper  part  or  roof  of 
a  lower  room,  or  a  lay  or  covering  ot 
plaster  over  laths  nailed  on  the  bottom 
of  the  joists,  which  bear  the  floor  of  the 
upper  room,  or  on  joists  put  up  for  that 

Ceiling  joists  or  beams,  joists  put  up 
for  the  purpose  of  having  laths  nailed  to 
them,  which  are  to  be  plastered  over,  for 
a  ceiling. 

CElNTRE.Fr.  wooden  arch  to  build 
vaults  upon. 

CEINTURE,  Fr.  inclosure, cincture; 
any  continuity  of  wall  which  surrounds 
a  place.  Ceinture  also  signifies  the  ring 
or  circle  which  goes  round  the  top,  or 
base  of  a  column. 

CEINTURE  mi  lit  aire,  Fr.  a  broad 
leathern  belt  which  is  worn  round  the 
waist,  and  is  ornamented  with  gold  or 
silver  plates. 

CEINTURONT,  Fr.  sword-belt. 

CELERES.  The  life-guards  which  at- 


(    ©6    ) 


tended  Romulus,  in  the  infancy  of 
Rome,  were  so  called.  They  were  laid 
aside  by  Numa  Pompilius.  Celeres  are 
properly  distinguished  from  other  troops, 
by  being  lightly  armed  and  acting  always 
on  foot.  The  Celeres  cannot  he  consi- 
dered under  the  same  head  as  Velites. 

CEMENT,   i  in  the  general  sense  of 

C/EMENT,  $  the  word,  signifies  any 
composition  of  a  glutinous  or  tenacious 
nature,  proper  for  binding,  uniting,  and 
keeping  things  in  a  state  of  cohesion. 

Cfmfnt,  in  architecture,  is  a  strong 
sort  of  mortar  used  to  bind  or  fix  bricks 
or  stones  together  for  some  kind  of 
mouldings;  or  in  cementing  a  block  of 
bricks  for  the  carving  of  capitals,  scrolls, 
or  the  like. 

CENDREE&  Tournai,  Fr.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  Tournay  there  is  a 
particular  hard  stone  from  which  lime 
*of  a  most  excellent  quality  may  be  made. 
After  it  has  been  some  time  in  an  oven 
or  furnace,  it  breaks  into  small  particles 
which  drop  through  the  grate,  and  being 
mixed  with  the  ashes,  it  forms  what  is 
called  Ccndrie  de  Tounuri ;  and  is  sold 
as  soon  as  it  ran  be  collected  together. 

CENOTAPH,  a  monument  erected 
to  the  honour  of  a  person,  without  the 
body  of  the  deceased  being  interred  in 
or  near  it. 

CENSURE,  correction,  reflection,  re- 
proof.    Hence  vote  of  censure. 

CI.NTENTER,  Fr.  the  chief,  or  cap- 
tain of  a  troop  or  company  which  con- 
sists of  100  men. 

CENTER,)  in  a  general  sense,  sig- 

CENTRE,  ^  nifies  a  point  equally 
distant  from  the  extremities  of  a  line, 
surface,  or  solid.     See  Fortification. 

Center  of  attack,  (ccntic  d'atluquc, 
Fr.)  when  a  considerable  front  is  taken 
before  a  besieged  place,  and  the  lines  of 
attack  are  carried  upon  three  capitals, 
the  capital  in  the  middle,  which  usually 
leads  to  the  half-moon,  is  styled  the 
a  titer  of  attack. 

Center  qfa  battalion,  on  parade,  isi 
the  middle,  where  an  interval  is  left 
for  '.Lie  colours;  of  an  encainpniei:',  it 
is  die  main  stret  t;  and  on  a  march,  is 
an  interval  lor  the  baggage;  when  it  is 
so  placed. 

Center  of  a  bast  km  is  a  point  in  the 
middle  of  tlie  gorge  of  the  bastion,  from 
whence  the  capital  line  commences,  and 
which  is  generally  at  the  inner  polygon 
©f  the  figure. 

Cimek  of  gravity,  in  mechanics,  is 

that  point  about  which  the  several  parts 
of  a  body  exactly  balance  each  other  in 
any  situation. 

Center  of  a  conic  section  is  a  point 
where  all  the  diameters  meet. 

Center  of  an  ellipsis  is  that  point 
where  the  transverse  and  conjugate  dia- 
meters meet. 

Center  of  motion,  (centre  de  mouvt' 
iiic/i/,  Fr.)  is  that  point  which  remains 
at  rest  while  all  the  other  parts  of  the 
body  move  about  it. 

Center  of  percussion,  (centre  de 
percustion,  Fr.)  is  that  point  in  which 
the  force  of  the  stroke  is  the  greatest 
possible.  When  the  moving  body  re- 
volves round  a  fixed  point,  the  center  of 
percussion  is  the  same  with  the  center 
of  oscillation,  and  found  by  the  same 
method:  but  when  the  body  moves  in 
a  parallel  direction,  the  center  of  per- 
cussion is  the  same  with  the  center  of 

Center  in  geometry,  that  point  which 
is  exactly  in  the  center  of  a  regular 
figure.  For  instance,  the  center  of  the 
circle  is  a  point  from  whence  all  the 
straight  lines  that  are  equal  within  them- 
selves are  severally  drawn.  The  center 
of  a  regular  jwlugon  is  a  point,  whose 
lines  being  drawn  to  the  angles  of  the 
polygon  are  equal  within  themselves. 
The  same  holds  good  with  respect  to  the 
center  of  a  square,  or  of  a  right  angle. 
The  regular  solids,  as  the  globe  or  sphere 
and  the  poliedra,  have  also  their  several 

CENTESIMATION,  in  ancient  mi- 
litary history,  a  mild  kind  of  military 
punishment,  in  cases  of  desertion,  mu- 
tiny, and  tlie  like,  when  only  every  100th 
man  was  executed. 

CENTINEL,  ^  is  a   private    soldier, 

GENTRY,  ]  from  the  guard,  posted 
upon  any  spot  of  ground,  to  stand  and 
watch  carefully  for  the  security  of  tlie 
said  guard,  or  of  any  body  of  troops, 
or  post,  and  to  prevent  any  surprise 
from  the  enemy.  All  centincls  are  to 
he  \ery  vigilant  on  their  posts;  they  are 
not  to  sin<r,  smoke,  or  suffer  any  noise 
to  be  made  near  them.  Neither  are 
they  to  sit  down,  lay  their  arms  out  of 
their  hand-,  or  sleep;  but  keep  moving 
about  their  poets  during  the  two  hours 
thev  stand,  if  the  weather  will  allow  of 
it.  No  centry  to  move  more  than  50 
paces  to  the  right,  and  as  many  to  the 
left  of  his  post;  and  let  the  weather  be 
ever  so  bad,  he  must  not  get  under  auy 

C  EH 

(     97     ) 


•  Other  cover,  but  that  of  the  ccntry-box. 
No  cemry  can  be  allowed  to  go  from 
bis  post  without  leave  from  liis  com- 
manding officer ;  and,  to  prevent  deser- 
tion or  marauding,  the  centries  and 
.vedettes  must  be  charged  to  let  no  sol- 
dier pass. 

C  ENTINEL perdu,  Fr.  a  soldier  posted 
near  an  enemy  in  some  very  dangerous 
post,  where  he  is  in  perpetual  danger  of 
being  shot  or  taken. 

CENTRY-6ar,a  sort  of  wooden  box, or 
but,  to  shelter  the  centinel  from  the  in- 
juries of  the  weather;  but  in  fortifica- 
tions made  of  masonry,  they  are  of  stone, 
in  a  circular  form. 

CENTURION,  a  military  officer 
among  the  ancient  Romans,  who  com- 
manded an  hundred  men.  The  term  is 
now  obsolete. 

CENTURY,in  a  military  sense,means 
an  hundred  soldiers,  who  were  employed 
in  working  the  battering-ram. 

CEPS,  IV.  stocks,  fetters.  It  also 
means  a  trap. 

Ceps  de  Cesar,  Fr.  Caesar's  trap.  A 
stratagem  which  was  used  by  Julius 
Caesar  in  one  of  his  campaigns,  and 
was  called  Ceps  de  Cesar,  from  the 
snare  into  which  the  enemy  was  led. 
Being  solicitous  to  draw  their  forces 
towards  Alexia,  he  made  an  avenue 
through  a  forest,  which  seemed  to  be 
the  only  p:iss  through  which  his  army 
could  possibly  move.  They  gave  into 
the  snare,  and  eagerly  pursued  Caesar 
into  the  forest.  The  latter,  however, 
had  had  the  precaution  to  order  a  great 
number  of  trees  on  each  side  to  be 
sawed  within  three  inches,of  the  ground, 
and  round  their  several  trunks  there  i\  ere 
various  pieces  of  wood  and  branches, 
spread  in  such  a  manner,  that  the 
soldiers  could  not  pass  without  being 
tripped  up,  and  the  road  consequently 

CERAMICUS,  a  place  so  called  in 
Athens,  surrounded  with  walls,  and 
where  the  tombs  and  statues  of  such  men 
as  had  died  in  fighting  for  their  country 
were  to  be  seen.  Divers  inscriptions  in 
praise  of  them  bore  testimony  of  then- 

CERCLE,  Grand  Cercle,  Fr.  a  form 
observed  under  the  old  government  of 
France,  by  which  it  was  directed,  that 
every  evening,  at  a  specific  hour,  the  Ser- 
jeants and  corporals  of  a  brigade  should 
assemble  to  receive  orders ;  the  former 
standing  in  front  of  the  latter.     Subse- 

quent to  the  grand  cercle,  a  smaller  one 
was  made  in  each  regiment,  when  gene- 
ral or  regimental  orders  were  again  re- 
peated to  the  Serjeants  of  each  corps, 
and  from  them  communicated  to  the 
officers  of  the  several  companies. 

Cercle  meurtrier,  Fr.  a  large  flat 
piece  of  iron,  one  inch  thick,  which  is 
made  red  hot,  and  thrown  at  the  assail- 

C ercles  goudronnes,  {pitched  hoops.} 
Old  matches,  or  pieces  of  old  cordage, 
dipped  into  pitch  or  tar,  and  made  in 
the  shape  of  a  circle,  which  are  placed 
on  chafing  dishes  to  light  the  garrison  of 
a  besieged  town  or  post. 

C ercles  a  feux,  Fr.  two,  three,  or 
four  hoops  tied  together  witb  wire,  and 
all  around  which  are  fixed  grenades, 
loaded  pistol-barrels,  crackers,  pointed 
pieces  of  iron,  &c.  The  whole  is  coher- 
ed with  tow  and  fire-work:  these  hoops 
are  then  driven  across  the  works  of  the 
besiegers:  they  are  likewise  used  to  op1- 
pose  an  assault;  in  which  case  they  ar« 
called  couronnes  foudroyantes. 

CERNER,  Fr.  to  surround. 

Cerxer  un  ouvrage  de  fortification, 
une  troupe,  Fr.  to  surround  any  particu- 
lar part  of  a  fortification,  troop,  or"  com- 

CERTIFICAT,  Fr.     See  Certifi- 

CAT  Ei 

CERTIFICATE,  a  testimonial  bear- 
ing witness  to  the  existence  of  some  re- 
quisite qualification,  or  to  the  perform- 
ance of  some  act  required  by  the  regula- 
tions of  the  army,  and  for  which  the 
officer  who  signs  is  responsible,  whether 
he  certifies  for  himself,  or  for  any  other 

Military  Certiftcates  are  of  vari- 
ous denominations,  and  consist  chiefly 
of  the  following  kinds,  viz. 

Certificate  from  a  field  officer  to  the 
commander  in  chief, .affirming  the  eligi- 
bility of  a  young  man  to  hold  a  commis- 
sion in  his  Majesty's  service.  See 
printed  forms  at  the  Military  Library, 

Certificate  of  the  officer  upon  honour, 
that  he  does  not  exceed  the  regulation  in 
j  the  purchase  of  his  commission. 

Certificate  from  a  general  officer  to 
affirm  and  prove  the  losses  which  officers 
may  sustain  in  the  field. 

Certificate  from  colonels  of  regiments 
'  to  the  board  for  admission  of  proper 
'objects  to  the  Hospital  at  Chelsea. 

Certificate  from  a  magistrate  to  iden-. 

C  E  S 

(     08     ) 

C  H  A 

tify  the  person  of  a  reeruit,  aud  to 
affirm,  that  he  has  enlisted  himself  vo- 
luntarily into  the  service:  likewise,  that 
the  Articlesof  War  have  heen  read  to  him. 

Certificate  from  regimental  surgeons, 
whether  men  when  they  join  are  proper 
und  fit  objects  to  be  enlisted  ;  ditto  to  be 

Certificate  of  commanding  officers  for 
•tores,  &c. 

Certificate  to  enable  an  officer  to  re- 
ceive his  halt-pay. 

Certificate  of  surgeons  and  assistant 
surgeons,  to  prove  their  having  passed  a 
proper  examination. 

Certificate  from  the  Medical  Board  to 
ascertain  the  nature  of  an  officer's 
wounds,  enabling  him  to  receive  a  year's 
pay  for  the  same,  or  a  pension,  as  the 
case  may  be. 

CERVELLE,  Fr.  literally  the  brain. 
See  Mine  sans  cervelle. 

Cervelle,  Fr.  This  word  i$ applied 
to  such  earth,  in  digging  a  ditch,  a  well, 
or  a  gallery  for  a  mine,  that  is  not  suf- 
ficiently firm  to  support  itself,  but  must 
be  upheld  above,  and  sustained  on  the 
sides.  Whence  tare  sans  cervelle,  which 
literally  means  earth  without  brains. 

CERVELIER,  fr.  a  kind  of  helmet 
to  protect  the  head. 

CESSATION,  or  cessation  of  arms,  in 
a  military  sense,  means  a  truce,  or  the 
total  abrogation  of  all  military  opera- 
tions for  a  limited  time.  When  a  town 
is  so  closely  besieged  that  the  governor 
must  either  surrender,  or  sacrifice  him- 
self, his  garrison  and  inhabitants  to  the 
enemy,  he  plants  a  white  flag  on  the 
breach,  or  beats  the  chamadc  to  capitu- 
late, when  both  parties  cease  firing. 

CESTUS,  a  thick  leathern  glove, 
covered  with  lead,  which  the  ancient 
pugilists  used  in  the  course  of  their  vari- 
ous exercises,  and  especially  when  they 
fought  for  the  prize  of  pugilism.  The 
Greeks  had  four  different  sorts  of  Ces- 
tuses.  The  first,  which  was  called 
imantes,  was  made  of  the  hide  of  an  ox, 
dried  but  not  dressed.  The  second, 
called  myrmecai,  was  covered  with  metal. 
The  third,  named  meliqaes,  was, made  of 
thin  leathern  thongs;  and  did  not  cover 
either  the  wrist  or  fingers.  The  fourth, 
which  was  called  sphueroe,  is  the  thick 
glove  which  we  have  mentioned. 

CESTROSPONDONUS,  a  dart,  that 
received  its  appellation  from  the  sling, 
from  which  it  was  thrown:  it  was  point- 
mcL  at  both  cuds. 

CKTRA,  a  small  and  very  light' 
shield  made  of  the  hide  of  an  elephant, 
in  use  amongst  the  Africans  and  Spa- 

CHABLEAU,  Fr.  a  middle-sized  rope 
which  is  used  to  draw  the  craft  up  «f 

CHABLIS,  Fr.  wind-fallen  wood. 

CHACli  of  a  gun  generally  means 
the  whole  length  of  it.     See  Cannon. 

CHAFFERY,  that  part  of  the  foun- 
dry where  the  forges  are  placed  for 
hammering  iron  into  complete  bars. 

CHAIN  for  engineers  is  a  sort  of 
a  wire  chain  divided  into  links  of  an 
ecpial  length,  made  use  of  for  setting  out 
works  on  the  ground,  because  cords  are 
apt  to  shrink  and  give  way. 

There  are  several  sorts  of  chain* 
made  use  of  in  mensuration;  as  Mr. 
Rathbone's,  of  two  perches  in  length: 
others  one  perch  long;  some  of  1000 
feet  in  length;  but  that  which  is  most  in 
use  amongst  engineers  is  Mr.  Gunter's, 
which  is  4  poles  long,  and  contains  100 
links,  each  link  being  7T^  inches  ip 

CiiAiti-shot.     See  Shot. 

Chains  of'  iron  used  across  streets.  la 
times  of  war,  or  civil  dissension,  thf 
streets  of  towns  have  been  often  defend- 
ed by  iron  chains  drawn  across  them. 
These  chains  were  attached  to  portable 
machines,  by  which  the  avenues  of  towns 
and  villages  are  barricaded. 

CHAIN E,  ou  enceinte,  d'un  foarrage, 
Fr.  a  body  of  armed  men  thrown 
round  the  place  w  here  corn  and  hay  ar« 
gathering  for  the  use  of  an  army,  to  pro* 
tect  the  foragers  against  the  attacks  of 
the  enemy. 

Chain r  de  quartiers,  Fr.  a  regular 
chain  or  communication  which  is  kept 
up  between  towns,  villages,  &c.  for  tlit» 
safety  of  an  army. 

Chain e,  Fr.  in  masonry,  a  height 
or  elevation  which  contains  several  lay* 
or  courses  of  bricks  or  rubble  through- 
out the  thickness  of  walls;  also  a  corbel 
of  stone-work. 

Chain e  d'arpenteur,  Fr.  a  surveyor's 
line,  or  measure. 

CHAIN EAU,  Fr.  pipe  of  a  lead. 

CHAIN  ES  de  pierres,  Fr.  in  the  con- 
struction of  walls  made  of  rubble,  coins, 
or  basing  stones,  which  are  laid  upright 
at  given  distances,  in  order  to  support 

CHAISE,  Fr.  four  pieces  of  strong 
timber  united  and  put  together  for  the 


(  oo  > 


^purpose  of  supporting  any  particular 
weight,  as  the  bottom  of  a  wind-mill, 

CHALLENGE,  a  cartel,  or  invita- 
tion to  a  duel,  or  other  combat. 

Challenge  is  also  a  term  applied 
to  an  objection  made  against  any  mem- 
ber of  a  court-martial,  on  the  seme  of 
real  or  presumed  partiality.  The  pri- 
soner, however,  in  this  case,  must  as- 
sign his  cause  of  challenge ;  of  the  re- 
levancy, or  validity  of  which  the  mem- 
bers are  themselves  the  judges;  so  that 
peremptory  challenges,  though  allowed 
in  civil  cases,  are  not  acknowledged  in 
military  law.  The  privilege  of  chal- 
lenging belongs  equally  to  the  prisoner 
and  the  prosecutor. 

CHALOUPE,  Fr.  a  small  vessel  which 
is  capable  of  accompanying  ships,  or  of 
making  short  sea  voyages. 

CHAMADE,  in  a  military  sense, 
means  a  signal  made  by  the  enemy,  ei- 
ther by  beat  of  drum,  or  sound  of  trum- 
pet, when  they  have  any  matter  to  pro- 
pose; such  as  to  bury  their  dead,  &c. 
See  Parley-. 

CHAMAILLER,  Fr.  to  fight  at 
close  quarters,  or  hand  to  hand,  in  full 

CHAMBER  of  a  cannon,  mortar,  &c. 
the  space  where  the  powder  lies,  and  is 
much  narrower  than  the  rest  of  the  cy- 
linder. These  chambers  are  of  different 

Chamber  of  a  mine,  that  place  where 
the  charge  of  powder  is  lodged,  to  blow 
up  the  works  over  it.  It  is  generally  of 
a  cubical  form.     See  Mine. 

Chamber  of  a  battery  is  a  place  sunk 
\inder-ground  for  holding  powder,  loaded 
shells,  and  fuzes,  where  they  may  be  out 
of  danger,  and  preserved  from  rain  or 

CHAMBRE,  Fr.  chamber,  signifies 
among  the  French  a  hollow  space  or 
chasm  which  is  sometimes  discovered  in 
pieces  of  ordnance  after  they  have  been 
cast.  Whenever  this  happens,  the  piece 
is  condemned. 

This  term  is  now  used  to  express  the 
bottom  part  of  the  bore  of  a  gun,  womb 
of  a  mortar,  or  barrel  of  a  musket, 
which  is  concave, and  either  round  or  oval. 

Chambre  de  port,  Fr.  a  French  sea- 
tenn,  signifying  that  part  of  a  harbour 
which  is  most  retired,  as  an  inward 
bason, a  back-water, and  where  ships  may 
be  repaired  and  careened,  &c.  It  is  also 
called  darsine. 

Chambre  cCtcluse,  Fr.  a  sort  of  canaj, 
or  reservoir  of  water,  which  remains  be- 
tween the  two  flood-gates  of  a  dam; 

CHAMBREE,  Fr.  a  military  phras* 
among  the  French,  to  signify  several  per- 
sons lodged  in  the  same  room,  barrack, 
or  tent. 

CHAMFRAIN,  Fr.  an  armour  used 
to  protect  the  horse:  it  was  made  either 
of  metal  or  of  boiled  leather,  and  covered 
the  front  part  of  the  animal's  head,  in 
the  shape  of  a  mask.  A  round,  sharp 
pointed  piece  of  iron  was  fixed  on  th» 
center  of  it.  The  chamfrainoi  theComte 
de  Saint  Pol,  (1449,)  at  the  siege  of 
Harjleur,  under  Charles  VII.  was  valued 
at  30,000  crowns  of  the  then  currency; 
that  of  the  Count  de  Foix,  at  the  taking 
of  Bayonne,  was  worth  15,000  gold 

CHAMP  CLOS,  Fr.  camp  list,  in  th« 
first  centuries  and  even  long  after,  was  a 
privileged  spot,  granted  by  royal  assent, 
under  the  authority  of  the  laws  of  the 
country,  where  such  individuals  who  had 
a  difference  or  an  affair  of  honour  to  set- 
tle, were  admitted  to  private  combat. 
The  place  allotted  for  tournaments  was 
also  called  Champ  clos. 

CHAMP  de  bataille,Fv.  field  of  battler 
the  ground  on  which  two  armies  meet. 

Champ  de  Mars,  Fr.  the  Field  of  Mars, 
an  open  place  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Paris,  where  troops  were  frequently  re- 
viewed by  the  kings  of  France,  and  in 
which  the  public  festivals  have  been  ob-. 
served  since  the  Revolution. 

CHAMPION,  he  who  undertook  to 
settle  the  difference  of  contending  ar- 
mies, by  single  combat.  A  warrior  who 
fights  in  support  of  a  cause,  whether  his 
own  or  another  person's. 

It  is  likewise  an  honorary  title  which 
descends  to  the  male  issue  of  a  particular 
family  in  England.  The  champion  of 
England  is  drunk  to  at  every  coronation, 
and  receives  a  golden  cup  from  his  new 

CHAMPION,  Fr.  champion.  Among 
the  French,  this  word  signifies  a  brave 
soldier,  or  military  man. 

CHANDELIERS,  in  military  affairs, 
constituteakind  of  movable  parapet, con- 
sisting of  wooden  frames,  on  which  fas- 
cines are  laid  to  cover  the  workmen  when 
at  work  on  the  trenches.  They  are  made 
of  various  sorts  and  sizes. 

CHANFREIN,    Fr.    shafferoon;    a 
piece  of  black  cloth,  or  black  nodding 
plumes  upon  a  horse's  forehead.    It  also 

C  H  A 

(    100   ) 

C  H  A 

signifies  the  forehead  itself;  also  a  set  of 
feathers  for  a  horse  on  a  solemn  day. 

Chantuein  rfc  cheoal  Harma,  Fr. 
the  front-stall,  head-piece,  or  forehead- 
piece  of  a  barbed  horse. 

CHAN  1- RON,  C  HA  MI  REIN,  or 
SHAFFRON,  armour  tor  a  horse's  head. 

CHANGE,  Fr.  a  word  given  when 
troops  are  on  a  march,  directing  the  men 
to  shift  the  firelock  from  one  shoulder  to 
the  other;  sloping  arms. 

GHANTE-p/eure,  Fr.  an  outlet  made 
in  the  wall  of  a  building  which  stands 
near  a  running  stream,  in  order  to  let 
the  water  that  overflows  pass  freely  in 
and  out  of  the  place. 

CIIANTIER,  Fr.  a  timber-yard;  it 
also  signifies  the  scalfolding  in  a  dock- 
yard upon  which  shipwrights  work. 

Chantier,  Fr.  a  square  piece  of 
wood,  which  is  used  for  the  purpose  of 
raising  any  thing.  It  serves  to  place 
barrels  of  gunpowder  in  a  proper  man- 
ner, and  frequently  to  try  pieces  of  ord- 
nance instead  of  frames. 

CHAFE,  the  metalline  part  put  on  the 
end  of  a  scabbard,  to  prevent  the  point 
of  the  sword  or  bayonet  from  piercing 

CHAPE,  Fr.  a  barrel  containing  an- 
other barrel,  which  holds  gunpowder.  It 
likewise  means  a  composition  of  earth, 
horse-dung,  and  wad,  that  covers  the 
mouth  of  a  cannon,  or  mortar. 

CHAPELET,  Fr.  a  piece  of  flat 
iron  with  three  tenons  or  ends  of  timber, 
which  is  fixed  to  the  end  of  a  cannon. 

Cuapellt  ilc  fa;  Fr.  iron  hat,  or 

CHAPERON,  Fr.  a  cap  with  a  pad, 
and  a  pointed  tail  hanging  behind,  in 
use  only  a  few  centuries  back.  These 
caps  were  made  of  different  sorts  of 
stuffs,  and  of  two  different  colours.  At 
the  time  of  the  famous  League,  which 
ended  when  Henri/  of  Navarre  mounted 
the  French  throne,  the  opposite  factions 
were  distinguished  by  the  colour  of  their 
chaperons.  The  same  had  taken  place  at 
the  time  of  the  disturbances  between  the 
Dukes  of  Orleans,  or  Burgundy,  and  of 

Chaperon,  Fr.  a  pistol  holster. 

OHAPITEAUX,  Fr.  two  small  boards 
which  are  joined  together  obliquely,  and 
serve  to  cover  the  touch-hole  of  a  piece 
of  ordnance. 

CHAPLAIN,  (chapelain,  Fr.)  he  that 
perforins  divine  sen  ice  in  a  chapel;  a  cler- 
gyman that  oiliciates  in  domestic  worship. 

Chapt  ws-Gcncral,  a  situation  made 
out  by  order  of  the  Duke  of  York,  when 
commander  in  chief,  for  the  government 
of  brigade  and  regimental  chaplains. 
The  chaplain  general  is  responsible  to 
head-quarters  tor  the  recommendation 
and  good  conduct  of  all  such  persons. 

CHAPLAINSHIP,  (cAapelainie,  Fr.) 
the  office  or  business  of  a  chaplain;  also 
the  possession  or  revenue  of  a  chapel. 

CHAR,     )  a  job,  or   small    piece   of 

CHARE,)  work;  hence,  chare-wo- 
man; also  an  old  word  for  chariot,  now 
called  car. 

CHARACTER,  in  a  general  sense, 
implies  any  mark  used  for  representing 
either  ideas,  or  objects. 

Military  Characters,  )       are 

Mathematical  CHARACTERS,  )  cer- 
tain marks  invented  for  avoiding  pro- 
lixity, and  more  clearly  conveying  the 
thoughts  of  the  learned  in  those  sci- 
ences; the  chief  of  which  are  as  follow: 

+  is  the  mark  of  addition,  and  when 
placed  between  two  numbers,  shews 
that  the  latter  is  to  be  added  to  the  for- 
mer, thus  5  +  3=8  is  five,  add  three, 
make  eight. 

—  is  the  mark  of  subtraction,  thus : 
5  —  3=2  is  from  five,  take  three,  there 
remain  two. 

The  qualities  called  negative,  are 
those  which  have  the  mark  —  before 
them  without  any  preceding  number; 
but  such  a  mode  of  writing  is  asserted 
by  Mr.  Baron  Mcseres,  in  his  use  of  the 
negative  sign,  and  by  Mr.  Frend,  in  his 
excellent  Treatise  on  Algebra,  to  be 
neither  useful  nor  proper. 

-f-  in  algebra  is  the  sign  of  the  real 
existence  of  the  quality  it  stands  before, 
and  is  called  an  affirmative,  or  positive 
sign.  It  is  also  the  mark  of  addition, 
and  signifies,  that  the  numbers,  or 
quantities  on  each  side  of  it  are  added 

—  this  is  the  note  of  negation,  ne- 
gative existence,  or  non-entity.  It  is 
the  sign  of  subtraction,  and  signifies 
that  the  numbers,  or  quantities  which 
come  after  it,  are  to  be  taken  from  the 
numbers,  or  quantities  which  stand  be- 
fore it. 

N.  B.  +  signifies  a  positive  or  affirm- 
ative quantity,  or  absolute  number; 
but  —  signifies  a  fictitious  or  negative 
number  or  quantity.  Thus  —  8,  is  8 
times  less  than  nothing.  So  that  any 
number  or  quantity,  with  the  sign  x 
being  added  to  the  same   number,  or 





101   ) 

C  H  A 

■quantity  with  the  sign  — ,  their  sum  will 
be  equal  to  nothing.  Thus  8  added 
to  —  8  is  equal  to  0,  but  —  8  taken 
from  x  8,  is  equal  to  16. 

X  is  the  sign  of  multiplication.  It 
signifies  into,  or  multiplied  by. 

-f-  is  the  mark  of  division,  and  signi- 
fies, that  the  numbers,  or  quantities  be- 
fore it  are  to  be  divided  by  the  numbers 
after  it. 

~  are  the  signs  of  equality,and  signify, 
that  the  quantities  and  numbers  on  the 
one  side  of  it  are  equal  to  the  quantities 
and  numbers  on  the  other. 

»s/  is  the  sign  of  radicalitf,  and  shews 
(according  to  the  index  of  the  power 
that  is  set  over  or  after  it)  the  square, 
cube  or  other  root,  that  is  extracted,  or 
is  to  be  so,  out  of  any  quantity. 

ly  is  the  sign  of  the  cube  root,  and 
signifies  the  extraction  of  it,  as  in  the 
square  root  above. 

■ff-  is  the  sign  of  continued,  or  geome- 
trical proportion. 

:  :  is  the  mark  of  geometrical  pro- 
portion disjunct,  and  is  usually  placed 
between   two  pair  of  equal    ratios;    as 

3  :  6  : :  4  : 8,  shews,  that  3  is  to  6,  as 

4  to  8.  Ov  a  :  b: :  d:  e,  and  are  thus 
read,  as  a  is  to  b,  so  is  d  to  c,  &c. 

>  or  C_  are  signs  of  majority;  thus 
c  >  b  expresses  that  a  is  greater  than  b. 

<  or  _Z3  are  signs  of  minority;  and 
when  we  would  denote  that  a  is  less  than 
b,  we  write  a  <  b,  or  a  _3  b,  Ike. 

±  signifies  more  or  less  such  a  quantity, 
and  is  often  used  in  extraction  of  roots, 
completing  of  squares,  &c. 

Artillery-Cn  araciers,  most  generally 
used,  are  as  follow  : 

C.   qr.   lb.  which  signify  centners,  or 
hundreds  of  112  pounds,  qr.  quarters  of 
28  pounds,  lb.  pounds.     Thus  a  piece  of 
artillery  with  14  :  3  :  16,  is  14  hundred 
3  quarters,  and  16  pounds. 

Pr.  signifies  pounder.  Thus  2 1  pr.  is 
a  24  pounder. 

T.  C.  qr.  lb.  signifies  tuns,  centners, 
quarters,  pounds;  and  28  lb.  is  one 
quarter;  4  qr.  is  one  centner,  or  112 
pounds:  and  20  C.  is  one  ton. 

lb.  oz.  dr.  mean  pounds,  ounces,  and 
drams :  16  dr.  is  one  ounce,  and  16  oz. 
is  one  pound. 

lb.  oz.  dwts.  gr.  are  pounds,  ounces, 
penny-weights,  and  grains;  of  which 
24  gr.  make  one  penny-weight,  20  dwt. 
make  one  ounce,  and  12  oz.  one  pound 
of  troy-weight. 

Characters   in   fire-works,  are   the 

M  Means  meal-powder. 

3   Corned  powder. 

•0-  Saltpetre. 

Z  Brimstone. 

C  Z  Crude  Sulphur. 

C  4-  Charcoal. 

C  S  Sea-coal. 

B  R  Beech  raspings. 

S   X  Steel  or  iron  filings. 

B  X   Brass-dust, 

G  x   Glass-dust. 

T  x   Tanner's  dust, 

C  I  Cast-iron. 

C  A  Crude  antimony. 

36  Camphor. 

A  Y  Yellow  amber. 

L  S  Lapis  calaminaris. 

(Tj  Gum. 

B  L  Lamp-black. 

G  I  Ising-glass. 

W  Spirit  of  wine. 

5  T  Spirit  of  turpentine. 

PO  Oil  of  spike 

Characters  used  in  the  arithmetic 
of  infinities,  are  dots  over  letters,  denot- 
ing the  character  of  an  infinitesimal,  or 
fluxion.     Thus,  the  first  fluxions  of  x, 

y,  x,  being   marked   thus,  x,  y,  z ;  the 

second    are    x,   y,  z;    and    the    third 

x,  y,  z. 

Geographical  Characters  are  °, 
', ", '",  ike.  which  signify  degrees,  mi- 
nutes, seconds,  thirds.  Thus  40°,  35', 
18",  55'",  is  read  40  degrees,  35  minutes, 
18  seconds,  55  thirds.  It  is  also  used  in 
the  elevation  of  pieces  of  artillery. 

CHARBON,  Fr.  See  Aigremore. 
■  CHARDONS  pour  monter  a  I'assaut, 
Fr.  cramp-irons  used  by  scaling  parties. 
Previous  to  the  cramp-iron  being  known, 
the  soldiers,  to  prevent  their  slipping  in 
the  attempt  of  storming  a  rampart,  used 
to  take  off  one  shoe.  At  present  they 
use  the  cramp-iron,  or  chardon  de  fer, 
which  is  fixed  over  the  shoe  by  means  of 
a  strap  witfi  a  buckle,  or  is  screwed  in 
the  heel.  We  do  not  imagine  this  second, 
method  to  be  so  safe  as  the  other,  espe- 
cially when  the  attempt  is  extremely 

i  Chardon3,  Fr.  iron  points  in  the 
shape  of  a  dart,  which  are  placed  on  the 
top  of  a  gate,  or  wall,  to  prevent  per- 
sons from  getting  over  it. 

CHARGE,  in  gunnery,  implies  the 


(     102    ) 

C  II  A 

Quantity  of  powder,  shot,  hall,  shells, 
grenadoes,  ike.  with  which  a  gun,  mor- 
tar, or  howitzer,  is  loaded. 

Tlie  usual  charge  of  powder  for  heavy 
and  medium  guns,  is  one  third  the 
weight  of  the  shot  for  round  and  for 
case  shot;  that  for  light  field  guns  is 
only  one  fourth  the  weight  of  the  shot. 
Howitzers,  8-inch,  are  fired  with  Slbs.  of 
powder;  5|  inch,  heavy,  .with  Slbs.,  and 
5$  inch,  light,  with  111).  The  charge  for 
spherical  case-shot  is  the  same  as  for 
the  guns  and  howitzers.  Charges  for 
mortars  are  determined  by  the  range  re- 
quired. The  charge  of  powder,  for  sea 
service,  is  one  fourth  the  round  shot's 
weight  for  case,  and  one  third  for  round 

Charge  is  also  the  attack  of  cavalry; 
and  charge  bayonet  is  a  word  of  com- 
mand given  to  infantry,  to  rush  on  the 
enemy  whom  they  are  to  charge  at  the 
point  of  the  bayonet.  To  sound  a  charge 
\>  the  sound  of  the  trumpet  as  a  signal 
for  cavalry  to  begin  the  attack. 

Charge,  in  military  law,  is  the  spe- 
cification of  any  crime,  or  offence,  for 
which  a  commissioned,  a  non-commis- 
sioned officer,  or  soldier  is  tried  before 
a  court-martial.  In  all  charges  of  this 
nature,  the  time  and  place,  when  and 
where  the  crime  or  offence  was  commit- 
ted, must  he  set  forth  with  accuracy 
and  precision. 

CHARGE,  Fr.  The  French  techni- 
cally use  this  term  in  two  different 
senses,  viz.  charge  precipitin,  and  charge 
it  volonte.  Charge  precipitin  is  given 
when  the  four  times  are  expressly  mark- 
ed, as  churgcz  vos  armesy  un,  deur, 
quatre ;  and  applies  chiefly  to  the  drill. 
Charge  a  volonte  is  executed  in  the 
same  manner  as  the  charge  precipitin, 
with  this  difference,  that  the  soldiers  do 
not  wait  for  the  specific  words. 

Charge  de  mine,  Fr,  the  disposition 
of  a  certain  quantity  of  powder,  which 
is  used  for  the  explosion  of  a  mine. 

CHARGED  cylinder, in  gunnery,  im- 
plies that  part  of  the  chace  of  a  gun, 
which  contains  the  powder  and  ball. 

CHARGER  bat/onclte,  Fr.  to  charge 

CHARGER,  (cheval  de  guerre,  Fr.) 
any  horse  belonging  to  an  officer  on  which 
he  rides  in  action  or  parade,  ike. 

Chargers  (chargeoirs,  Fr.)  are  either 
bandoleers,  or  little  flasks  that  contain 
powder  for  loading  or  priming. 

CHARGER,  Fr.  to  load  a  piece  of 
ordnance,  or  a  lire-arm. 

Charger  une  mine,  Fr.  to  place  the 
quantity  of  gunpowder  necessary  for  the 
explosion  of  a  mine. 

Charger  avec  Forme  blanche,  Fr.  to 
charge  with  fixed  bayonet,  or  sword  in 

CHARGES  mihtairea,  Fr.  military 
commissions  and  appointments. 

CHA RI AGE,  Fr.  land-carriage.  The 
French  also  say  Charroi. 

CHARIER  du  canon,  Fr.  to  convey 
ordnance.  It  is  likewise  used  to  ex- 
press the  carriage  of  ammunition  and 
military  stores. 

CHARIOT,  a  car,  in  which  men  of 
arms  were  anciently  placed.  These 
were  armed  with  scythes,  hooks,  ike. 

CHARIOT,  Fr.  wagon. 

Chariot  coOT3ert,Fr.  a  covered  wagon. 

Chariot  a  porter  corps,  Fr.  a  wagon 
upon  four  wheels,  which  is  used  for  the 
carriage  of  a  piece  of  ordnance  that  i* 
not  mounted. 

Chariot  a  riddles,  Fr.  a  four-wheel -% 
ed  wagon  with  railing  round  its  sides. 
It  is  used  in  the  conveyance  of  cannon 
balls,  shells,  and  ammunition. 

Chariots  de  guerre,  Fr.  armed  cha- 

Cii  a  riots  (Tu tie  artnee,Yr. wagon-train. 

Chariots  d'artiuerie,  Fr.  artillery- 

Chabiots  de$  vivres,  Fr.  provision 

Chariots  d\mtils,  a  pioniers  et 
tranchans,  Fr.  wagons  to  carry  pioneers 
tools,  ike.  for  the  attack,  or  defence,  of 

CHARPENTE,  Fr.  carpentry. 

ClIARPENTIER,  Fr.  a  carpenter. 

Charpentier  $oldat,  Fr.  an  enlisted 
man  who  is  employed  in  carpentry  work 
for  military  purposes. 

CHARPIE,  Fr.  lint;  such  as  is  used 
in  dressing  wounds. 

CIIARRONS,  Fr.  wheelwrights. 

CHARROYER,  Fr.  to  convey  any 
thing  in  carts  or  wagons. 

CHART,  or  sea-CnART,  is  a  hydro- 
graphical  map,  or  a  projection  of  some 
part  of  the  earth's  superficies  in  piano, 
for  the  use  of  navigators  and  geogra- 

P/ajic-Chart  is  a  representation  of 
some  part  of  the  superficies  of  the  ter- 
raqueous globe,  in  which  themeridians 
are  supposed  parallel  to  each  other,  the 
parallels  of  latitude  at  equal  distances, 
and  consequently  the  degrees  of  latitude 
and  longitude  every  where  equal  to  each 

C  H  A 

(     105     ) 

C  H  A 

.Chart  of  reduction  is  that  where  the 
meridians  are  represented  by  right  lines, 
inclining  towards  each  other;  thence  it 
appears  by  construction,  that  these 
charts  must  correct  the  errors  of  the 
plane  ones.  But  since  these  parallels 
should  cut  the  meridians  at  right  angles, 
and  do  not,  they  are  defective,  inasmuch 
as  they  exhibit  the  parallels  inclined  to 

Mercators-CiiAT.i  is  that  where  the 
meridians  are  straight  lines  parallel  to 
each  other,  and  equidistant:  these  pa- 
rallels are  also  straight  lines,  and  paral- 
lel to  each  other;  but  the  distance  be- 
tween increases  from  the  equinoctial  to- 
wards each  pole,  in  the  ratio  of  the 
secant  of  the  latitude  to  the  radius. 

Globular-Cu art,  a  meridional  pro- 
jection, wherein  the  distance  of  the  eye 
from  tlie  plane  of  the  meridian,  upon 
which  the  projection  is  made,  is  supposed 
to  be  equal  to  the  sine  of  the  angle  of 
45°.  This  projection  comes  the  nearest 
of  all  to  tiie  iiature  of  the  ijobe,  because 
the  meridians  therein  are  placed  at  equal 

Chorograp/uc-CH arts  are  descrip- 
-tions  of  particular  countries. 

Hetiographic-C harts,  descriptions  of 
the  body  of  the  snn,  and  of  the  macula? 
or  spots  observed  in  it. 

Selenographic-C harts,  particular  de- 
scriptions of  the  spots  of  the  moon,  her 
appearance  and  macula?.  Hevelius  has 
written  verv  accurately  on  Selenography. 

Te/fgrap/tic-Cn arts  are  descriptions 
of  the  telegraph  on  paper. 

Topograph  ic-C  a  arts  are  specific  de- 
lineations of  military  positions,  in  any 
given  tract  of  country.  Companies  of 
topographers  have  been  formed  among 
the  French,  for  the  purpose  of  accurately 
and  expeditiously  pointing  out  to  gene- 
rals and  commanding  officers, all  the  re- 
lative points  of  locality,  &C. 

Magna  CHART  A,  the  great  charter, 
originally  signed  by  King  John,  contain- 
ing a  number  of  laws  ordained  in  the 
ninth  year  of  Henry  III.  and  confirm- 
ed by  Edward  I.  comprehending  and  ex- 
hibiting, in  honest  English,  the  sum  of 
till  the  written  laws  of  England;  parti- 
cularly that  invaluable  and  exclusive 
privilege  which  every  Englishman,  in  a 
civil  or  military -capacity  enjoys,  of  be- 
ing tried  by  his  peers.  Even  the  dread- 
ful crime  of  high-treason,  or  an  attempt 
to  destroy  one's  lawful  sovereign,  must 
pass  through  the  ordeal  of  a  jury.  Com- 

mitment for  a  breach  of  privilege  against 
the  House  of  Commons,  is,  however, 
considered,  by  some  persons,  as  an  ex- 
ception; but  the  question  is  at  issue. 

CHARTAGNE,  Fr.  a  strong  en- 
trenchment, most  generally  concealed 
from  the  view  of  the  enemy,  and  which 
is  used  in  woods  and  forests,  for  the  de- 
fence of  important  passages. 

CHASE-g?«j,a  gun  in  the  fore-part  of 
a  ship  which  is  fired  upon  those  that  are 
pursued.  Bailey  calls  chase  guns  the 
guns  in  the  head  or  stern  of  a  ship;  the 
latter,  however,  are  generally  called 
stern  chasers. 

Chase  of  a  gun.    See  Chace. 

To  CiiASE, to  pursue. 

CHASSE,  Fr.  in  mechanics,  the  vi- 
brating motion  which  puts  a  body  in 

CiiASsz-Coquins,  Fr.  See  Baxdou- 

Chasse,  Fr.  a  charge  of  coarse  pow- 
der which  is  thrown  into  the  hottom  of 
the  cartouche,  to  facilitate  the  explosion 
of  the  fire-work  it  contains. 

CHASSER,  Fr.  to  drive  away;  to 
force  an  enemy  to  quit  a  position,  &c. 

Chasser,  Fr.  among  workmen,  to 
lasten  together  pieces  of  joinery  by 
driving  them  home  with  a  mallet,  &c. 

CHASSEURS,  Fr.  light  infantry  men, 
forming  a  select  body  upon  the  left  of  a 
battalion,  in  the  same  manner  that  gre- 
nadiers are  posted  on  the  right.  They 
must  be  particularly  active,  courageous, 
and  enterprising. 

Chasseurs,  Fr.     See  Hunters. 

Cjiasseurs  a  cheval,  Fr.  a  species  of 
light  troops  in  the  French  service. 

CHASSIS,  Fr.  a  square  platform 
made  of  wood,  which  is  used  in  min- 

Chasms  tie  gallerie,  Fr.  beams  of  difv 
ferent  lengths,  which  the  miners  use  to 
support  the  earth  in  proportion  as  they 
advance  into  the  gallery.  These  beams 
support  other  transversal  ones  which 
prevent  the  earth  from  falling  down;  the 
whole  is  called  chassis  du  mineur. 

Chassis  a  secret,  Fr.  a  particular 
method  of  drawing  lines  upon  a  sheet 
of  paper,  and  folding  it  in  such  a  man- 
ner, that  when  the  words  which  are 
written  in  the  intervals  are  read,  ther 
appear  incomprehensible,  except  to  th« 
person  who  is  provided  with  a  corre- 
spondent sheet,  and  who  by  placing  it 
upon  the  one  received,  unravels  the  sig- 
nification of  its  contents.. 

C  II  A 

(      104.     ) 


Chassis,  Fr.  sash;  frame;  case. 

Chassis  defer,  Fr.  iron  frame  work. 

Chassis  dc  mine,  Fr.  frames  which 
are  made  for  the  galleries  in  a  mine. 

CHASSOIR,  Fr.  cooper's  driver. 

CHAT,  Fr.  a  piece  of  iron  having  one, 
two,  or  three  very  sharp  prongs,  0 
claws;  arranged  in  a  triangular  shape, 
when  it  has  three  prongs.  This  piece  of 
iron  is  fixed  to  a  shaft.  It  is  used  in 
the  examination  of  a  piece  of  ordnance, 
and  by  being  introduced  into  the  bore, 
shews  whether  it  be  honey-combed,  da- 
maged, or  otherwise  defective. 

There  is  another  species  of  chat  which 
differs  a  little  from  the  one  we  have  just 
described.  It  consists  of  two  branches 
of  iron,  that  are  tixed  to  the  end  of  a 
piece  of  the  same  metal,  and  have,  each 
of  them,  two  steel  prongs  or  claws.  One 
of  these  branches  contains  a  hinge  with 
a  spring  so  fixed,  that  when  the  chat  is 
put  into  the  bore,  the  least  cavity  re- 
leases the  spring,  and  the  defect  is  in- 
stantly discovered.  Master-founders, 
who  by  DO  means  like  the  invention,  call 
the  common  chat  Ic  (liable,  the  devil; 
and  they  distinguish  the  one  with  two 
branches,  by  terming  it  la  malice  du 
diuble,  the  malice  of  the  devil. 

Chat,  Fr.  a  kind  of  turret  formerly 
in  use  amongst  the  French,  for  the  con- 
veyance of  the  troops  who  were  going  to 
besiege  a  town. 

CHATEAU,  Fr.  a  small  castle  which 
stands  by  itself",  and  is  sometimes  occu- 
pied by  a  troop  or  company  of  soldiers 
who  mean  to  hold  out. 

Chateaux  des  liuvrcs,  Fr.  small  forts, 
or  covered  batteries,  which  are  built  on 
the  shore  close  to  sea-ports,  in  order  to 
protect  the  shipping  that  may  lie  off. 

CHATELET,  Fr.  in  former  times  a 
small  castle  or  fortress.  The  officer 
who  had  the  command  of  it  was  called 
Chatelain.  At  present  a  place  of  con- 
finement, in  Pans,  is  so  called. 

CHATIMENT,  Fr.  punishment, 

CHATFE,  Fr.  a  small  two  masted 

CHATTER  les  pieces,  Fr.  to  search, 
to  probe,  or  examine  pieces  of  ordnance 
with  a  chat,  in  order  to  discover  whe- 
ther there  ate  any  defects  within  the 
bore  of  a  cannon. 

CHAUDE-C/*asse,  Fr.  running  after 
a  prisoner. 

CHAUDEMENT,  Fr.  hotly ;  warmly. 

CHAUDIERES,  Fr.  are  vessels  made 

use  of  in  military  magazines,  to  boil 
pitch  in  for  various  purposes. 

CHAUDUON,  Fr.  a  kettle;  a 

CHAUFFA6E  militairc,  Fr.  a  ration 
of  wood  or  other  fuel. 

CHAUFFE,  Fr.  a  spot  where  the 
wood  is  collected  and  burnt  in  a  foun- 
dry. The  chauffe  stands  three  feet  un- 
der the  side  of  the  furnace,  the  flames 
which  issue  from  it  spread  over  every 
part  of  the  inside  of  the  furnace,  and  by 
their  intense  heat  dissolve  the  metal. 

CHAUFFER  I'anticliambre,  Fr.  a  figu- 
rative term  used  among  the  French,  to 
Minify  in  waiting,  or  dancing  attend- 

Chauffer  une  troupe,  une  forleresse, 
Fr.  to  keep  up  a  hot  and  continual  dis- 
charge of  ordnance  or  musketry  against 
an  armed  body  of  men,  or  fortified  place. 

Chauffer,  Fr.  to  heat;  to  warm. 

Chauffer  la  tranchee,  Fr.  to  com- 
mence an  attack  by  filing  into  an  ene- 
my's trenches. 

CHAUFFERIE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  forge. 

CHAUFFOIR,  Fr.  a  wanning   place. 

CHAUFOUR,  Fr.  a  lime-kiln. 

CHAUFOURNIER,Fr.a  lime-maker. 

CHAUSSE-^rflprs,  Fr.  are  what  we 
call  crow's  feet  or  caltrops;  they  con- 
sist of  nails  with  4  or  5  points,  of  which 
one  always  stands  upward,  above  the 
level  of  the  ground;  each  point  is 4  or 5 
inches  long.  They  are  usually  tixed  in 
different  parts  of  a  breach,  or  in  any 
place  which  is  accessible  to  cavalry,  to 
prevent  its  approach:  sometimes  they 
are  of  use  to  obstruct  the  passage  of 
cavalry  through  the  streets. 

Chaussee,  Fr.  any  paved  way  which 
is  raised  across  a  morass,  &c.  It  also 
signifies  the  broad  road. 

Chaussee,  or  Rez  de  Chaussee,  Fr. 
an  old  expression  for  the  level  of  the 
field  or  the  plain  ground. 

CHAUX,  Fr.  lime. 

CHECAYA,  the  second  officer  in 
command  among  the  Janizaries;  the 
Aga's  lieutenant. 

CIIECK-7/i«te,  a  term  used  at  the 
game  of  chess,  when  the  king  is  shut  up 
so  close  that  there  is  no  way  left  for  his 
escape.  Hence,  according  to  Spencer, 
check-mate  signifies  defeat,  overthrow. 

To  Cnr.cK-male,  to  block  up;  to  ren- 
der it  impossible  to  move  without  being 

CHEEKS,  a  general  name  among 
mechanics,  for  those  pieces  of  timber  in 


(    105    ) 


their  machines,  which  are  double,  and  |  plished  manners.  His  fidelity  to  his 
perfectly  corresponding  to  each  other. j  sovereign  was  proverbial;  and  though 
In  the  construction  of  military  carriages,  I  the  reigning  powers  at  that  time  tried 
&c.  the  term  is  used  to  denote  the  strong   their  utmost  to  make  him  withdraw  his 

planks  which  form  the  sides. 

To  CHEER,  {animer,  Er.)  to  incite; 
to  encourage  ;  to  inspire;  to  huzza. 

Cheers,  (a  military  term  used  among 
the  English  in  the  same  sense  that  the 
word  acclamation*  obtains  among  the 
French,)  signs  of  joy ;  assurances  of 
Success  before,  or,  after  an  engagement; 
testimonies  of  loyalty  and  affection  on 
the  appearance  of  a  chief  magistrate, 
general,  &c.  expressed  by  huzzas. 

CHEF,  Jr..  the  chief  or  head  of  a 
party,  troop,  company,  regiment,  or 
army.  The  person  who  has  the  princi- 
pal command. 

Chef  d'escadre,  Fr.  a  general  officer, 
who  commands  any  part  of  an  army,  or 
division  of  a  fleet. 

Chefs  de  files,  Fr.  the  front  rank  of  a 
battalion,  consisting  generally  of  the 
best  and  bravest  soldiers. 

Chef  de  file,  Fr.  the  man  who  stands 
on  the  right  of  a  troop  or  company. 

PITAL, a  noble  edifice  which  stands  on 
the  northern  bank  of  the  river  Thames, 
and  was  originally  begun  by  James  the 
First,  in  the  fifth  year  of  his  reign,  for  a 
college  to  consist  of  a  number  of  learned 

For  this  purpose  a  Provost  and  Fel- 
lows were  incorporated  by  the  title  of 
King  James's  College,  Chelsea. 

This  corporation  he  endowed,  by  his 
letters  patent,  with  the  reversion  of  cer- 
tain lands  in  Chelsea,  then  under  lease 
to  Charles  Earl  of  Nottingham. 

After  the  restoration,  King  Charles 
II.  wanting  a  convenient  hospital  for  the 
reception  of  sick,  maimed,  and  superan- 
nuated soldiers,  converted  the  unfinished 
buildings  of  this  college  to  that  use; 
whence  it  has  still  occasionally  retained 
the  title  of  The  College.  He  accord- 
ingly began  to  erect  his  royal  hospital  on 
this  spot,  but  did  not  complete  it;  it  was 
carried  on  during  the  short  reign  of 
Jams  II.  and  finished  in  the  reign  of 
King  William  and  Queen  Mary,  by  Sir 
Christopher  Wren.  One  of  the  princi- 
pal contributors  to  this  patriotic  institu- 
tion was  Sir  Stephen  Fox.  He  was 
grandfather  to  the  late  Mr.  Fox,  and 
uncestor  of  the  Earls  of  Ilchester  and 
the  Lords  Holland,  and  w^s  a  man  of 
the  greatest  abilities  and  most  accom- 

allegiance  from  his  exiled  master,  King 
Charles  II.  they  found  him  incorrupti- 
ble. But  what  will  endear  his  memory 
to  the  latest  posterity  is,  his  being  the 
first  projector  of  the  noble  design  of 
Chelsea  Hospital,  having  contributed  to 
the  expense  of  it  about  130,000/.  His 
motive  to  it  was  known  from  his  own 
words:  he  said  "  he  could  not  bear  to 
see  the  common  soldiers,  who  had  spent 
their  strength  in  our  service,  beg  at  our 
doors."  He  therefore  did  what  he  could 
to  remove  such  a  scandal  from  the  king- 
dom. He  first  purchased  some  grounds 
near  the  old  college  at  Chelsea,  which 
had  been  escheated  to  the  crown,  in  the 
reign  of  James  I.  and  on  these  grounds 
the  present  college  is  erected.  Nume- 
rous were  his  public  and  private  chan- 
ties, He  lived  to  see  his  noble  design 
take  effect,  and  died  October  28th,  17 16, 
aged  89,  universally  regretted. 

Non-commissioned  officers  and  pri- 
vate men,  who  have  been  wounded  or 
maimed  in  the  service,  are  entitled  to  the- 
benefit  of  this  hospital.  There  are  in 
and  out-pensioners  belonging  to  the 
establishment,  and  the  provisions  of  it 
extend  to  the  militia  under  the  following 
restrictions;  Serjeants  who  have  served 
fifteen  years,  and  corporals  or  drummers 
who  have  served  twenty,  may  be  recom- 
mended to  the  bounty.  Serjeants  on 
the  establishment  may  likewise  receive 
that  allowance,  with  their  pay  in  the 
militia.  But  Serjeants  who  have  been 
appointed  subsequent  to  the  passing  of 
the  26th  of  George  III.  are  not  entitled 
to  it  under  twenty  years  service. 

CHEMIN-coarerf.  SeeCovERT-WAT. 

Chemin  den  rondes,  in  fortification,  a 
space  between  the  rampart  and  low  pa- 
rapet under  it,  for  the  rounds  to  g<< 
about  it. 

CHEMINER,  Fr.  in  fortification,  to 
carry  on  some  particular  work,  such  as 
a  trench,  &c.  towards  a  given  object. 

CHEMISE,  Fr.  an  obsolete  term  to 
signify  the  revetement  made  of  brick 
work,  which  was  formerly  constructed  to 
secure  works  made  of  earth,  especially 
those  that  were  formed  of  sandy  soil, 
and  would  necessarily  require  too  large 
a  talus  to  support  the  weight.  The  mo- 
dern term  i&  ouvra^e  revitu,  place  re- 

C  H  E 

(    iot»   ) 


( 'nr.Misr.  (i  feu,  Fr.  a  piece  of  cloth 
which  is  steeped  in  combustible  matter, 
and  is  made  use  of  against  a  scaling 

Chemise  de  feu,  Fr.  a  French  sea- 
terni,  to  signify  several  pieces  of  old 
sails  of  various  sizes,  which,  alter  they 
have  been  pitched,  and  thoroughly  soak- 
ed in  other  combustible  matter,  such  as 
oil  of  petrol,  camphor,  c%:c.  may  be  nailed 
to  an  enemy's  ship  on  boarding  her,  and 
when  set  hie  to,  will  consume  the  same. 

Chemise  dc  i/utU/r,  Fr.  a  shirt  of  mail. 

Chemise  dt  coup  deinuin,  dc  surprise, 
Fr.  a  shirt  made  of  cloth  highly  bleach- 
ed, and  of  which  a  general  provides  a 
number  when  he  premeditates  a  coup  dc 
main.  This  chemise  must  not  come  be- 
low the  waist,  in  order  that  it  may  be 
got  over  the  coat  and  cartouch  box.  The 
general  directs  these  shirts  to  be  made 
either  with  two  sleeves,  with  one,  or 
without  any  at  all.  A  coup  de  wain  Or 
this  kind  must  be  kept  secret  till  the 
moment  of  its  execution.  This  strata 
gem  is  practised  to  prevent  a  soldier 
from  attacking  his  brother  soldier. 

CHEMISTRY,  the  art  of  examining 
bodies,  and  of  extracting  from  them  any 
of  their  component  parts. 

CHENAL,  Fr.  a  channel,  or  gutter. 

CHESS.     SeePorajtwi-BiuDGE. 

Chess,  a  nice  and  abstruse  game,  sup- 
posed to  have  been  invented  during  the 
siege  of  Troy.  This  game  is  particularly 
adapted  to  military  capacities. 

CHEVAL,  Fr.  a  horse. 

Cheval  de  bois,  Fr.  a  wooden-horse, 
a  military  chastisement,  which  common 
prostitutes,  who  followed  the  French 
army,  were  subject  to  undergo,  by  expos- 
ing them,  we  presume,  on  a  machine  of 
that  description. 

Cheval  ic/opc,  Fr.  a  lame  horse. 

Cheval  encloue,  Fr.  a  horse  that  has 
been  pricked  or  cloyed  in  being  shod. 

Cheval  morvcu,  Fr.  a  horse  that  has 
the  glanders. 

Cheval  d'ordonnance,  Fr.  a  horse 
which  is  impressed  in  a  town  or  village 
for  some  military  purpose. 

.•/-Cheval,  Fr.  on  horseback.  Also, 
To  horse!  A  notice  given  by  sound  of 
trumpet  for  dragoons  to  mount. 

Cheval  de  bataille,  Fr.  a  charger. 

Cheval  defrise,  Fr.  See  Chevaux 

Cheval  de  bat,  Fr.  a  bat,  or  pack- 
horse.  It  also  signifies,  figuratively,  a 
drudge;  a  looby. 

Etr#  a  Cheval  sur  une  riviere,  sur' 

une  cliaussec,  Fr.  to  be  encamped  or 
drawn  up  on  each  side  of  a  river,  or 

CHEVALEMENT,  Fr.  in  architec- 
ture, a  sort  of  prop  which  is  made  of  one 
or  two  pieces  of  timber,  with  a  head, 
laid  buttress  fashion,  upon  a  rest.  It 
serves  to  support  jambs,  beams,  &c. 

CHEVALER,  Fr.  to  prop;  to  sup- 
port; also  to  run  to  and  fro. 

CHEVALER,in  the  manege,  is  said  of  a 
horse,  when,  in  passing  upon  a  walk  or 
trot,  bis  off  fore  leg  crosses  the  near  fore 
leg  every  second  motion. 

CHEVALERESQUE,  Fr. chivalrous. 

CHEVALET,  Fr.  a  sort  of  bell-tent, 
formerly  used  in  the  French  service, 
when  an  army  encamped.  It  resembles, 
in  some  degree,  the  wigwam  of  the  In- 

Chevalet,  Fr.  a  raft  for  troops  to 
cross  rivers  upon  ;  also  a  wooden  horse, 
used  in  military  punishments. 

ChevaL£T  d'annes,  Fr.  a  covered  rack 
which  is  made  in  the  front  of  a  line  of 
encampment  for  the  regular  distribution 
and  security  of  the  fire-arms  belonging 
to  the  different  troops,  or  companies. 
This  is  sometimes  cMedfaisceau  d'annes, 
a  pile  of  arm-.. 

CHEVALIER,  iu  a  general  sense,  sig- 
nifies a  knight,  or  horseman.  Chevalier 
also  means  a  buttress. 

Chevalier  d'indvstric,  Fr.  a  sharper. 

Chevalier  d'honncur,  FY.  first  gen- 
tleman  usher. 

Chevalier  du  guet,  Fr.  captain  of  a 
watch  on  horseback. 

Chevaliers  errans,  Fr.  knights- 

CHEVALIERE,  Fr.  a  knight's  lady. 

CHEVAU-LEGERS,  Fr.  a  corps  of 
cavalry,  which,  during  the  old  monarchy, 
was  composed  of  two  hundred  gentlemen, 
making  part  of  the  King  of  France's 
guard.  It  has  been  noticed,  to  the 
honour  of  this  corps,  that  they  never  lost 
their  kettle  drums,  nor  their  colours. 
They  were  established  by  Henry  IV. 
who  first  exclusively  confined  the  hommes 
d'annes  to  the  natives  of  Navarre. 

The  French  also  formerly  said  un 
chevuu  leger,  in  the  singular  number, 
when  they  spoke  of  any  individual  be- 
longing to  a  particular  corps  of  light 
horse,  who  were  not  heavily  armed.  See 
Dictionnaire  de  I' ' Academic 

CHEVAUCHEE,  Fr.  a  journey,  or 
round  which  is  made  on  horseback  by 
persons  employed  officially.  It  is  only 
used  iu  this  sense. 


(     107     ) 

C  H  L 

CHEVAUCHER,  Fr.  an  old  word 
which  is  only  used  in  the  following 
phrases,  chevaucher  court,  chevaucher 
long,  to  ride  short,  to  ride  long. 

CHEVAUX-de-frise,  in  fortification, 
a  large  joist  or  piece  of  timber,  about  5 
or  6  inches  square,  and  10  or  12  feet  in 
length ;  into  the  sides  whereof  are  driven 
a  great  number  of  wooden  pins,  about  6 
feet  long,  and  1£  inch  diameter,  crossing 
one  another  at  right  angles, and  pointed 
with  iron.  They  are  used  on  number- 
less occasions;  as  to  stop  up  the  breaches, 
to  secure  the  avenues  of  a  camp  from 
the  inroads  both  of  horse  and  foot,  &c. 
They  are  sometimes  mounted  on  wheels, 
with  artificial  fires,  to  roll  down  in  an 
assault,  &c.  They  were  first  used  at 
the  siege  of  Groningen,  in  1658. 

CHEVET,  Fr.  a  quoin  or  wedge; 
likewise  that  part  of  a  wooden  draw- 
bridge to  which  the  chains  are  fastened. 

CHEVETAINE,  Fr.a  term  anciently 
used  among  the  French  to  signify  the 
leader  of  a  troop,  or  company.  The 
chevetaine  was  the  same  as  cupitaine  or 
connctab/e,  with  this  difference,  that  the 
commission  only  lasted  during  the  time 
of  hostilities. 

CHEVTLLE  d'affut,  Fr.  an  iron  bolt 
which  goes  across  the  whole  of  a  gun 

Cheville  a  oreilles,  Fr.  an  iron  bolt 
of  the  above  description  which  has 

Cheville  ouvriere,  Fr.  a  large  fiat 
headed  nail,  which  confines  the  avant- 
train  to  the  gun  carriage  of  a  piece  of 

Cheville  a  tourniquet,  Fr.  a  stick  or 
round  piece  of  wood,  which  serves  to 
tighten  a  rope  in  packing. 

Chevilles  de  travaux  militaircs,  Fr. 
large  nails  used  in  the  artillery.  See 

CHEVISANCE,  Fr.  enterprize,  feat, 
or  achievement. 

CIIEVRi:,   Fr.   a  crab   or  gin 
Chevrette.     • 

CHEYRETTE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  gin. 
Among  the  many  inventions  for  raising 
guns  or  mortals  into  their  carriage s, this 
engine  is  very  useful:  it  is  made  of  two 
pieces  of  wood  about  4  feet  long,  stand- 
ing upright  upon  a  third,  which  is 
square:  they  are  about  a  foot  asunder, 
and  parallel;  pierced  with  holes  oppo- 
site one  another,  to  hold  a  strong  bolt  of 
iron,  which  may  be  raised  higher  or 
lower  at  pleasure  :  it  may  be  used  with 

a  hand-spike,  which  takes  its  poise  over 
this  bolt,  to  raise  any  thing  by  force. 

CHEVRONS,  Fr.  rafters;  also  the 
distinguishing  marks  on  the  sleeves  of 
non-commissioned  officers. 

CHEVROTINES,  Fr.  leaden  bullets 
of  small  calibre;  there  are  generally  60 
to  it  pound  weight. 

CllIAJA-boch,  the  third  general  of- 
ficer in  command  among  the  Janizaries. 
We  may  judge  of  the  power  of  the  Aga, 
who  is  chief  commandant  of  the  Jani- 
zaries, from  the  rights  and  authority  of 
his  second  lieutenant:  he  is  captain  of 
the  richest  company,  which  he  governs 
despotically;  he  inherits  the  whole  pro- 
perty of  all  the  Janizaries  who  die  with- 
out issue,  or  leave  no  relations  behind 
them;  and  appoints  his  subaltern  officers 
to  be  governors  of  the  fortified  towns. 

CHIAUS,  the  captain  of  a  company 
of  Janizaries;  this  officer,  of  high  rank, 
has  two  captain-lieutenants  under  his 

CHICANERY,  (chicane,  Fr.)  trick; 
stratagem.  In  war  it  signifies  the  va- 
rious expedients  which  are  resorted  to. 
Hence  chicaner  le  terrein,  Stc. 

CHIEF,  or  CniEETAiu,a  leader,  or 

CHIEN  d'une  urme  a  feu,  Fr.  that 
part  of  the  cock  of  a  musket  or  pistol 
which  holds  the  flint. 

CHIFFRES,  Fr.  ciphers,  certain  cha- 
racters, consisting  of  different  names 
and  words  which  are  used  in  military 

CHILIARCH,  (chiliarque,  Fr.)  the 
name  given  in  Athens  to  a  captain  who 
commanded  1000  men. 

CHIOURME,  Fr.  the  crew  of  galley 
slaves  and  honavogliers  or  volunteers. 

CHIOUS,  an  officer  attached  to  the 
grand  signior. 
'  (  H I  RURfilE, IV.  surgery. 

CHIRURGIEN,  Fr.    surgeon,   from 

twu   Greek    words  signifying   hand  and 

See  |  a  oik  ;  and    meaning  an   operator  with 

'the  hand,    in   contradistinction  of  phy- 

sicians,  who  work  with  the  head. 

( '  ii  i  R  r  nc  i  LK-major,  Fr.  su  rgeon- 

Cuirukgien  d\in  r'egimentxEv.  a  re- 
gimental surgeon. 

CHISSEL,  an  instrument  used  in 
carpentry,  joinery,  masonry,  sculpture, 

CIIIURTS,  certain  Turks  expert  in 

CHLAMIS,  a  short  cloak  which  com- 

C  H  U 

(     108     ) 

C  I  M 

po*ed  part  of  the  military  dress  of  tlie 
Gieeks:  it  was  worn  over  the  tunic.  The 
Roman  emperors al£o  adopted  the  chlamis 

for  their  military  dress,  and  called  it 

CHOC,  Fr.  shock;  the  percussion 
which  takes  place  in  an  engagement  be- 
tween adverse  armies;  the  running  foul 
of  one  ship  against  another. 

CHOPINE,  Fr.  a  French  half-pint; 
an  English  pint,  Winchester  measure. 

CHORD  of  an  arch  is  a  right  line 
drawn  from  one  extremity  of  an  arch  to 
the  other:  called  also  the  suhtense. 

CHOROBATTS,  Fr.  a  level  used  by 
the  ancients  with  a  double  square,  in  the 
form  of  a  T. 

CHOROGRAPHY,  in  c nginec ring,  is 
the  art  of  making  a  drawing  or  map  of  a 
country,  province,  or  district. 

Chorography,  (chorographie,)  Fr.  a 
general  description  of  a  country.  It  is 
not  limited,  as  Geography  or  Topogra- 
phy;  the  first  comprehending  the  de- 
scription of  the  earth,  and  the  second  of 
any  particular  part  of  it,  with  its  de- 

CHOSE  publique,  Fr.  public  safety; 

CHOU  AX,  Fr.  the  name  of  a  counter- 
revolutionary party  which  appeared  in 
France  in  November,  1793,  after  the 
Vendeans  had  crossed  the  river  Loire. 
The  original  founders  of  this  party  were 
four  brothers,  whose  real  name  was  Cot- 
tcreau.  They  were  called  Chouan  from 
a  corruption  of  the  word  chat-huant,(un 
owl,)  because  they  imitated  the  cry  of 
this  bird,  whenever  they  wished  to  be 
known  to  each  other  in  the  woods,  or 
during  the  night.  At  the  beginning, they 
seldom  ventured  beyond  the  forests  of 
Pert  re  and  Guerche.  Having  been  re- 
inforced by  the  junction  of  the  royalists 
of  Brittany,  La  Manche  and  Calvados, 
and  of  the  remnant  of  Talmont's  army 
after  the  actions  of  Mans  and  Savcnay, 
they  assumed  a  regular  form,  and  in 
the  name  of  Louis  XVIII.  made  war 
upon  a  larger  scale.  Out  of  the  four 
brothers  only  one  survived;  the  other 
three  having  fallen  in  battle. 

CHOUDREE,  hid.  troops  employed 
to  go  to  market  to  buy  forage  for  the 
troops;  also  a  monev  lender. 

proper  sense  in  which  they  can  be  taken 
with  respect  to  military  matters,  relates 
to  the  militia.  They  are  to  pay,  when 
ordered  by  two  deputy  lieutenants,  half 
the    price    of   voluuteers,    to    persons 

chosen    by  ballot,    on 
They  aie  likewise,  with 

penalty  of  51. 
the  consent  of 
the  inhabitants,  to  provide  volunteers, 
and  make  a  rate  for  the  expense,  which 
must  not  exceed  61.  per  man.  They  arc 
liable  to  have  the  rates  on  places  where 
the  militia  has  not  been  raised,  levied 
upon  them.  One  penny  in  the  pound  is 
allowed  them  for  all  the  money  they 
collect.  In  the  counties  of  Kent  and 
Sussex,  they  possess  the  power  of  con- 
stables, for  the  purposes  specilied  in  the 
26th  of  the  King. 

CHUTE  cTeau,  Fr.  the  sloping,  or 
downward  direction  of  a  conduit  of 
water,  from  its  reservoir  to  the  upward 
shooting  of  a  water-spout. 

CICATRICE,  Fr.  a  scar;  the  mark 
which  a  wound  leaves  upon  the  surface 
of  the  human  body. 

Se  CICATRISER,  Fr.  to  heal;  to 
become  sound. 

CID,  Fr.  a  word  borrowed  from  the 
Arabic,  signifying  Chief';  Commander; 

CIDARIS,  Fr.  the  turban  or  cap 
worn  by  the  kings  of  Persia,  Armenia, 
Pontus,  and  Egypt. 

CTERGE  d'eau,  Fr.  several  water- 
spouts which  play  in  the  same  direction, 
into  a  long  basin  at  the  head  of  a  canal 
and  cascade. 

C1EIBO,  a  round  table  upon  which 
the  Roman  and  Greek  soldiers  used  to 
lay  down  their  shields,  when  they  re- 
turned from  an  expedition. 

CILICES,  Fr.  coarse  tissues  of 
horse  or  goat's  hair,  quilted  with  sea- 
weeds or  cow-hair  stuffed  between. 
The  ancients  used  to  hang  these  cilices 
over  the  parapets,  the  ditches  and 
breaches,  to  stop  the  darts  or  arrows 
that  were  shot  from  bulistas  or  cata- 
pult as. 

CILICIA,  or  Cilice,  a  dress  made  of 
goat's-hair,  worn  by  the  troops  in  an- 
cient times,  and  invented  by  the  Ci- 
licians.  When  properly  woven  it  is 

CILINDRE,  Fr.     See  Cylinder. 

CIMENT,  Fr.     See  Cement. 

CTMETERRE,  Fr.  scimitar. 

C1METIERE,  Fr.  church-yard;  bu- 

CIMIER,  Fr.  a  heavy  ornament, 
which  the  ancient  knights  or  chevaliers, 
in  France  and  in  other  countries,  were 
accustomed  to  wear  upon  their  helmets; 
small  figures  were  afterwards  substitu- 
ted in  their  stead. 

CIMITER.    See  Scimitar. 

C  I  R 

(     109     ) 

C  I  R 

CINCTURE,  ( ceintre,  Fr.)  a  girdle. 
In  architecture,  a  ring,  list,  or  orlo,  at 
the  top  and  bottom  of  the  shaft,  at  one 
end  from  the  base,  and  at  the  ether  from 
the  capital.  That  at  the  bottom  is 
particularly  called  apophyses,  as  if  the 
pillar  took  its  height  from  it;  and  that 
at  top,  colarin  or  collar,  from  the 
French  colier,  and  sometimes  annulus, 
a  ring. 

CINCTUS,  the  appellation  given  to 
a  Roman  soldier,  who  was  bound  to 
carry  arms  and  to  fight.  He  received  at 
the  samt  time  the  cingulum,  (a  belt,)  to 
be  stript  of  which  was  reckoned  the  ut- 
most disgrace. 

CINQUAIN,  in  ancient  military  his- 
tory, was  an  order  of  battle,  to  draw  up 
5  battalions,  so  that  they  might  make  3 
lines ;  that  is,  a  van,  main  body,  and  re- 
serve. Supposing  the  5  battalions  to  be 
in  a  line,  the  2d  and  4th  advance  and 
form  the  van,  the  3d  falls  back  and 
forms  the  rear,  the  1st  and  5th  form 
the  main  body  upon  the  same  ground. 
Lastly,  every  battalion  ought  to  have  a 
squadron  of  horse  on  both  the  right  and 
left  wings.  Any  number  of  regiments, 
produced  by  multiplying  by  5,  may  be 
drawn  up  in  the  same  manner. 

CINQUENELLES,  Fr.  thick  ropes 
which  are  used  in  artillery  for  the  pur- 
pose of  throwing  a  bridge  of  boats,  or 
pontoons,  across  a  river. 

CINTRE,  ou  ceintre,  Fr.  This  word 
expresses  the  figure  of  an  arch,  and  of 
all  curved  timber,  which  is  used  in 
roofs,  &c. 

CINTRER,  Fr.  to  lay  the  wooden 
frame  work  or  curve  in  order  to  esta- 
blish the  bending  of  an  arch.  Cintrer 
or  Ceintrer  signifies  also  to  give  more 
or  less  circle  to  an  arch  or  vault. 

CIPHER,  )  (chiffre,  Fr.)  one  of  the 
CYPHER,  $  numeral  characters  or 
figures,  in  this  form,  0.  The  cipher  in 
itself  implies  a  privation  of  value;  but 
when  placed  with  other  characters  on 
the  left  hand  of  it,  in  common  arith- 
metic, it  serves  to  augment  each  of  their 
values  by  ten;  and  in  decimal  arith- 
metic, lessens  the  value  of  each  figure  at 
the  right  thereof  in  the  same  proportion. 
Figuratively,  a  thing  called  a  man,  with 
or  without  titles,  which  has  neither  ta- 
lents nor  industry  to  do  anything  for 
the  community  at  large,  and  is  a  splen- 
did nothing  in  society. 

CIRCITOR,  a  Roman  officer,  who, 
after  having  received   his  orders  from  a 

ascertain    whether   the   sentinels   vver* 
alert  and  steady  at  their  posts. 

CIRCLE,  in  mathematics,  is  a  plane 
figure,  comprehended  under  one  line 
only,  to  which  all  right  lines  drawn  from 
a  point  in  the  middle  of  it,  are  equal  to 
one  another. 

Circle,  (cercle,  Fr.)  a  smooth  sur- 
face which  is  terminated  by  one  curved 
line, called  a  circumference,  within  which 
there  is  a  point  called  a  center,  that  is 
equidistant  from  all  the  points  of  the 

Demi-CiRCLE,  (demi-cercle,  Fr.)  con- 
sists of  two  equal  parts  of  a  circle  di- 
vided by  the  diameter. 

Circle,  called  by  the  French  cercle 
generateur.     See  Cycloid. 

Concentrical  Circles,  (cercles  con- 
ccntriques,  Fr.)  circles  described  upon 
the  same  center,  with  parallel  circumfe- 
rences. Eccentric  circles  are  such  as, 
being  contained  within  one  another,  have 
not  been  described  by  the  same  center, 
and  whose  circumferences  are  not  pa- 

CIRCUIT,  (circuit,  Fr.)  that  space 
which  immediately  surrounds  a  town  or 
place;  it  also  signifies  the  march  of  a 
body  of  men,  who  do  not  move  in  a  di- 
rect line  towards  any  given  object. 

CIRCULAR,  any  thing  that  is  de- 
scribed or  moved  in  a  round ;  as  the 
circumference  of  a  circle,  or  the  sur- 
face of  a  circle. 

Circular  lines  are  such  straight 
lines  as  are  divided  from  the  divisions 


made  in  the  arch  of  a  circle;  as  sines, 
tangents,  secants,  &c. 

Circular  numbers  are  such  whose 
powers  end  in  the  roots  themselves;  as 
5,  whose  square  is  25,  and  cube  125. 

Circular,  (circulaire,  Fr.)  an  official 
paper  or  document  which  is  sent  to  the 
army,  or  to  any  department  belonging 
to  the  state,  for  the  guidance  and  infor- 
mation of  individuals  thereto  belonging. 

CIRCUMCELLIONS,  a  set  of  mad 
Christians  in  St.  Augustin's  time,  who 
strolled  about  from  place  to  place;  and 
to  get  repute,  either  would  lay  violent 
hands  upon  themselves,  or  get  others  to 
kill  them. 

CTRCUM  FERENCE,  (circonference, 
Fr.)  a  compass;  a  circle;  the  periphery 
or  limit  of  a  circle. 

CIRCUMFERENTER,  an  instru- 
ment used  by  engineers  for  measuring 

CIRCUMSPECT,   (circonspect,  Fr.) 
tribune,  began  to  visit  the  posts,  and  to  'a  person  who  observes  every  thing,  cor* 

C   I   R  (    «D 

ceals  what  lie  designs  to  put  in  execu- 


C  I  T 

Hon,  and  is  cautious  with  regard  to 
every  thing  he  says,  or  does.  Such  ought 
every  commanding  officer  of  a  regiment 
and  every  general  ot  an  army  to  be. 

CIRCUMSPECTION,  (circonspec- 
tivn,  Fr.)  dignified  reserve,  great  pru- 
dence, and  marked  discretion.  These 
are  qualifications  essentially  necessary 
to  every  man  who  holds  a  public  situa- 

CIRCUMVALLATION,  or  line  of 
circumvallation,  (circonvallation,  ou 
lignes  de  circunrallation,  Fr.)  8  fortifi- 
cation of  earth,  consisting  of  a  parapet 
and  trench,  made  round  the  town  in- 
tended to  be  besieged,  when  any  mo- 
lestation is  apprehended  from  parties  of 
the  enemy,  which  may  march  to  relieve 
the  place. 

Before  the  attack  of  a  place  is  begun, 
care  is  to  be  taken  to  have  the  most 
exact  plan  of  it  possible;  and  upon  this, 
the  line  of  circumvallation,  and  the  at- 
tack are  projected.  This  line,  being  a 
fortification  opposed  to  an  enemy  that 
may  come  from  the  open  country  to  re- 
lieve the  besieged,  ought  to  have  its 
defences  directed  against  them;  that  is, 
so  as  to  fire  from  the  town :  and  the 
besiegers  are  to  be  encamped  behind 
this  line,  and  between  it  and  the  place. 
The  camp  should  be  as  much  as  possible 
out  of  the  reach  of  the  shot  of  t lie  place: 
and  the  line  of  circumvallation,  which 
is  to  be  farther  distant  from  the  place 
than  the  camp,  ought  still  more  to  be 
out  of  the  reach  of  its  artillery. 

As  cannon  are  never  to  he  fired  from 
the  rear  of  the  camp,  this  line  should 
be  upwards  of  1200  fathoms  from  the 
place  ;  we  will  suppose  its  distance  fixed 
at  1100  fathoms  from  the  covert-way. 
The  depth  of  the  camp  may  be  com- 
puted at  about  30  fathoms,  and  from 
the  head  of  the  camp  to  the  line  of  cir- 
cumvallation 120  fathoms,  that  the  army 
may  have  room  to  draw  up  in  order  of 
battle  at  the  head  of  the  camp,  behind 
the  line.  This  distance,  added  to  the  30 
fathoms,  makeo  ISO  fathoms,  which 
being  added  to  the  1100,  makes  1550 
fathoms,  consituting  the  distance  of  the 
line  of  circumvallation  from  the  covert- 
way.  The  top  of  this  line  is  generally 
12  feet  broad,  and  7  feet  deep;  the  pa- 
rapet runs  quite  round  the  top  of  it, 
and  at  certain  distances  it  is  frequently 
strengthened  with  redoubts  and  small 
forts;  the  base  1R  feet  wide,  the  height 
within  6,  and  on  the  outside  5  feet,  with 

a  banquet  of  3  feet  wide,  and  If  high. 


of  the  spiral  line  of  the  Ionic  volute. 

CIRCUS,  (cirque,  Fr.)  in  military  an- 
tiquity, a  very  capacious  building,  of  a 
round  or  oval  form,  erected  by  the  an- 
cients for  exhibiting  shews  to  the  people. 

CIRE  prcparce,  Fr.  a  composition 
which  is  made  of  yellow  wax,  tallow,  and 
pitch,  and  is  used  as  a  sort  of  mastic 
gum  to  close  up  the  heads  of  fuses,  &c. 

CISALPINE,  lying  on  this  side  the 

CISEAUX,  Fr.  chissels  used  by  mi- 
ners, to  loosen  earth  from  the  sides  of 
the  excavation,  without  making  a  noise; 
which  the  miner  effects  by  striking  the 
chissel  with  his  hand. 

CISELURE,  Fr.  chasing;  chased 
work ;  also  chissel  work,  such  as  is  done 
if]  dressing  stones. 

CISSOID,  (cissoide,  Fr.)  the  name  of 
a  curve  in  transcendant  geometry,  the 
properties,  &c.  of  which  may  be  found 
in  Savcrien's  Dictionvairc  Univerael  de 

CISTERN,  (citerne,  Fr.)  a  reservoir; 
every  fortified  tow  nor  place  should  have 

CITADEL,  (citudclle,  Fr.)  a  fort 
with  4,  5,  or  6  bastions,  raised  on  the 
most  advantageous  ground  about  a  city, 
the  better  to  command  it;  and  com- 
monly divided  from  it  by  an  esplanade, 
the  more  effectually  to  hinder  the  ap- 
proach of  an  enemy;  so  that  the  citadel 
defends  the  inhabitants  if  they  continue 
in  their  duty,  and  punishes  them  if  they 
revolt.  Besiegers  always  attack  the  city 
first,  that,  being  masters  of  it,  they  may 
cover  themselves  the  better  against  the 
fire  of  the  citadel.  Having  bastions,  it 
is  thereby  distinguished  from  a  castle. 
Sometimes  the  citadel  stands  half  within, 
and  half  without  the  rampartsof  the  place. 

CITERNEAU,  Fr.  a  small  reservoir 
arched  over  for  the  purpose  of  holding 
rain  water. 

CITIZEN,  a  freeman  of  a  city  or 
town,  as  a  citizen  of  London ;  a  towns- 
man ;  a  man  of  trade;  not  a  gentleman ; 
also  an  inhabitant;  a  dweller  in  any 
place.  Shakespeare  makes  an  adjective 
of  the  word,  having  the  qualities  of  a 

CITOYEN,  Fr.  citizen;  the  inhabi- 
tant of  a  place. 

Cnovza-soldat,  Fr.  an  armed  citi- 
zen :  a  volunteer. 


(   in   ) 

C  L  B 

CITY,  (cite,  Fr.)  a  town  or  place 
containing  many  houses  surrounded  by 
walls.  City  also  means,  in  Frencb  and 
English,  the  oldest  parts  of  a  town,  as 
the  City  of  London;  La  Citi  in  Paris. 

CIVIC-CROWN,  among  the  ancient 
Romans,  was  a  crown  given  to  any  sol- 
dier who  had  saved  the  life  of  a  citizen. 
It  was  composed  only  of  oaken  boughs, 
but  accounted  more  honourable  than 
any  other. 

CIVTERE,  Fr.  a  small  hand-barrow, 
which  is  carried  by  two  men,  and  is  much 
used  in  the  artillery;  also  a  large 
wooden  frame,  upon  which  loads  may 
be  carried  by  four  men. 

CIVILIAN,  a  person  who  is  in  no 
way  connected  with  the  army. 

CLAIE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  hurdle  in  the 
shape  of  a  rectangle,  made  of  twigs  well 
interwoven:  these  claies  are  used  during 
a  siege,  for  want  of  blinds,  to  cover  a 
lodgment,  a  sap,  or  the  passage  over  a 
ditch,  and  are  covered  over  with  earth  to 
protect  the  workmen  again*t  fire-works. 

Claies  poissies,  Fr.  pitched  hurdles. 
These  are  used  with  great  advantage  to 
form  causeways  in  a  marshy  soil,  when 
the  waters  have  been  drained. 

CLAION,  Fr.  a  small  hurdle. 

CLAIRE-iw/e,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  too 
wide  a  space  between  beams  or  rafters. 
Also  rails  in  a  park;  also  an  open  gate. 

CLA  IRIERE,  Fr.  a  glade  in  the  wood. 

CLAIRON,  Fr.  a  species  of  trumpet, 
which  is  shriller  in  its  sound  than  the 
ordinary  kind. 

CLAIRVOYANCE,  Fr.  sagacity; 

CLAIRVOYANT,  Fr.  clear-sighted. 

A  CLAMP  is  a  kind  of  kiln  built 
above  ground  (of  bricks  unburnt)  for 
the  burning  of  bricks. 

Clamp-h«»/s  are  such  nails  as  are  used 
to  fasten  on  clamps  in  the  building  or 
repairing  of  ships. 

CLAN,  a  term  used  among  the  Scotch 
for  a  number  of  families  subject  to  one 
head,  or  chief,  who  formerly  led  ihein 
to  war. 

CLARENCIEUX,  the  second  king  at 
arms,  so  called  from  the  duke  of  Cla- 
rence, third  son  to  king  Edward  III. 

CLARIGATION,  in  Roman  anti- 
quity, a  ceremony  which  always  pre- 
ceded a  formal  declaration  of  war.  It 
was  performed  in  the  following  manner : 
the  chief  of  the  heralds  went  to  the  ter- 
ritory of  the  enemy,  where,  after  some 
solemn  prefatory  indication,  he,  with  a 

loud  voice,  intimated,  that  he  declared 
war  against  them  for  certain  reasons 
specified;  such  as  injury  done  to  the 
Roman  allies  or  the  like. 

CLARINETTE,  Fr.  a  clarinette ;  a 
shrill  musical  instrument,  resembling  the 
hautboy,   which    is  used   in  regimental 
CLATES.    }  c     „ 
CLAYFS     *         Hurdles. 

CLAYONNAGES,  Fr.  hurdles  with 
which  the  timber  work  of  a  gallery  is 
covered.  They  are  likewise  used  in  saps. 

CLEAR,  to  clear  the  trenches.  See 

CLEARINGS.  See  0/-Reckon- 
ings,  Regimental  Companion. 

CLEATS,  slings  used  in  transports  to 
hang  the  accoutrements  of  soldiers  on. 

CLEF,  Fr.  the  keystone  of  an  arch. 

Clef  a"un  etat,  d'un  pays,  Fr.  lite- 
rally signifies  the  key  of  a  state  or  coun- 
try. Any  fortified  place  which  must  ne- 
cessarily be  taken  before  an  irruption 
can  with  safety  be  made  into  a  country. 
Thus  Luxemburgh  is.  called  the  key  of 
the  Austrian  dominions  towards  France. 

Clef  de  mousquet,  de  carabine,  de  pis- 
tole t,  Fr.  an  iron  instrument  with  only 
one  square  hole,  and  a  handle:  it  serves 
to  cock  the  piece. 

Clef  d'arbalete,  Fr.  gaffle  of  a  cross- 

CLEFS,  Fr.  long  pieces  of  timber 
which  are  used  in  the  construction  of 
quays,  dykes,  and  wooden  jetties. 

CLEPSYDRE,  Fr.  an  hour-glass; 
an  instrument  measuring  time  by  the 
running  of  water  or  sand ;  originally 
used  before  the  invention  of  clocks  or 

CLERK,  in  the  general  acceptation 
of  the  term,  a  writer  in  a  public  office, 
an  officer  of  various  kinds. 

Clerk  of  the  general  meeting  for  the 
levying,  c]c.  of  militia  men.  In  time  of 
peace  this  person  has  authority  to  ad- 
journ any  such  meeting,  when  no  lieu- 
tenant or  deputy  attends.  It  is  his 
duty  likewise  to  file  amended  lists  of 
militia-men,  to  send  notice  of  the  time 
and  place  of  exercise  to  the  chief  con- 
stables, and  to  transmit  copies  of  ac- 
counts he  receives  of  the  commitment  of 
deserted  Serjeants,  &c.  to  the  colonel 
and  adjutant  of  the  county  battalion. 

Clerk  of  the  subdivision  meeting. 
His  functions  are  to  give  notice  of  the 
meeting  to  the  deputy  lieutenants,  &c. 
and  to  transmit  lists  of  men  enrolled  te 


(     112     ) 

C  LO 

ihe  commanding  officer  :  to  appoint  an- 
other meeting  when  there  is  not  due  at- 
tendance, and  give  notice  of  the  same; 
to  certify,  gratis,  in  what  list  any  per- 
son's name  is  inserted;  to  transmit  co- 
pies of  rolls  to  the  clerk  of  the  general 
meeting;  to  transmit  a  list  of  the  per- 
sons enrolled  to  the  commanding  officer 
and  adjutant;  to  enter  on  the  roll  the 
time  of  apprehending  substitutes  who 

Clerk  of  the  peace  is  to  transmit  co- 
pies of  qualifications  to  the  county  lieu- 
tenant; to  enter  qualifications;  to  cause 
dates,  &C.  of  commissions  to  be  in- 
serted in  the  Gazette;  and  to  transmit 
an  annual  account  of  qualifications  to 
the  secretary  of  state;  to  transmit  an 
account  of  the  arrival  from  abroad  of 
the  colonel,  to  the  officer  commanding 
in  his  absence;  to  deliver  the  annual 
certificate  of  the  state  of  the  militia,  or 
certify  his  not  having  received  one  to 
the  quarter  sessions;  to  file  certificates 
of  officers'  service,  and  certify  their 
names  to  the  high  constable;  to  transmit 
copies  of  certificates  from  the  county 
lieutenants,  &c.  to  the  treasury,  and 
the  receiver  general  of  the  land  tax ;  to 
certify  to  the  solicitor  of  the  treasury 
the  omission  at  the  quarter  session  of 
assessing  money  on  places  where  the 
militia  had  not  been  raised.  He  is  liable 
to  penalty  for  neglecting  to  record,  &c. 

Clerk  of  the  battalion.  The  colonel 
or  commanding  officer  of  every  militia 
regiment,  in  time  of  peace,  may  appoint 
a  clerk  to  his  battalion,  who  is  to  act  as 
paymaster.  All  army  agents  come  under 
the  denomination  of  clerks,  acting  by 
the  authority  of  the  colonels  of  regi- 
ments, who  are  responsible  to  the  public. 

When  the  militia  is  embodied,  the 
paymaster  may  appoint  some  intelligent 
Serjeant  to  act  in  the  capacity  of  clerk. 
The  same  regulation  holds"  good  in  the 

There  is  likewise  a  regimental  clerk, 
who  acts  under  the  Serjeant  major.  See 
Regimental  Book. 

Clerk  of  the  check,  an  officer  who 
has  the  check  and  controul  of  the  yeo- 
men of  the  guard;  also  an  officer  in  the 
ordnance,  who,  conjointly  with  the  clerk 
of  survey,  is  a  check  upon,  and  must  sign 
all  the  accounts  of  the  store-keeper  be- 
fore they  are  passed  by  the  board. 

Clerk  of  survey,  an  officer  in  the 
ordnance  in  the  store-keeper's  oftice  who 

must  survey  the  stores  and  see  them 
kept  in  order.  He  also  signs  the  store* 
keeper's  accounts  before  they  pass  the 

Clerk  of  the  stores,  an  officer  under 
the  board  of  ordnance,  who  i>  responsi- 
ble to  the  commissary  tor  .ill  ordnance 
stores  under  his  charge;  keeping  an  ac- 
count of  all  issues  or  receipts. 

Clerk  of  the  ordnance.  This  officer, 
who  is  a  member  of  the  board,  makes 
up  and  delivers  the  annua!  estimates  to 
parliament;  and  the  debentures,  or 
orders  for  payment  of  the  bills  allowed 
by  the  surveyor  general,  are  made  out  in 
his  office  to  be  signed  by  the  board. 
All  balances,  both  of  money  and  stores, 
as  well  as  all  accounts  of  records,  are 
kept  in  his  office. 

Clerk  of  the  deliveries  under  the 
board  of  ordnance.  All  issues  of  stores, 
at  distant  stations,  are,  directly,  or  in- 
directly, made  from  this  office.  He  is 
also  a.  member  of  the  board. 

CLICH,  a  sabre  in  use  among  the 
Turks;  the  blade  of  which  is  crooked 
and  very  broad.  The  Turks  have  also 
another  kind  of  sabre,  which  is  sharp 
only  at  one  edge;  the  back  of  the  blade 
is  tipped  with  a  piece  of  strong  iron; 
this  they  call  gadaru  ;  it  is  not  so  much 
falcated  as  the  clich.  They  have  a  third 
kind  of  sabre,  straight,  sharp  at  both 
edges,  especially  towards  the  point, 
which  is  blunted  :  this  they  call  palas. 

CLIDE,  or  Janclide,  a  long  piece  of 
timber  withheld  by  a  counterpoise,  which, 
upon  the  latter  being  let  loose,  would 
throw  a  heavy  load  of  stones  into  a  for- 
tress :  the  elide  was  still  in  use  under 

CLIENTS,  Fr.  noblemen  who  for- 
merly served  in  the  French  armies  under 
the  pennant  of  a  knight,  the  banner  of  a 
banneret,  ike. 

CLIMATE,  (climat,  Fr.)  a  term  used 
in  cosmography.  It  signifies  a  portion 
of  the  world  between  north  and  south, 
containing  some  notable  difference  in 

CLINKERS,  those  bricks  which,  hav- 
ing naturally  much  nitre,  or  saltpetre, 
in  them,  and  lying  next  the  fire  in  the 
clamp,  or  kiln,  by  the  intense  heat  of 
the  fire,  are  run  and  glazed  over. 

CLIQUE,  Fr.  gang;  party;  faction. 
See  Regiment. 

CLIQUETIS,  Fr.  clashing  of  swords. 

CLOCHE,  Fr.  a  bell. 

Cloches  sujettes  d  la  taxe  militaire+ 

C  L  U 

(   115  ) 


Fr.  bells  subject  to  military  requisition. 
Tlie  moment  a  town  that  lias  been  bat- 
tered with  cannon,  surrenders,  the  in- 
habitants are  compelled  to  redeem  the 
bells  belonging  to  the  churches,  and' 
divers  utensils -made  either  of  brass  or 
some  other  metal.  This  kind  of  tribute 
is  ac  the  disposal  of  the  chief  of  the  ar- 
tillery, who,  as  he  thinks  proper,  divides 
it  between  the  officers  under  his  com- 
mand ;  such  at  least  was  the  custom 
during  the  old  French  monarchy. 

CLOTHING.  The  clothing  of  the 
British  army  is  determined  by  a  perma- 
nent board  composed  of  the  commander 
in  chief,  and  a  certain  number  of  general 
officers,  who  act  under  the  king's  imme- 
diate authority.  A  considerable  altera- 
tion has  lately  taken  place  in  almost  all 
articles  which,  under  this  head,  are  sup- 
plied to  the  soldiers.  Those  under  the 
name  of  half-mounting  have  been  wholly 
laid  aside. 

The  annual  clothing  of  the  infantry 
of  the  line,  or  fencible  infantry,  serving 
in  Europe,  in  North  America,  or  at  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  (Highland  corps 
excepted,)  consists  in  a  coat,  waistcoat, 
or  waistcoat  front,  a  pair  of  breeches, 
unlined,  except  the  waistband,  and  with 
one  pocket  only;  a  cap  made  of  felt 
and  leather,  with  brass  plate,  cockade, 
and  tuft.  The  felt  crown  of  the  cap, 
cockade,  and  tuft,  to  be  supplied  annu- 
ally, the  leather  part  and  brass  plate, 
every  two  years.  Two  pair  of  good 
shoes,  of  the  value  of  5s.  6d.  each  pair, 
are  to  be  supplied  annually  in  lieu  of 
the  half  mounting,  and  each  Serjeant  is 
to  be  credited  with  the  sum  of  3s.  being 
the  difference  between  the  value  of  the 
former  articles  of  half  mounting  for  a 
Serjeant  and  private  man.  Some  excep- 
tions are  made  with  respect  to  Highland 
corps,  and  regiments  serving  in  the  East 
and  West  Indies. — For  further  particu- 
lars, see  Regulations,  published  by  au- 

CLOTURE,  mur  de  Cloture,  Fr. 
a  wall  which  surrounds  any  given  space, 
such  as  a  park,  garden,  &c. 

CLOY,  or  To  ck>i/  gum.    See  To  Nail. 

CLOUTS.     See  Axle-Tree. 

CLOUX,  Fr.     See  Nails. 

To  CLUB,  in  a  military  sense,  to  throw 
into  confusion;  to  deform  through  igno- 
rance, or  inadvertency. 

To  Club   a  battalion,    to    throw    it 
into  confusion.     This  happens  through  a 

temporary  inability  in  the  commanding 
officer  to  restore  any  given  body  of  men' 
to  their  natural  front  in  line  or  column, 
which  sometimes  occurs  after  some 
manoeuvre  has  been  performed,  and  is 
occasioned  by  false  directions  being 
given  to  the  different  component  parts. 
Ignorant  and  unexperienced  officers  may 
frequently  commit  this  error;  some- 
times, however,  the  circumstance  may 
arise  from  an  erroneous  movement  of 
a  division  or  company,  notwithstand- 
ing that  the  word  of  command  has  been 
correct.  Ad  able  officer  in  that  case  will 
instantly  know  how  to  unravel  the  se- 
veral parts.  The  le«s  informed  and  the 
less  capable  may  find  a  relief  in  sound- 
ing the  Disperse,  which  see.  It  does 
not,  however,  always  follow,  that  be- 
cause an  officer  may  occasionally  commit 
this  error  with  respect  to  the  minute 
movements  of  a  battalion;  he  must 
therefore  be  unequal  to  the  superior 
functions  of  command;  or  that  when 
a  man,  who  has  risen  from  the  ranks, 
is  perfectly  master  of  the  mechanical 
arrangement  of  inferior  movements,  he 
should  be  able  to  act  upon  the  enlarged 
scale  of  locality  and  position.  The 
military  science  which  is  required  in  each 
of  these  cases  essentially  differs  in  its  ap- 
propriate exercise,  but  both  are  neces- 
sary.   See  Strategy. 

CLY-MORE,  a  great  two-handed 
sword,  formerly  in  use  among  the  High- 
landers, two  inches  broad,  doubly  edged; 
the  length  of  the  blade,  3  feet  7  inches  ; 
the  handle,  14  inches;  of  a  plain  trans- 
verse guard,  1  foot ;  the  weight,  6 
pounds  and  a  half.  These  swords  were 
the  original  weapons  of  England,  as 
appears  by  the  figure  of  a  soldier  found 
among  the  ruins  of  London,  after  the 
great  fire  in  1666. 

COAT  of  mail,  armour  made  of  scales, 
or  iron  rings. 

COB,  a  coin  current  in  Gibraltar, 
and  the  south  of  Spain,  equal  to  4s.  6d. 

COBBING,  a  mode  of  punishment 
amongst  soldiers  for  petty  offences 
which  are  committed  in  camp,  barracks., 
or  quarters,  and  which  is  indicted  with- 
out the  form  of  a  court-martial.  These 
trespasses  consist  chiefly  in  acts  of  inde- 
cency, filth,  and  dirtiness,  which  are 
more  properly  punished  privately  than 
exposed  to  the  public.  In  this  rase, 
some  of  the  culprit's  comrades  invests 

c  o  c 

(     11*     ) 

Pate  the  matter,  and  a  strapping  with  the 
belt  or  scabbard  takes  place. 

COCARDE  mi/itaue,  Fr.  Amongst 
all  nations  the  cockade  has  succeeded 
to  the  scarf:  it  is  not  long,  however, 
since  the  Dutch  continued  to  wear  the 
scarf  crossways,  and  the  Austrians  over 
their  belts.  From  the  colour,  or  colours, 
of  the  cockade,  it  is  discovered  what 
country  a  soldier  belongs  to.  When 
first  this  mark  of  distinction  was  intro- 
duced, it  was  reckoned  a  badge  of 
honour.  With  regard  to  the  scarfs, 
they  were  attended  with  great  inconve- 
nience, since  an  othcer  or  private  might 
easily  be  seized  by  it,  pulled  from  his 
horse,  or  at  least  stopped  in  his  flight. 
From  this  very  reason  the  French,  within 
forty  years,  have  given  up  the  shoulder 
knots  and  aiguillettes  with  tassels  formerly 
worn  by  their  cavalry  and  dragoons.  We 
have  adopted  them  ! 

COCHLEA,  in  mechanics,  one  of  the 
five  mechanical  powers,  otherwise  called 
the  screw. 

COCK,  that  part  of  the  lock  of  a 
musket,  which  sustains  the  two  small 
pieces  of  iron  called  jaws,  between 
which  the  flint  is  fixed. 

To  Cock,  to  fix  the  cock  of  a  musket 
or  pistol,  so  as  to  have  it  ready  for  an 
instant  discharge. 

COCKADE,  a  ribbon  worn  in  the 
hat.  We  have  already  observed,  that 
this  military  mark  succeeded  the  scarf 
which  was  formerly  worn  by  the  officers 
and  soldiers  belonging  to  European 
nations,  and  which  are  principally  dis- 
tinguished in  the  following  manner:  in 
the  army  and  navy  of  Great  Britain, 
black  silk  ribbon  for  the  officers,  and 
hair  cockades  for  the  non-commissioned 
officers,  private  soldiers  and  marines; 
white  distinguishes  the  French;  red 
marks  the  Spaniard,  black  the  Prussian 
and  Austrian,  green  the  Russian,  &c. 
In  France,  before  the  Revolution,  officers 
were  not  permitted  to  wear  a  cockade, 
unless  they  were  regimentally  dressed; 
and,  singular  as  it  may  appear,  the 
officers  and  men  belonging  to  a  certain 
number  of  old  regiments  in  the  Prus- 
sian service  did  not  wear  any  mark  in 
their  hats.  In  England  the  cockade  is 
worn,  in  and  out  of  regimentals,  by 
every  species  of  military  character.  In- 
deed it  is  so  generally  abused,  that 
almost  every  prostitute,  who  can  afford 
to  keep  a  man  or  boy,  trims  his  hat 
with  it. 

C  O  F 


COCKLE-srairs.  See  Winding' 
St  aii:-. 

COCKPIT,  a  sort  of  theatre,  where 
game  cocks  fight  their  battles.  It  is 
commonly  a  house,  or  hovel,  covered 
out.  Also  an  apartment  in  the  trea- 
sury, where  the  King's  speech  is  read 
before  the  meeting  of  parliament ;  and 
where  the  appeals  on  prize  causes  are 

Iron-COD PIECES,  appendages  at- 
tached to  ancient  armour,  to  prevent  the 
ill  consequences  of  violent  shocks  in 
charging,  and  to  contain  sponges  to  re- 
ceive the  water  of  the  riders  in  the  heat 
of  battle. 

CODE,  (code,  Fr.)  a  collection  of 
laws,  rules,  and  regulations,  by  which 
the  civilized  proportion  of  mankind  is 

Military  Code,  (code  militaire,  Fr.) 
rules  and  regulations  for  the  good  or- 
der and  discipline  of  an  army.  Of  this 
description  are  our  Articles  of  War;  a 
revision  of  which  is  much  wanted  at  this 

COEFFER,  Fr.  to  cap,  or  put  a 
head-piece  on  any  thing. 

Coeffeb  les  fusees  a  bombes,  Fr.  to 
stop  the  vents  or  apertures  of  shells  with 
anv  sort  of  mastic  composition. 

C(ENOTAPII,  an  empty  tomb,  or 
monument,  erected  in  memory  of  some 
illustrious  deceased  person,  who,  having 
perished  by  shipwreck,  in  battle,  &c.  his 
body  could  not  be  found  to  be  interred, 
or  deposited  in  the  same. 

C(EUR,  Fr.  the  heart.  This  word 
is  frequently  used  among  the  French  to 
signify  courage,  intrepidity,  manhood, 
&c.  Hence  the  expression  in  Corneille's 
Cid:  Roderigue,  as-tu  du  cceur?  which 
may  be  thus  translated — Roderigues,  art 
thou  a  man  of  resolution  ? 

COFFER,  in  fortification,  a  hollow 
lodgment  sunk  in  the  bottom  of  a  dry 
ditch,  from  6  to  7  feet  deep,  and  from 
lo"  to  18  feet  broad  ;  and  the  length  of 
it,  the  whole  breadth  (,f  t|ie  saj(}  ditch, 
from  side  to  side.  The  besieged  gene- 
rally make  use  of  these  coffers  to  re^ 
pulse  the  besiegers,  when  they  attempt 
to  pass  the  ditch:  they  are  distinguished 
only  by  their  length  from  Caponiers ; 
the  difference  between  coffers  and  the 
traverse  and  gallery, consists  in  this, that 
the  latter  are  made  by  the  besiegers,  and 
the  former  by  the  besieged.  They  are 
covered  with  joists,  hurdles,  and  earth, 
raised  2  feet  above  the  bottom  of  the 


(     115     ) 


ditch;  which  rising,  serves  instead  of  a 
parapet,  with  loop-holes  in  it. 

COFFRE.     See  Cofih 

COFFRE,  Fr.  a  wooden  frame,  well 
calked  and  pitched,  that  is  letdown  into 
the  wuter  for  the  purpose  of  laying  the 
foundation  of  a  building,  when  the  ne- 
cessarv  draining  has  not  heen  practicable. 

Coffre  d'une  batterie,  Fr.  the  solid 
work  which  covers  the  pieces  of  ord- 
nance that  are  planted  in  a  battery,  as 
well  as  the  soldiers  who  are  attached  to 
the  guns. 

Coffre  a  feu,  Fr.  a  machine  filled 
with  combustible  materials,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  doing  mischief  to  a  scaling 
party,  or  of  blowing  up  a  ship,  &c. 

Coffres  des  galeries  de  mine,  Fr. 
when  mine  galleries  are  carried  through 
ground  which  wants  consistence,  the 
upper  part  of  the  gallery,  and  its  sides, 
are  supported  by  planks  made  into  a 
platform,  and  placed  at  equal  distances 
one  from  another,  to  prevent  the  earth 
from  falling  in. 

COGNIZANCE,  judicial  notice,  trial, 
judicial  authority;  in  a  military  sense,  it 
implies  the  investigation  to  which  any 
person  or  action  is  liable.  During  the 
suspension  of  civil  authority,  every  of- 
fence comes  under  military  cognizance, 
is  subject  to  military  law,  and  may  be 
proceeded  upon  according  to  the  sum- 
mary spirit  of  its  regulation.  Hence,  a 
drum-head  court-martial  is  the  strongest 
instance  of  military  cognizance. 

COHORT,  (colwrte,  FY.)  in  Roman 
antiquity,  a  name  given  to  part  of  the 
Roman  legion, comprehending  about  600 
men;  a  component  part  of  a  modern 
French  army,  consisting  of  1000  men. 

COIN,  in  gunnery,  {coin  d'artil/cur, 
coin  de  mire,  Fr.)  a  kind  of  wedge  to  lay 
under  the  breech  of  a  gun  in  order  to 
raise,  or  depress,  the  metal. 

Coin  de  manmuvre  militaire,  Fr.  a 
particular  manner  in  which  the  ancients 
used  to  dispose  their  troops  on  the  front 
of  the  army,  to  break  the  line  of  the 
enemy.  This  disposition  consisted  in 
giving  a  great  depth,  and  allowing  only  a 
small  front,  to  the  body  of  troops,  which 
was  called  faire  la  tete  de  pore.  This 
last  title  was  given  to  an  officer  who 
commanded  a  column.     See  Wedge. 

COLGlAT,  a  large  glove  which  the 
Turks  wear  in  the  field.  The  colgiat 
covers  the  arm  up  to  the  elhow,  and 
while  it  protects  the  head,  it  helps  them 

in  parrying  the  blows  that  are  aimed  at 
their  heads. 

Royal  Military  COLLEGE,  a  new 
institution  which  has  been  created  by 
the  immediate  sanction  of  his  Majesty, 
with  the  consent  of  parliament,  and 
under  the  direction  of  the  commanderjn 
chief,  for  the  time  being.— /This  college 
is  now  at  Sandhurst,  near  Windsor. 

COLLEGE  Royal  Militaire,  Fr.  a  ge- 
neral term  used  among  the  French  to 
express  that  place  where  military  in- 
struction was  given  during  their  mo- 
narchy. This  establishment  consisted  of 
several  colleges,  which  were  subordinate 
to  the  Royal  Military  School,  or  Ecoli 
Royale  Militaire,  of  Paris. 

On  the  28th  of  March,  1776,  the 
French  King  gave  directions,  that  ten 
colleges  should  be  establ.shed,  over  the 
gates  of  each  of  which  was  written — 
College  Royal  Militaire,  Royal  Mi- 
litary College.  These  colleges  were 
under  the  immediate  care  and  instruc- 
tion of  the  Benedictine  Monks,  and 
other  religious  orders;  the  most  en- 
lightened of  which  was  that  of  the 

The  secretary  of  state  held  the  same 
jurisdiction  over  these  colleges  that  he 
possessed'  over  La  Fleche  and  the  Mili- 
tary School  in  Paris. — For  particulars 
respecting  the  old  institution,  see  the 
article  Royal  Military  School. 

COLLER,  Fr.  literally  means  to 
paste;  to  glue. 

Se  Coller,  Fr.  to  adhere  to;  to  stick 
close  to  any  thing. 

COLLET,  Fr.  that  part  of  a  cannon 
which  is  between  the  astragal  and  the 

COLLIERS,  Fr.  iron  or  brass  hold- 
fasts which  are  used  in  flood-gates. 

COLOBE,  a  kind  of  short  coat,  with 
half  sleeves,  called  a  Dalmatica. 

COLOMBE,  Fr.  an  old  word,  sig- 
nifying every  sort  of  raft,  that  is  placed 
upright  in  partitions;  whence  the  term 

COLONEL,  the  commander  in  chief 
of  a  regiment,  whether  of  horse,  foot, 
dragoons,  or  .artillery,  in  England:  but 
in  France,  Spain,  and  some  other 
southern  nations,  colonels  of  horse  are 
called  Maltrex  de  camp.  Colonels  of 
horse  take  place,  and  command  one  an- 
other according  to  the  dates  of  their 
commissions,  and  not  in  consequence  of 
the  seniority  of  their  regiments.  Colo« 
Q  2 


(     H6     ) 


riels  of  foot  command  in  the  same  man- 
ner. A  colonel  of  a  regiment,  properly 
so  called,  is,  with  us,  the  nominal  head 
of  a  given  number  of  men;  the  cloth- 
ing, &c  of  whom  is  exclusively  entrusted 
to  him,  as  well  as  the  appointment  of 
an  agent,  who  receives  the  pav  and  sub- 
sistence of  the  corps,  hut  for  whose  sol- 
vency and  character  the  colonel  is  re- 
sponsible to  the  public, 

According  to  some  authors,  the  word 
Colonel  is  derived  from  the  Italians  or 

Skinner  supposes  it  may  come  from 
colony,  colonia,  and  that  the  heads  or 
chiefs  of  colonies  may  have  give*  the 
appellation  to  the  officers  commanding 

In  former  times,  officers,  although  at 
the  head  of  considerable  Corps,  were  only 
styled  captains,  hut  not  colonels.  See 
Dictionnaire  de  Trevoux,  fol.  edit. 

A  question  arises  whether  the  old 
word  Coronet  might  not  have  been  de- 
rived from  the  Latin  Cdronarius;  either 
from  some  ceremony  which  was  per- 
formed upon  the  person  receiving  the 
rank,  or  from  his  being  placed  at  the 
head,  corona,  of  a  regiment.  The 
former  certainly  appears  the  most  pro- 
bable, as  it  might  have  had  its  origin 
from  the  Roman  manner  of  rewarding  a 

The  Spaniards  have  it  Coroncl ;  the 
Italians,  Colonetlo. 

We  are  inclined  to  think,  that  it  is 
derived  from  the  Latin  Corona,  whence 
Coronarius  ;  and  that  it  came  to  us  from 
the  Spanish.  Both  the  English  and 
Scotch,  but  particularly  the  latter,  pro- 
nounce the  word  Coroncl,  and  so  do  the 

According  to  Grose,  some  derive  it 
from  the  French  word  colonne,  or 
column,  because  the  colonel  inarches  at 
the  head  of  the  column.  Kelly, in  1627, 
calls  this  officer  Grozmer. 

Colonel  of  horse  is  the  first  officer 
of  the  regiment;  hence  his  attention 
ougiit  to  be  given  to  keep  the  regiment 
complete,  to  have  it  composed  both  of 
men  and  horses  rit  for  service,  and  to  take 
particular  care  to  have  them  well  exercised 
and  taught  the  different  evolutions;  to  be 
able  on  all  occasions  to  form  themselves 
according  to  the  ground,  or  manner  in 
which  they  may  attack,  or  be  attacked. 

CoCdkel  of  foot,  or  infantry.  His 
/unctions  are  more  extensive  than  those 

of  the  cavalry,  as  the  infantry  are  em- 
ployed to  more  different  purposes.  A 
colonel  of  infantry  should  understand 
something  of  fortification,  and  be  well 
acquainted  with  field-engineering.  He 
cannot  be  too  careful  to  maintain  union 
and  harmony  among  his  officers;  and, 
to  succeed  in  this,  he  must  acquiie 
their  esteem  and  confideuce,and  conduct 
himself  so  as  to  be  respected.  The  (rue 
way  to  succeed  in  this,  is  to  keep  up  sub- 
ordination with  unalterable  firmness;  to 
do  justice  to  every  one,  to  employ  all 
his  credit  to  procure  favours  to  the 
corps  in  general,  and  to  the  officers  in 
particular,  without  ever  losing  sight  of 
the  health,  comfort,  and  contentment  of 
his  men. 

Colonel  of  dragoons  is  nearly  con- 
nected with  that  of  horse,  to  which  word 
we  refer  the  reader. 

Colonel  of  artillery,  the  commander 
of  a  battalion  of  artillery.  He  is  pre- 
sumed to  be  a  very  able  mathematician 
and  engineer,  to  be  thoroughly  acquaint- 
ed with  the  power  of  artillery,  to  Un- 
derstand the  attack  and  defence  of  for- 
tifications  in  all  the  different  branches; 
to  be  able,  on  all  occasions,  to  form  the 
artillery  according  to  the  ground  or 
manner  in  which  they  may  attack,  or  be 
attacked;  in  short,  he  should  be  master 
of  every  thing  belonging  to  that  import- 
ant corps. 

Colonel  of  engineers  should  be  a 
very  able  mathematician  and  mechanic; 
he  should  be  master  of  fortification,  and 
be  correctly  versed  in  the  art  of  planning) 
constructing,  attacking,  and  defending. 
See  Engineer. 

Lieutcnant-CoLOwT.L  is  the  second 
person  in  command  of  a  regiment. 
Under  his  direction  all  the  affairs  of  the 
regiment  roll.  His  military  qualifica- 
tions should  be  adequate  to  the  size  and 
the  importance  of  the  corps  he  has  the 
honour  to  serve  in. 

Colonel  general  of  the  French  in~ 
fantry,  an  appointment  formerly  of 
great  trust  and  authority.  He  was  en- 
titled to  the  nomination  of  every  com-? 
mission  and  place  of  trust  in  the  in- 
fantry. He  could  order  courts-martial, 
and  enforce  the  sentences  awarded  by 
them  without  ulterior  reference;  and  he 
had  a  company  in  every  regiment,  which 
was   called    the    colonel-general's    coni- 

This-appointment  was  created  during 


(   iir  ) 


the  reign  of  Francis  I.  in  1544,  and  be- 
came an  immediate  gift  of  the  crown, 
under  Henry  III.  in  1584. 

There  was  likewise  a  colonel-general 
of  the  cavalry;  which  appointment  was 
entrusted  to  two  officers  under  the 
reign  of  Louis  XIII.  One  commanded 
the  French  and  the  other  the  German 

The  appointment  of  colonel-general 
of  dragoons  was  created  by  Louis  XIV. 
in  1688. 

Colonel  by  brevet,  (Breve  tc  Colo- 
nel, Fr.)  one  who  has  obtained  the 
rank  of  colonel  in  the  army,  without 
having  that  rank  in  any  particular  regi- 

Colonel  reforme,  Fr.  a  reduced  half- 
pay  officer,  who  has  the  rank  of  colonel 
hi  the  army,  without  having  any  com- 
mand or  regimental  rank,  or  who  lias 
retired  from  the  service  retaining  his 
brevet  rank. 

COLONELLE,  Fr.  is  the  first  com- 
pany in  a  French  regiment.  Madame  la 
Colonelle  is  the  colonel's  wife. 

COLQNNE,  Fr.  column.  This  word 
is  variously  used  in  military  phraseology. 

Colon ne  etroite,  Fr.  close  column. 

Colon ne  ouverte,  Fr.  open  column. 

Colon  ne  d'artillerie,  Fr.  the  march 
or  movements  of  a  corps  of  artillery  in 
regular  order,  with  the  several  pieces  of 
ordnance,  accompanied  by  stores  and 
ammunition,  for  the  purpose  of  attacking 
or  checking  an  enemy. 

Colonne  d'eouijwges,  Fr.  the  line  of 
march  which  is  observed  by  the  baggage- 
wagons,  ike.  In  advancing  against  an 
enemy  these  always  follow  the  main  army, 
and  precede  it  when  the  troops  are 
forced  to  retreat. 

Fcrnicr  uue  Colonne,  Fr.  to  be 
the  rear  rank  of  a  bodv  of  troops  that 
are  marching  rank  and  file  in  any  direc- 

Ouvrir  itne  Colonne,  Fr.  to  be  the 
leading  or  front  rank  of  a  body  of  troops 
that  are  marching  in  regular  order. 

Ouvrir  unc  Colonne,  Fr.  to  plant 
signals  as  marks  of  direction  for  troops 
that  are  marching  in  regular  order.  To 
clear  the  way,  by  removing  all  sorts  of 
obstacles,  &c. 

Serrer  la  Colonne,  Fr.  to  close  the 

COLOXELLING,  beating  about  for 
soldiers;  a  familiar  phrase,  which  is  used 
in  various  senses. 

COLOSSE,  Fr.  Colossus,  an  image  or 
statue  of  exceeding  greatness. 

COLOURS,  in  the  military  art,  ara 
large  silk  flags  fixed  on  half  pikes,  and 
carried  by  the  ensign.  When  a  batta- 
lion is  encamped,  they  are  placed  in  its 
front;  but  in  garrison  they  are  lodged 
with  the  commanding  officer. 

The  first  standard,  guidon,  or  co- 
lours, of  a  regiment,  are  not  to  be  car- 
ried on  any  guard  but  that  of  his  Ma- 
jesty, the  Queen,  Regent  or  Prince  of 
Wales,  or  captain-general. 

The  size  of  the  colours  to  be  6  feet  6 
inches  flying,  and  6  feet  deep  on  the 
pike.  The  length  of  the  pike  (spear  and 
ferril  included)  to  be  9  feet  10  inches. 
The  cords  and  tassels  of  the  whole  to  be 
crimson  and  gold  mixed. 

CV/WjO-Colours  are  a  small  sort  of 
colours  placed  on  the  right  and  left  of 
the  parade  of  the  regiment  when  in  the 
field :  they  are  IS  inches  square,  and 
of  the  colour  of  the  facing  of  the  regi- 
ment, with  the  number  of  the  regiment 
upon  them.  The  poles  to  be  7  feet 
6  inches  long,  except  those  of  the  quar- 
ter and  rear  guards,  which  are  to  be 
9  feet. 

CoLOUR-Gi'orc/.     See  Guard. 

A  pair 'of  Colours,  a  term  used  in 
the  British  service  to  signify  an  en- 
signcy,  or  the  first  commissioned  ap- 
pointment in  the  army. 

Colours  used  in  the  drawings  of 
fortification.  It  is  necessary  to  use 
colours  in  the  drawings  of  plans  and 
profiles  of  a  fortification,  in  order  to 
distinguish  every  particular  part,  and 
separate,  as  it  were,  the  one  from  the 
other,  so  as  to  make  their  difference 
more  sensible.  The  different  sorts  of 
colours,  generally  used  in  these  kinds  of 
drawings,  are,  Indian-ink,  carmine,  ver- 
digrease,  sap-green,  gum-bouch,  Prussian 
blue,  indigo,  and  umber. 

Indian-ink  is  the  first  and  most  ne- 
cessary thing  required  in  drawing;  for 
it  serves,  in  drawing  the  lines,  to  ex- 
press hills  or  rising  grounds,  and,  in 
short,  for  all  what  is  called  shading,  in 
drawings.  The  best  sort  of  Indian-ink 
is  of  a  bluish  black,  soft,  and  easily  re- 
duced into  a  liquid,  free  from  sand  or 
gravel.  It  is  sold  in  sticks  from  six- 
pence a  stick  to  half  a  crown,  according 
to  its  goodness  and  quantity.  That 
made  in  Europe  is  good  for  nothing. 
The  manner  of  liquefying  ic  is  by 


(     H8     ) 


putting  a  little  clear  water  into  a  shell 
or  tea-cup,  and  rubbing  it  gently  till  the 
water  i->  black,  and  of  a  consistence 
much  like  common  ink  ;  when  it  is  used 
for  drawing  lines,  it  must  be  made  very 
black,  though  not  too  thick,  otherwise 
it  will  not  easily  How  out  of  the  drawing- 
pen  ;  but  when  it  is  for  shading,  it  must 
be  pale,  so  as  to  go  over  the  same  shade 
several  times,  which  adds  a  beauty  to 
the  shading . 

Carmine  is  an  impalpable  powder, 
and  the  fairest  red  we  know  of:  it 
serves  for  colouring  the  sections  of 
masonry,  the  plans  of  houses,  and  all 
kinds  of  military  buildings;  as  likewise 
their  elevation  :  but  then  it  is  made  of 
a  paler  colour.  It  is  also  used  for 
drawing  red  iines  in  plans,  to  represent 
walls.  It  is  exceedingly  dear,  being  ge- 
nerally sold  for  a  guinea  an  ounce;  but 
a  little  will  go  a  great  way.  It  niubt  be 
mixed  with  a  little  gum-water. 

Verdigrcase,  or  sea-green,  used  in 
drawings,  is  either  liquid  in  small  vials 
for  six  pence  a  piece,  or  mixed  in  little 
pots  or  shells,  &c.  it  serves  to  colour 
wet  ditches,  rivers,  seas,  and  in  general 
to  represent  all  watery  places. 

Sap-green  is  a  stone  of  a  faint  yel- 
lowish green,  when  liquefied  with  clear 
water ;  but  when  mixed  with  a  little 
sea-green,  it  makes  a  beautiful  grass- 
green;  but,  as  all  mixed  colours  are 
liable  to  fade,  if  verd'iris  can  be  had,  it 
will  be  much  better.  Sap-green  is  very 

Gum-bouch  is  a  fine  yellow  in  stones, 
and  very  cheap.  It  may  be  dissolved 
in  water,  but  without  gum:  it  serves  to 
colour  all  projects  of  works;  as  likewise 
to  distinguish  the  works  unfinished  from 
those  that  are  complete.  It  serves  also 
to  colour  the  trenches  of  an  attack. 

Indigo  is  in  small  cakes,  and  very 
cheap;  it  serves  to  colour  iron,  and 
roofs  of  buildings  which  are  covered 
with  slates:  it  must  be  well  ground  upon 
a  smooth  stone  or  glass,  and  mixed  with 
a  little  gum-water. 

Prussian  blue  is  a  kind  of  friable 
Stone,  of  an  exceeding  fine  blue:  it  is 
used  to  represent  the  colour  of  blue 
cloth  in  drawing  encampments,  battles, 
&c.  It  must  be  well  ground,  and  mixed 
with  a  little  gum-water. 

Smalt,  also  a  good  sprt  of  blue,  and 
may  be  used  for  the  same  purposes.  It 
is  not  dear. 

Ultramarine  is  an  impalpable  powdef, 
and  of  a  very  delicate  sky-blue.  It  is  a 
dear  colour. 

Umber  is  a  yellowish  brown  colour,  in 
powder:  when  it  is  mixed  with  gum* 
water,  it  serves  to  colour  dry  ditches, 
sand,  and  all  kinds  of  earth.  By  mix- 
ing a  little  red  'ink  with  it,  it  will  make 
a  wood  colour. 

If  some  tobacco-leaves  are  steeped  in 
clear  water  for  several  hours,  and  filter- 
ed through  a  woollen  cloth,  or  brown 
paper,  with  a  little  red  ink  mixed  with 
it,  it  will  make  the  best  earth  or  wood 
colour,  as  lying  smoother  than  any  other. 

Gum-uater  is  best  when  it  is  made 
some  time  before  it  is  used;  for  which 
reason  take  some  gum  arabic  and  steep 
it  in  clear  water  for  some  hours,  till  it 
is  dissolved :  then  strain  it  through  a 
woollen  cloth  or  brown  paper,  and  pre- 
serve it  in  phials,  well  stopped,  till  wanted. 

COLUMN,  a  body  of  troops  formed 
in  deep  files,  and  narrow  front,  the 
whole  advancing  with  the  same  degree 
of  movement,  and  having  suflicient 
space  between  the  ranks  and  files  to 
prevent  confusion.  The  name  of  column 
is  also  given  to  several  bodies  placed 
behind  each  other,  and  intended  to 
march  on  successively,  to  form  or  to 
keep  in  order  of  battle :  but  in  this 
case  they  are  not  to  be  called  files  of 
troops.  There  are  more  or  less  columns, 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  ground, 
but  it  is  not  necessary  that  they  should 
all  of  them  advance  the  same  way  in 
order  to  meet  at  an  appointed  spot. 
Those  officers,  who  have  been  taught 
by  experience  alone,  (which  is  far  from 
being  sufficient  if  they  are  ignorant  of 
the  theory,)  will  do  well  to  consult  L'Art 
de  la  guerre  par  regies  et  par  principes, 
by  Marcc/ialde  Puysegur, and  Les  CEuvres 
deFolard.  It  is  next  to  an  impossibility 
to  remember  all  that  is  prescribed  by 
those  skilful  authors;  but  every  officer, 
who  is  anxious  to  improve  his  know- 
ledge in  the  military  art,  may  derive 
great  advantage  from  the  perusal  of 
their  works. 

C/ose-CoLUMN,  a  compact  solid  co- 
lumn, with  very  little  space  between  the 
divisions  of  which  it  is  composed. 

Opeu-CoLVMK,  a  column  with  inter- 
vals between  the  divisions  equal  to  their 
respective  fronts. 

COMBAT,  a  battle  or  duel.  Anci- 
ently it   was  not  uncommon  for  con- 


(   us  ) 

C  O  M 

tending  powers  to  adjust  their  dispute 
by  single  combat,  when  each  party 
chose  tor  itself  a  champion,  who  con- 
tested the  point  in  presence  of  both 

COMBATANTS,  (combat tans,  Fr.) 
troops  engaged  in  action. 

JVorc-COMBATTANS,  Fr.  persons 
about  an  army  whose  employments  are 
wholly  civil ;  such  as  commissaries,  bar- 
rack-masters, pay  masters,  surgeons,  chap- 
\'\] us  (S?c 

COMBATTRE,  Fr.  to  act  against 
an  enemy  with  offensive  weapons,  tor 
the  purpose  of  defending  one's  country 
and  its  rights,  &c.  Hence,  tout  est 
so/dat  pour  vous  combattre  :  every  thing 
is  up  in  arms  to  fight  you. 

COMBINAISON,  Fr.  a  calm  and 
dispassionate  examination  of  the  vari- 
ous projects  and  designs  which  are  sug- 
gested to  the  human  mind  by  their  mul- 
tiplied occurrences  in  warfare. 

Combinaison  also  signifies  the  art  ot 
calculating  numbers  and  quantities,  and 
comparing  them  together. 

COMBINER  ce  que  fait  Vennemi, 
Fr.  to  weigh  well  the  movements  of  an 

COMBLE,  Fr.  roof.  It  is  also  called 
toit.    ' 

COMBLEAU,  Fr.  a  cord  used  to 
load  and  unload  pieces  of  artillery,  also 
to  hoist  them  on  their  carriage,  the 
same  as  other  heavy  burdens,  by  means 
of  a  crane. 

COMBLEM  ENT  des fosses,  Fr.  When 
the  besiegers  have  succeeded  in  render- 
ing themselves  masters  of  the  covert- 
way,  they  contrive,  by  all  possible 
means,  to  lib  up  the  ditches,  by  estab- 
lishing galleries  which  protect  the  work- 
men, in  order  that  the  miners  may  carry 
on  their  operations  with  more  safety  : 
by  this  means  they  form  an  intrench- 
ment  which  defends  them  against  the 
sorties,  or  any  other  attempt,  that  might 
be  made  bv  the  besieged. 

COMBUSTIBLES,  Fr.  combustible 
materials;  such  as  are  used  in  offensive 
and  defensive  operations. 

COME-i«.  Soldiers  are  said  to  come 
in,  as  volunteers,  recruits,  &c.  when 
they  join  any  particular  standard. 

Cows-over.  When  men  desert  from 
an  enemy,  ami  join  the  army  that  op- 
poses liim,  they  are  said  to  come  over. 
Tins  term  is  opposed  to  go  over. 

To  Come-i'k  to,  to  join  with,  to  briny 
help.  "  They  marched  to  Wells,  where 

the  Lord  Audley,  with  whom  their  lead- 
ers had  before  secret  intelligence,  came, 
in  to  them."     Johnson. 

To  CoiiE-u/),  to  overtake.  To  come 
up  with  an  enemy,  is  a  military  phrase 
much  in  use. 

COMINGE,  Fr.  a  shell  of  extreme 
magnitude,  which  takes  its  name  from 
the  person  who  originally  invented  it, 
containing  18  inches  in  diameter,  and 
aOOlbs.  in  weight. 

COMMAND,  generally  called  the 
zcord  of  command,  is  a  term  used  by  offi- 
cers in  exercise,  or  upon  service. 

Command,  in  military  matters.  All 
commands  fall  to  the  eldest  in  the  same 
circumstances,  whether  of  horse,  dra- 
goons, artillery,  foot,or  marines.  Among 
the  officers  of  the  corps  of  the  British 
troops,  entire  or  in  parts,  in  case  two  of 
the  same  date  interfere,  a  retrospection 
of  former  commissions,  or  length  of  ser- 
vice, is  to  be  examined  and  ended  by 
the  judgment  of  the  rules  of  war. 

Commands  in  fortification,  are: 

A  command  in  front,  when  any  emi- 
nence is  directly  facing  the  work  which 
it  commands. 

A  command  in  rear,  when  any  emi- 
nence is  directly  behind  the  work  which 
it  commands. 

A  command  by  enfilade,  when  an  emi- 
nence is  situated  in  the  prolongation  of 
any  line  of  a  work,  and  a  considerable 
part  of  it  may  be  seen  from  thence. 

To  have  in  command,  an  official  term, 
signifying  to  have  authority  or  instruc- 
tion to  make  a  communication ;  as,  I 
have  it  in  command  from  his  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  York,  ccc. 

COMMANDANT  is  that  person  who 
has  the  command  of  a  garrison,  fort, 
castle,  regiment,  company,  &c.  called 
also  commander. 

COMMANDE,  Fr.  a  rope  made  use 
of  in  boats  and  pontoons. 

COMMANDE,  Fr.  a  person  under 
the  orders  of  another. 

0«OTageCoMMANDE,Fr.  awork  which 
is  overlooked,1  and  consequently  com- 
manded by  some  other. 

COMMANDEMENT,  Fr.  in  a  mi- 
litary sense,  means  any  spot  which  is 
higher  than  another.  A  commande- 
luent  is  called  simple,  when  the  dif- 
ference between  two  heights  is  only 
9  feet.  It  is  called  double,  when  the 
litfere.nce  is  13  feet;  triple  when  27, 
.md  so  progressively,  taking  9  feet  in- 
variably for  the  height  of  each   com-} 


[     K8    ) 

C  O  M 

Wandcment.  A  commaiidcmeut  may 
be  considered  in  three  lights;  in  front, 
in  enfilade,  and  in  reverse.  The  coin- 
lnandeinent'  in  front,  is  when  you  see 
all  the  persons  who  are  employed  in 
protecting  a  work;  in  enfilade,  when 
you  only  see  them  from  a  flank;  and  in 
reverse,  when  you  see  them  obliquely 
from  behind. 

COMMAS  DEMENT,  Fr.  an  order;  a 
Command  ;  a  situation  of  trust  which  is 
given  to  a  military  olbcer. 

Com  man  dement  (ordre  de.)  Fr.  a 
right  of  command  which  formerly  existed 
among  the  French  between  officers  of 
cavalry  and  infantry.  In  a  fortilied 
post,  or  town,  the  officers  of  infantry 
have  the  command  orer  the  officers  of 
cavalry;  but  in  an  open  country  the  offi- 
cers of  infantry  are  commanded  by  the 
COMMANDER,  Fr.  to  command: 
to  be  superior  in  rank,  and  to  possess 
authority  over  others. 

Commander,  Fr.  in  fortification,  to 
overlook,  to  command. 

COMMAND  FRY,  a  certain  benefice 
belonging  to  some  military  order.  A 
body  of  the  Knights  of  Malta  are  so 

COMMANDEUR,  Fr.  a  knight  of 
an  order  who  enjoys  some  lucrative  si- 
tuation in  consequence  of  his  rank,  such 
as  the  Knights  of  Malta  formerly  en- 

COMMANDIXG-^'nwW  implies,  in 
a  military  sense,  a  rising  ground  which 
overlooks  any  post,  or  strong  place. 
There  are,  strictly  speaking,  three  sorts 
ef  commanding  grounds;  namely, 

Front  CoMMANDiNG-groM/if/.  Every 
height  is  called  so,  that  lies  opposite  to 
the  face  of  the  post  which  plays  upon 
its  front. 

licierse  CoMMANDiNG-g/oi/m/,  an 
eminence  which  plays  upon  the  rear  of 
a  post. 

Enfilade  CmniAsmaG- ground,  or 
Curtain  Commas  Di^c-ground,  a  high 
place,  which,  with  its  shot,  scours  all  the 
length  of  a  line,  ccc. 

COMMIS,  Fr.  clerk  or  inferior  per- 
son, who  is  employed  in  any  of  the 
French  war-departmei)ts,&c. 

COMMISSAIRE,    Fr.    commissary, 

This   term  was  used  in   the  old  French 

service,  before  the  Revolution,  to  express 

a  variety  of  military  occupations.     The 

-following are  the  principal  designations:' 

CoMMiBBAlfiE-g£n£ra/  des  armies,  Fr. 
commissary-general  of  the  armies. 

Commissi]  as  general  de  la  eavu/erie,  IV.  commissary  general  of  light 
cavalry.  lie  ranked  as  the  third  general 
otlicer  of  the  cavalry. 

COMMISSAIEE  d'urti/laie,  Fr.  com- 
missary of  artillery. 

Fr.  provincial  commissaries  attached  to 
the  ordnance. 

Commissaires  ordinuires  d'urtil/n  ie, 
Fr.  commissaries  in  ordinary  attached 
to  the  ordnance.  These  were  subordi- 
nate to  the  provincial  commissaries,  and 
were  distributed  among  the  navy,  forts, 
and  garrison  towns. 

Commissaires  extraordinaire!  cTais 
ti/.lerie,  Fr.  extraordinary  commissaries 
attached  to  the  ordnance.  These  formed 
the  third  class  of  commissaries  under 
the  former  monarchical  government  of 
France.  They  likewise  did  duty  on  board 
the  king's  ships,  or  in  garrison  towns. 

Commissaire  provincial  en  I'urscnal 
de  Faris  an  departement  dc  I'hle  de 
France,  Fr.  provincial  commissary  be- 
longing to  the  arsenal  in  Paris. 

Commissaire  gineral  des  poudres  et 
sal/Hires,  Fr.  commissary  general  of 
gun-powder  and  saltpetre.  This  place 
was  created  with  that  of  the  superin- 
tendant  general  of  gun-powder  and  salt- 
petre, in  1634,  but  was  finally  sup- 

Commissaire  general  des  fontes,  Fr. 
commissary  general  of  the  founderies. 

Commissaiue  ordonnateur,  Fr.  a  per- 
son entrusted  with  the  chief  management 
of  the  commissariat  department  on  ser- 
vice. The  situation  corresponds  with 
that  of  our  chief  commissary. 

Commissa IKES  de&  guerres,  Fr.  com- 
missariesof  the  war  departments, or  rnus- 

Commissaires  ordinuires  des  guerres, 
Fr.  commissaries  in  ordinary,  or  deputy 
muster-musters.  These  were  subordi- 
nate to  the  former,  and  were  entrusted 
with  the  superintendence  of  hospitals, 
to  see  that  proper  provisions  were  pro- 
cured for  and  distributed  among  the  sick. 
They  likewise  gave  proper  vouchers  to 
account  for  the  absence  of  soldiers,  and 
regulated  what  number  of  extraordinary 
wagons  should  be  furnished  to  the  troops 
on  marches. 

Commissaires  provinciaux  et  ordi- 
nuires des  guerres,  Fr.  provincial  or  or- 
dinary commissaries  of  war. 

C  O  M 

(     121     ) 


Commissaires  des  guerres  entretenus 
dans  C Hotel  des  Invalides,  Fr.  commissa- 
ries of  war,  specifically  attached  to  and 
resident  in  the  Hotel  des  Invalides. 

Commissaire  des  vivres,  Fr.  commis- 
sary of  stores. 

Commiss  aire  general  desfort  [fie  at  ions, 
Fr.  commissary  general  of  fortilications. 

Commiss  a  i  REsprovinciaux  tk  s  g  ucrres, 
Fr.  provincial  commissaries  of  war, 
created  in  1C35 ;  they  were  first  sup- 
pressed and  then  re-established  hy  Louis 
XIV.  in  1704. 

Commissaire  Imperial,  Fr.  judge 
advocate;  so  called  during  the  reign  of 
Napoleon  in  France. 

COMMISSARY  is  of  various  deno- 
minations, though  he  is  generally  a  civil 
officer  appointed  to  inspect  the  musters, 
stores,  and  provisions  of  the  army.  In 
war  time  the  number  of  commissaries  is 

Commissary's  department,  in  the  ar- 
tillery service.     See  Artillery. 

COMMISSARIES  general,  and  Com- 
missaries  of  accounts,  are  appointed  by 
warrant  under  the  king's  sign  manual, 
directing  them  to  obey  all  instructions 
given  them  for  the  execution  of  their 
duty  by  the  lords  commissioners  of  the 
treasury.  These  instructions  are  gene- 
rally prepared  by  the  comptrollers  of 
the  army  accounts,  under  the  orders,  and 
subjected  to  the  subsequent  inspection, 
of  the  treasury. 

CoMMissARY-gCHeroZ  of  the  musters, 
or  muster-master  general.  He  takes  ac- 
. count  of  the  strength  of  every  regiment 
as  often  as  he  pleases;  reviews  them, 
sees  that  the  horses  are  well  mounted, 
and  all  the  men  well  armed  and  clothed. 
He  receives  and  inspects  the  muster- 
rolls,  and  knows  exactly  the  strength  of 
the  army.  A  new  appointment  has  been 
created  in  the  person  of  inspector  gene- 
ral of  cavalry,  which  answers  every  pur- 
pose for  which  that  of  muster-master 
general  was  intended,  as  far  as  regards 
the  cavalry, 

CoMMisSARY-gen^raZ  of  stores,  a  civil 
officer  in  the  artillery,  who  formerly  had 
the  charge  of  all  the  stores,  for  which  he 
is  accountable  to  the  office  of  ordnance. 
He  was  allowed  various  other  deputy 
commissaries,  clerks,  and  conductors, 
especially  in  war-time.  At  present 
there  is  no  such  appointment  in  the 
British  artillery  service,  although  from 
the  magnitude  and  importance  of  the 
situation,  and  the  responsibility  attached 

to  it,  such  an  appointment  is  absolutely 
necessary  to  support  the  respectability 
of  so  extensive  a  department.  The 
officers  of  this  description  are  called 
commissaries  of  stores.  Instead  of  there 
being  a  commissary  general,  deputy 
commissaries  and  assistant  commissa- 
ries are  employed  in  rank  according  to 
the  magnitude  of  the  trust  committed  to 
their  charge  both  in  cash  and  stores. 
Both  duties  generally  center  in  one  per- 

Commissary-  of  the  train  horses,  a 
civil  officer  formerly  of  the  artillery,  who 
had  the  inspection  of  all  horses  belong- 
ing to  the  train,  the  hospital  and  the 
bakery;  having  under  him  a  number  of 
conductors,  drivers,  &c.  There  is  at 
present  no  such  appointment  in  the  Bri- 
tish service. 

Commissary  of  accounts  is  a  respon* 
sible  person  who  attends-  each  army, 
where  the  numbers  are  of  sufficient  im- 
portance, with  a  proper  establishment, 
for  the  purpose  of  examining  and  con- 
trolling accounts  on  the  spot.  All 
commissaries  of  accounts  make  returns 
of  their  examinations,  and  on  these  do- 
cuments the  comptrollers  of  the  army 
accounts  found  the  best  inquiry  into  the 
public  expenditure  which  the  nature  of 
the  subject  admits  of. 

CoMMiss&RY-general  of  provisions  has 
the  charge  of  furnishing  the  army  in  the 
field  with  all  sorts  of  provisions,  forage, 
&c.  by  contract:  he  must  be  very  vigi- 
lant and  industrious,  that  the  tro  ips 
may  never  suffer  want.  He  has  under 
him  various  commissaries,  store-keepers, 
clerks,  Ike. 

COMMISSION,  any  situation  or 
place  which  an  individual  may  hold  in 
the  regular  army,  militia  or  volunteers 
of  Great  Biitain.  Alt  commissions  in 
the  line,  guards,  or  volunteer  corps  must 
have  the  royal  sign  manual.  The  for- 
mer are  issued  from  the  War-office,  sub- 
jecting the  individual  to  the  payment  of 
certain  fees,  according  to  the  rank  he 
holds;  which  fees  are  received  by  the 
several  agents,  (who  deduct  them  in  the 
first  instance,)  and  account  for  them  to 
the  War-office.  Commissions  in  the  mi- 
litia do  not  bear  the  royal  sign  manual ; 
that  of  the  adjutant  alone  excepted, 
who  is  generally  called  a  king's  officer. 
Lieutenants  or  deputy  lieutenants  of 
counties  affix  their  seals  and  signatures 
to  these  commissions  or  appointments; 
but  thev  must  previously  have  beec 
R  ' 

C  O  M 

C     122    ) 


laid  before  the  king  for  his  approbation. 
Fourteen  days  constitute  the  allotted 
time;  and  if  his  majesty  does  not  disap- 
prove of  the  person  so  recommended,  a 
notification  is  sent  by  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal secretaries  of  state  lo  the  lord 
lieutenant,  or  to  those  acting  by  com- 
mission in  his  absence,  or  during  a  va- 
cancy, stating  his  majesty's  pleasure. 

Commission  of  array.  In  the  reign 
of  Hcnrv  II.  1181,  an  assize  of  arms  was 
settled  to  the  following  effect.  That 
every  person  possessed  of  a  knight's  fee, 
was  to  have  a  coat  of  mail,  an  helmet,  a 
shield,  and  a  lance,  and  as  many  of  these 
as  he  had  fees.  Every  free  layman  that 
had  in  goods  or  rents  to  the  value  of  16 
marks,  was  to  have  the  same  arms;  and 
such  as  had  10  marks  were  to  have  a 
lesser  coat  of  mail,  an  iron  cap,  and  a 
lance;  the  two  last  of  which,  with  a 
wambois,  were  assigned  for  the  arms  of 
burgesses,  and  all  the  freemen  of  bo- 
roughs. These  arms  were  all  to  be  pro- 
vided before  the  feast  of  St.  Hilary  next 

To  enforce  these  regulations,  it  was 
customary  for  the  time,  at  certain  sea- 
sons of  the  year,  to  issue  commissions  to 
experienced  officers,  to  draw  out  and 
array  the  fittest  men  for  service  in  each 
county,  and  to  inarch  them  to  the  sea- 
coasts,  or  to  such  other  quarters  of  the 
country  as  were  judged  to  be  most  in 
danger.  Of  these  commissions  of  array, 
there  are  many  hundreds  in  the  Gascon 
and  French  rolls  in  the  Tower  of  Lon- 
don, from  the  36th  of  Heny  III.  to  the 
reign  of  Edward  IV.  The  form  of  the 
ancient  commissions  of  array  may  be 
seen  inRushworth'sHistoricalCollection 
published  in  1640.  These  commissions 
were  again  attempted  to  be  revived  by 
Charles  I.  but  they  were  voted  illegal 
and  unconstitutional  by  the  parliament 
in  those  days.  They  would  not  be  so  in 
Xhese  times. 

COMMISSION  militaire,  Fr.  a  com- 
mission in  the  army. 

Commission mi/itaire,Yr.a  temporary 
court  or  tribunal  established  to  inquire 
into  capital  offences,  and  to  pass  sen- 
tence on  the  delinquents. 

particular  class  of  men  who  act  between 
what  are  called  the  rank  and  file  of  a 
buttalion,  and  the  commissioned  or  war- 
rant officers.     See  Serjeants. 

COMMISSIONER,  ( commissaire  in- 
tendunt,  Fr.)  a  person  entrusted  by  go- 

vernment to  superintend  any  particular 
department,  or  branch  of  civil  or  mili- 
tary service. 

COMMISSIONERS,  certain  persons 
w  ho,  towards  the  latter  end  of  the  reign 
of  King  James  I.  and  in  the  beginning  of 
that  of  Charles,  his  successor,constituted 
a  kind  of  mixed  court,  composed  of 
civil  and  military  members,  whose  duty 
was  to  try  all  offences  committed  by  the 
soldiers  or  followers  of  the  army,  within 
certain  counties  and  districts.  At  what 
time  courts-martial,  according  to  their 
present  form,  were  first  held,  does  not 
appear ;  they  are,  however,  mentioned, 
with  the  distinction  of  general  and  regi- 
mental, in  the  ordonnances  of  war  of 
King  James  II.  published  bv  authority, 
A.  D.  1686. 

Military  Commissioners,  certain  per- 
sons who  are  authorized  by  parliament 
to  examine  army  accounts,  &c.  They 
are  likewise  called  commissioners  for 
the  inspection  of  army  accounts.  Also 
individuals  who  are  invested  with  a  cer- 
tain authority  for  the  purpose  of  com- 
municating with  foreign  powers,  parti- 
cularly such  as  may  be  subsidized  by 

Commissioners  of  the  royal  military 
college  consist  of  persons  who  are  mostly 
military  men,  under  the  immediate  di- 
rection of  the  commander  in  chief  of  his 
Majesty's  forces  for  the  time  being. 

COMMITTEE,  a  select  number  of 
persons  to  whom  the  more  particular 
consideration  of  some  matter  is  referred, 
and  who  are  to  report  their  opinion  to 
the  court,  &c.  of  which  they  are  mem- 

Committee  of  artillery  officers,  a  se- 
lect committee  of  artillery  officers  es- 
tablished at  Woolwich  by  the  King's 
warrant,  to  whom  all  improvements  and 
inventions  are  submitted,  under  the 
authority  of  the  master  general  of  the 
ordnance,  to  whom  they  report  upon  all 
matters  referred  to  them. 

COMMON,  in  geometry,  is  applied 
to  an  angle,  Hue,  or  the  like,  which  be- 
longs equally  to  two  figures,  or  makes  a 
necessary  part  of  both. 

Common  divisor,  in  arithmetic,  is 
a  quantity,  or  number,  which  exactly 
divides  two  or  more  other  quantities, 
or  numbers,  without  having  any  re- 

COMMUNICATION,  in  fortifica- 
tion, signifies  all  sorts  of  passages  or 
ways  which  lead  from  one  work  to  aa,- 

C  O  M 

(     123    ) 


•ther.  The  best  and  indeed  the  only 
good  communications  are  those  which 
the  besieger  cannot  annoy,  or  interrupt 
by  his  fire.  The  obstinate  defence  of  a 
work  is  rendered  almost  impracticable, 
if  you  are  destitute  of  good  communica- 
tions. Subterraneous  galleries,  coffers, 
or  caponieres,  slopes  made  on  the  out- 
side of  gorges,  raav  be  termed  commu- 
nications. When  the  ditches  are  filled 
with  water,  floating  bridges,  &c.  serve 
as  communications. 

Xi«co/*Communication.    SeeLiNE. 

COMPAGNE,  Fr.  a  room  or  cabin 
belonging  to  the  chief  of  a  galley. 

COMPAGNIE,  Fr.  a  certain  number 
of  soldiers  under  the  inspection  or  ma- 
nagement of  a  chief  called  captain. 

Comp \ghi E-colunellc,  Fr.  among  the 
French  the  first  company  in  a  battalion, 
or  that  which  is  called  the  colonel's. 

Compagn  I  E-lieutenant-colonelle,  Fr. 
the  second  company  in  a  battalion,  or 
that  which  belonged  to  the  lieutenant- 

CoMPAGNiEs:/rancAes,  Fr.  free  corps, 
or  companies,  which,  during  the  old  mo- 
narchical government  of  France,  were 
put  upon  a  certain  establishment  in  war 
time.     See  Free-CoMiwxY. 

COMPANY,in  a  military  sense, means 
a  small  body  of  foot  or  artillery,  the 
number  of  which  is  never  fixed,  but  is 
generally  from  50  to  120,  commanded 
by  a  captain,  a  lieutenant,  and  an  en- 
sign, and  sometimes  by  a  first  and  se- 
cond lieutenant,  as  in  the  artillery,  and 
flank  companies  of  the  line.  A  com- 
pany has  usually  three  or  four  Serjeants, 
three  or  four  corporals,  and  two  drums. 
In  the  Guards,  the  companies  consist  of 
120  men  each,  as  in  the  artillery.  In 
the  Austrian  service  a  company  consists 
of  200  men. 

F/fe-CoMPAXv  is  one  of  those  corps 

commonly    called    irregular;    is    seldom   that  another  does 

to  convey  fire  to  the  furnaces  at  one  and 
the  same  time. 

Compartiment  du  7nineur,  Fr.     See 

CoMPARTTMENT  dt  feu. 

COM  PAS,  Fr.    See  Compass. 

Compas  de  proportion,  Fr.  a  mathe- 
matical instrument  which  facilitates 
the  prompt  dividing  of  the  lines  on  apian. 

COMPASS,  a  circle,  space,  limits; 
an  instrument  whereby  mariners  steer. 

Compass,  an  instrument  for  dividing, 
measuring,  or  drawing  circles.  The  ori- 
ginal invention  of  compasses  has  been 
given  to  Daedalus,  who  is  affirmed  by 
Pliny  to  have  been  the  inventor  of  all 
sorts  of  carpenters'  tools.  He  was  an 
Athenian  by  birth.  But  Ovid  gives  the 
invention  of  the  compasses  to  Perdrix, 
who  was  sister's  son  to  Daedalus. 

COMPASSEMENT defetn,  Fr.  See 

COM  PASSER  la  meche,  Fr.  to  try  the 

COMPASSION,(cow/)assi'on,Fr.)  Ac- 
cording to  a  French  author,  (see  Dic- 
tionnaire  Mi/itaire,  par  M.  Dupain  de 
Montcsson,)  a  quality  not  known  in  mi- 
litary life.  lie  describes  compassion  to 
be  a  sentiment,  or  impulse,  of  the  soul, 
which  carries  us  insensibly  towards  the 
relief  of  every  object  in  bodily  or  mental 
distress:  a  sentiment,  however,  which  in 
war  we  carefully  conceal;  repressing 
every  feeling  of  the  heart,  becoming  ob- 
durate mi  every  occasion,  and  seeking 
nothing  hut  the  destruction  of  our  ene- 
mies. Such  are  the  sentiments  of  this 
French  writer.  British  valour  is,  on  the 
contrary,  susceptible  of  much  compas- 

COMPASSIONATE  List.     See  LrsT. 

COMPETENCE  militaire,  Fr.  mili- 
tary cognizance. 

who  sues  or   fights  for  the  same  thing 

or  never  under  tlfe  same  orders  with  the 
regular  corps  of  the  army,  but  for  the 
most  part  acts  like  a  detached  army, 
either  by  itself,  or  in  conjunction  with 
some  of  its  own  kind;  therefore  their 
operations  are  properly  considered  under 
the  title  of  the  petite  guerre. 

Indepeudenl-CoMPA.'sv,  that  which  is 
not  incorporated  in  a  regiment. 

COMPARTIMENT  de  feu,  Fr.  a 
specific  division  of  the  intermediate  spaces 
belonging  to  a  mine,  and  the  regular 
allotment  of  the  saucissons  or  train-bags 

COMPLEMENT,  (completer.)  the 
full  establishment  of.  a  regiment,  &c. 

Comim.i'.m  i  nt  of  the  curtain,  that  part 
in  the  interior  side  of  a  fortification 
which  makes  the  denii-gorge.  See  Fon- 

Complement  of  the  line  of  defence, 
the  remainder  of  the  line  of  defence, 
after  you  have  taken  away  the  angle  of 
the  flank.     See  Fsrtification. 

Complement  (in a  parallelogram,)  are 
the  two  lesser  parallelograms,  which  are 
made  bv  drawing  two  right  lines  parallel 
R'a  f 


(     IM    ) 


to  each  side  of  the  figure  through  a  given 
point  in  the  diagonal. 

Complement,  in  geometry,  is  what  re- 
mains of  the  quadrant  of  a  circle,  or  of 
ninety  degrees,  after  a  certain  arch  has 
been  retrenched  from  it.  Thus,  if  an 
arch  or  angle  he  25  degrees,  they  say  its 
complement  is  65  :  since  65  and  25  ~ 
to  90. 

Complement  of  an  angle,  (comple- 
ment d'uu  angle,  Fr.)  the  quantity  of  de- 
grees which  an  acute  angle  wants  to  be 
equal  to  a  right  angle. 

COMPLETE,  (complet,  Fr.)  A  batta- 
lion, troop,  or  company  is  said  to  be 
complete,  when  the  established  number 
of  men  are  present  and  lit  for  duty. 
The  French  say,  Le  complet  iVun  batail- 
lon,  u"une  compugnie,  ccc.  the  full  esta- 
blishment of  a  battalion,  company,  &c. 

To  CoMPLETE,(cow/)/<7f7',  Fr.)  to  carry 
up  to  its  full  establishment. 

COMPLIMENT  of  the  line  of  the 
army.     See  Honours. 

Compliment  from  guards.  See  Ho- 

COMPLICITE,  Fr.  the  act  of  being 
an  accomplice. 

COMPOSER,  Fr.  to  enter  into  a 
composition ;  to  make  terms  with  an 
enemy;  as  when  a  fortress,  town,  or 
body  of  men  surrender. 

COMPOSITION,  F;-.  This  term  among 
the  French  signifies  the  component  or 
constituent  parts  of  any  establishment, 
&c.  Thus  regiments  form  divisions,  and 
the  whole  put  together  make  up  an  army. 
Hence  composition  d'une  urm'te. 

Compositions,  Ft.  terms,  conditions, 
&c.  which  are  entered  into  by  two  con- 
tending parties,  when  one  is  forced  to 
give  wav. 

Composition,  Fr.  in  artillery,  the 
different  ingredients  with  which  gun- 
powder is  made,  viz.  sulphur,  saltpetre, 
and  charcoal. 

Composition  also  signifies  a  mixture 
of  beeswax  with  pitch  and  tar,  that  is 
used  in  the  making  up  of  fuses  and  shells. 

COMPOUND  motion.  SeeGuxNERY. 

COMPRESS,  (compresse,  Fr.)  in  sur- 
gery, a  bolster  made  up  with  linen,  to  be 
laid  on  a  wound,  or  on  the  orifice  of  a 

COMPRESSION,  the  act  or  circum- 
stance of  being  restrained  or  confined. 

Globe  of  Compression,  an  excavation 
of  a  globular  form,  which  is  made  in  the 
earth,  and  is  filled  with  gunpowder. 

COMPTROLLER,  {controlcur,  Fr.)  a 

person  who  inspects  accounts,  and  makes 
his  report  upon  them,  after  due  exami- 
nation, without  favour  or  partiality. 

Comptroller  of  the  artillery,  (con- 
trblevr  cfartiUerie,  Fr.)  a  civil  olhcer 
who  formerly  inspected  the  musters  of 
artillery,  made  the  pay  lists,  took  the 
account  and  remains  of  stores,  and  was 
subordinate  to  the  board  of  ordnance. 
No  such  appointment  exists  at  present 
in  this  department. 

Comptrollers  of  army  uccounts,  cer- 
tain persons  appointed  by  government  to 
inspect  the  general  expenditure  of  the 
army,  and  to  report  thereon  to  the 
Treasury.     The  office  is  in  Whitehall. 

COMPTE  borgne,  Fr.  odd  money. 

Compte  ronde,  Fr.  even  money. 

Argent  Comptant,  Fr.  ready  money. 

COMPTEPAS,  Fr.  (from  compter 
les  pas,  to  count  or  measure  steps  or 
paces,)  an  instrument  which  serves  to 
measure  the  ground  a  person  has  run 
over,  whether  on  foot,  on  horseback,  or 
in  a  carnage.     See  Ooometre. 

COMRADE, (camarade,  Fr.)  a  fellow- 
soldier  in  the  same  regiment,  troop,  or 
company,  from  the  Italian  camera,  a 

COMPTER,  Fr.  to  reckon;  to  de- 
pend upon  :  as  compter  sur  les  troupes, 
to  depend  upon  the  troops. 

To  CONCAMERATE,  to  make  an 
arched  roof,as  in  vaults, &c;  toarchover. 

CONCAVE,  (concave,  Fr.)  hollow,  as 
the  inside  of  a  shell,  ike. 

CONCAVITY,  (concavite,  Fr.)  the 
hollow  space  which  appears  in  an  exca- 
vation, &c.  Such,  for  instance,  is  the 
hollow  that  is  made  by  the  springing  of 
a  mine 

CONCQUE,  Fr.  a  piece  of  ordnance 
wider  about  the  mouth  than  at  the 
breech.  A  kind  of  shell  used  by  the  an- 
cients in  lieu  of  a  trumpet. 

CONCEIT,  (entttcment,  opinion,  Fr.) 
fondness;  over-weening  opinion  of  one- 

CONCEITED,  (entett,  affect  e,  Fr.) 
proud;  fond  of  himself;  opiniative; 
fantastical;  every  thing  in  a  word  which 
a  brave  and  intelligent  officer  is  not. 
See  Gloriole. 

To  CONCERT,  (converter,  Fr.)  in  a 
military  "ense,  to  digest,  arrange,  and 
dispose  matters  in  such  a  manner,  that 
you  may  be  able  to  act  in  conjunction 
with  other  forces,  however  much  divided, 
at  any  given  point  of  offensive,  or  de- 
fensive, operation. 


(     125     ) 


CONCERTER  une  operation  de 
guerre,  concert  measures  for  actual 
warfare :  as  to  fix  on  some  specific  time, 
describe  some  direct  mode,  and  adopt 
the  necessary  means  to  carry  a  plan  into 

CONCHOIDE,  Fr.  a  curve  of  the 
third  kind,  which  was  originally  invented 
by  Nicodemus. 

CONCIERGE,  Fr.keeper  of  a  palace. 
It  also  signifies  keeper  of  a  prison. 

CONCIERGERIE,  Fr.  the  situa- 
tion, or  place,  of  the  keeper  of  a  castle, 
&c.  Also  an  old  state  prison,  now  a 
common  jail,  in  Paris. 

CONCILE,  Fr.     See  Council. 

CONCITOYEN,  Fr.  fellow-citizen; 

CONCLAVE,  in  architecture^  closet 
or  inner  chamber,  from  the  French  con- 
clave; also  a  room  in  the  Vatican  at 
Rome,  where  the  Roman  cardinals  meet 
to  chuse  a  Pope. 

Eire  en  Conclave,  Fr.  to  be  clo- 

Military-  CONCORD,  agreement, 
union,  good  understanding.  This  is  re- 
presented by  the  Goddess  Pallas,  having 
in  her  right  hand  a  spear,  and  in  her  left 

CONCORDAT,  Fr.  compact;  con- 
vention; agreement. 

CONCORDATES,  public  acts  of 
agreement  between  popes  and  princes. 

CONCOURIRaw  bieu  du  service,  Fr. 
to  do  every  thing  in  one's  power  for  the 
good  of  the  service. 

CONCUSSION,  a  shock  occasioned  by 
two  bodies  which  are  moving  in  con- 
trary directions. 

CONCUSSION,  Fr.  public  extortion, 
when  any  officer  or  magistrate  pillages 
the  people  by  threats,  or  pretence  of  au- 

CONDITION,  quality;  state  of  being. 

Out  of  Conditjon,  a  term  used  to 
signify  that  a  horse  is  not  fit  for  work, 
either  through  want  of  nutriment,  or 
from  hard  usage,  &c. 

Conditions  of  peuce,  {conditions  de 
pair,  Fr.)  terms  upon  which  peace  is 

CONDUCT,  {conduite,  Fr.)  that  line 
which  is  observed  by  an  officer,  who  is 
entrusted  with  the  management  of  others, 
or  has  the  direction  of  any  particular  en- 

So/e-CoNDUCT,  a  guard  of  soldiers  who 
defend  the  common  people  from  the 
violence  of  an  enemy.     Also  a  protec- 

tion   given    to    individuals    who    pare 
through  an  enemy's  country  or  lines. 

CONDUCTEUR,  Fr.  a  person  en- 
trusted with  the  conveyance  of  military 
stores,  &c. 

Conducteur,  ou  guide,  Fr.  an  inha- 
bitant of  a  town  or  village,  who  is  well 
acquainted  with  the  different  roads,  and 
acts  as  a  guide. 

CONDUCTORS,  (conducteursd'equi- 
pages,  Fr.)  are  assistants  to  the  com- 
missary of  stores,  to  conduct  depots,  or 
magazines,  from  one  place  to  another: 
they  have  also  the  care  of  the  ammu- 
nition wagons  in  the  field :  they  report 
to  the  commissary,  and  are  under  his 

CONDUIRE,  Fr.  to  lead;  to  ma- 
nage; as  conduire  une  armee,  to  conduct 
or  head  an  artnv- 

CONDUIT,  JV.  a  conduit;  a  pipe. 

CONDUITE  d'une  troupe,  Fr.  the 
charge  or  management  of  any  body  of 
troops  on  a  march. 

Conduite  d'eau,  Fr.  a  succession 
or  train  of  pipes  made  to  convey  water 
from  one  quarter  to  another. 

CONE,  {cone,  Fr.)  a  solid  having  a 
circular  base,  and  growing  smaller  and 
smaller  until  it  ends  in  a  point,  which 
is  called  the  vertex,  and  may  be  nearly 
represented  by  a  sugar-loaf. 

CONFEDERATE  troops,  {troupes,  Fr.)  troops  of  different  na- 
tions united  together  in  one  common 
cause  against  an  enemy.  Hence  the 
league  by  which  they  are  so  engaged,  is 
called  a  confederacy. 

Confederates,  {confederes,  Fr.)  dif- 
ferent princes,  states,  or  bodies  of  peo- 
ple acting  together. 

CONFEDERATION,  {confederation, 
Fr.)  a  compact  entered  into  by  two  or 
more  powers  to  act  offensively  against  a 
common  enemy,  or  to  stand  upon  the  de- 
fensive; an  assembly  of  people. 

CONFERENCE*  Fr.  an  oral  discus- 
sion between  two  or  more  persons  to 
settle  the  conditions  of  a  peace,  &c. 

CONFIDENCE,  in  a  military  sense, 
implies  an  explicit  reliance  upon  the 
skill,  courage,  i!\;c  of  an  individual. 
Next  to  a  peil'ect  knowledge  of  military 
tactics,  the  faculty  of  securing  the  con- 
fidence of  the  soldiers  is,  perhaps,  one. 
of  the  surest  means  of  becoming  suc- 
cessful in  war.  There  are  instances, 
indeed,  which  prove  that  many  victories 
have  been  gained  by  men  who  had  the 
entire  confidence  of  their  army,  without 


(     126     ) 


t»eing  remarkable  for  much  military 
knowledge:  whilst,  on  the  other  hand, 
battles  have  been  lost  by  the  most  cele- 
brated generals,  because  they  did  not 
possess  the  good  opinion  of  their  men. 
When  confidence  and  military  science 
go  together,  an  army  must  be  unfor- 
tunate not  to  succeed  in  the  most  despe- 
rate enterprize. 

CONFLICT.     See  Com n at. 

CONFUSION,  {confusion,  Fr.)  the 
loose  and  disorderly  state  into  which  a 
regiment  or  a  whole  army  is  thrown,  by 

CONGli,  Fr.  leave  of  absence.  The 
old  monarchical  service  of  France  ad- 
mitted of  two  sorts.  The  Conge  limite, 
a  limited  or  specific  leave,  and  Conge  ab- 
sulu,  a  full  discharge:  in  time  of  war,  the 
latter  was  alwavs  suspended. 

CONGEDIER,  Fr.  to  dismiss. 

Congedier  une  armee,  Fr.  to  send 
an  army  into  quarters. 

CONGLOMERATE,  to  gather  toge- 
ther, to  assemble  in  a  knot. 

CONGRESS,  {congrh,  Fr.)  in  mili- 
tary and  political  affairs,  is  an  assembly 
of  commissioners,  deputies,  envoys,  &c. 
from  several  courts,  meeting  to  agree  on 
terms  for  a  general  pacification, or  to  con- 
cert matters  for  their  common  good. 

CONIC,  (conique,  Fr.)  like  a  cone. 
A  piece  of  ordnance  wider  towards  the 
mouth,  than  about  the  breech,  is  said  to 
be  conic. 

Conic  section  is  a  figure  which  is  made 
by  the  solidity  of  a  cone,  being  supposed 
to  be  cut  by  a  plane. 

CONICS,  that  part  of  the  geometry 
of  curves,  which  considers  the  cone,  and 
the  several  curve  lines  arising  from  the 
sections  thereof. 

CONJUGATE,  (coujuge,  Fr.)  an 
epithet  used  in  geometry  to  signify  the 
junction  of  two  lines. 

Conjugate  axis,  (are  covjvg'c,  Fr.) 
two  axes  that  cross  each  other. 

Conjugate  diameter,  (diametre  con- 
jug'e,  Fr.)thc  shortest  axis  or  diameter  in 
an  ellipsis  or  oval. 

Conjugate  of  the  hyperbola,  (hyper- 
bole covjugi;  l'r.)  a  line  drawn  parallel 
to  the  middle  point  of  the  transverse 
axis,  sometimes  called  the  second  axis. 

CONJURATEURS,  ou  conjures,  Fr. 
conspirators;  persons  leagued  together 
by  oath,  for  the  purpose  of  assassinating 
their  prince  or  sovereign,  or  of  overturn- 
ing the  established  government.  This 
term  applies  generally  to  any  illegal  com- 
bination of  men. 

CONJURATION,  IV.  conspiracy; 
league  entered  into  by  persons  who  are 
mutually  sworn  to  support  and  carry 
into  execution  some  projected  scheme. 

CONNETABLE  de  France,  Fr.  con- 
stable of  France.  This  appointment 
succeeded  to  that  of  Grand  Sencchal  de 
France.  It  was  not  originally  a  military 
place  of  trust,  but  merely  an  ofhee  be- 
longing to  the  kiwi's  household. 

Connetable  de  France,  Fr.  was  a 
particular  corps  under  the  immediate 
command  and  direction  of  the  Marshals 
of  France;  composed  of  forty-eight 
mounted  guards,  who  wore  a  hoqueton, 
for  the  king's  service,  of  a  provost- 
general,  four  lieutenants,  and  four 

CONNOISSANCE,  Fr.  knowledge  of 
any  thing. 

Connoissanck  d'un  pays,  Fr.  the 
complete  knowledge  of  a  country,  of 
its  mountains,  vallies,  rivers,  fortified 
places  and  bridges,  &c.  also  of  its  ma- 
gazines and  means  of  subsistence  for  an 

Pays  de  Connoissamce,  Fr.  This 
expression  is  used  by  the  French  to 
express  a  familiar  knowledge  of  persons 
or  things;  hence,  Etre  en  pays  de  con- 
noissance,  to  be  perfectly  acquainted  ;  to 
be  at  home. 

Avoir  des  Conxoissances,  Fr.  to 
have  much  knowledge;  much  skill. 

CONOID,  (conoide,  Fr.)  in  geometry, 
the  solid  produced  by  the  circumvolution 
or  turning  of  any  section  of  a  cone  about 
its  axis. 

Parubo/ic-CotioiD,  or  paraboloide, 
(conoide  paraboliquc,  ou  paraboloide,  Fr.) 
a  conoid  which  is  produced  by  the  whole 
circumvolution  of  a  parabola  round  its 

Hypcrbolic-Connw,  (conoide  hypcr- 
bolique,  Fr.)  that  which  is  produced  by 
the  entire  circumvolution  of  an  hyper- 
bola round  its  axis. 

Elliptic  -Con  oi  d,  (conoide  elliptiqne, 
Fr.)  that  which  is  produced  by  the  ter- 
minated motion  of  an  ellipsis  round  one 
of  its  two  axes. 

To  CONQUER,  (conqu'erir,  Fr.)  to 
conquer,  to  obtain  possession  of  a  town, 
countrv,  &c.  by  force  of  arms. 

CONQUEROR,  (conquirant,  Fr.)  a 
warrior  who  manages  his  affairs  in  such 
a  manner,  that  he  gets  the  better  of  all 
his  enemies,  and  obtains  a  complete 

CONQUEST,  (conquete,  Fr.)  victory ; 
territory,&c.  obtained  by  dint  of  fighting 



(     127 


C  O  1ST 

i  being  en- 

or  regimental   court- 

Pays     CONQUIS, 

CONSCRIPT,    (conscriptus,  Lat.)  a 
term  anciently  applied  to   the   senators 
of  Rome,  from  their 
tered  all  in  one  register. 

CONSCRIPTS,  men  raised  to  recruit 
the  Imperial  and  French  armies.  In 
Bohemia  and  Hungary,  all  men  capable 
of  bearing  arms  are  enregistered,  and 
must  march  whenever  there  is  occasion 
for  their  services.  The  conscripts  in 
France  were  raised,  during  the  late  wars, 
upon  similar  principles. 

CONSEIL,  Fr.  This  word  is  vari- 
ously used  by  the  French,  viz. 

Le  Consexl  d'Etat,  Fr.  council  of 
state.  It  is  also  called  Le  Conseil  d'en 
kaut,  or  the  upper  council. 

Le  Conseil  Prive,  Fr.  privy  council. 
It  is  also  styled  Le  Conseil  des  Parties, 
the  meeting  of  the  heads  of  certain  de- 

Consei l  de  guerre,  Fr.  This  term 
not  only  signified  a  council  of  war,  at 
which  the  French  king  and  his  ministers 
•at  to  determine  upon  military  matters, 
both  by  sea  and  land,  but  it  likewise 
meant  a  general 

Conseil  de  guerre  secret,  Fr.  a  secret 
council  held  by  the  sovereign  and  his 
ministers  to  deliberate  on  a  defensive, 
effensive,  or  federative  war. 

Arret  du  Conseil  dJEtut,  Fr.  a  state- 

CONSERVATEUR,  Fr.  This  word 
literally  signifies  preserver.  Politically 
applied,  it  means  guardian,  having  ob- 
jects of  state  in  trust. 

Senat  Conservateur,  Fr.  a  name 
given  to  an  assembly  in  France,  which 
was  instituted  by  Bonaparte,  when  First 
Consul,  and  was  perpiitted  to  exist  after 
he  assumed  the  title  of  Emperor  of  the 

CONSERVATIONS,  a  town-hall; 
a  place  where  commercial  objects  were 
discussed  and  settled.  Hence  La  Con- 
servation de  Lyons. 

Aller  de  CONSERVE,  Fr.  to  go  in 
company,  as  ships  do  at  sea. 

CONSERVER,  Fr.  to  keep  upon 
the  establishment :  hence,  Conserver  vn 

CONSIDERATION,  Fr.  considera- 
tion; weight;  value;  estimation. 

CONSIGNE,  Fr.  the  aggregate  of 
the  orders  given  to  each  sentry. 

It  likewise  means,  when  used  in  the 
masculine  gender,  a  person  paid  by  the 

French  government  for  constantly  resi- 
ding in  a  garrison  town  in  order  to  take 
cognizance  of  all  persons  who  entered,  or 
went  out,  of  the  gates.  He  had  a  place 
allotted  to  him  in  the  half-moon,  and  de- 
livered a  regular  report  to  the  governor, 
or  commandant  of  the  place. 

Consigne,  Fr.  an  individual  who  is 
not  permitted  to  go  beyond  certain 
limits,  or  to  leave  a  house  wherein  he  is 
detained  by  superior  command. 

CONSIGNER,  Fr.  to  order  a  person 
to  be  stopped.  It  also  signifies  to  regu- 
late things  in  a  town,  or  garrison,  so  a* 
to  ensure  public  tranquillity.  Also  to 
put  down  upon  paper;  to  enrol. 

CONSOUDE,  Fr.  comfrey;  a  plant 
with  monopetalous  leaves,  which  have  a 
healing  quality,  particularly  a  styptic" 
one,  in  wounds. 

CONSPIRATION,  Fr.  conspiracy. 

CONSPIRING  powers,  in  mechanics, 
are  all  such  as  act  in  directions  not  op- 
posite to  one  another. 

CONSTABLE,  Chief,  a  person  em- 
ployed under  the  militia  establishment 
of  Great  Britain,  to  issue,  when  direct- 
ed, orders  to  the  coustables  to  return 
lists  of  men  liable  to  serve,  and  to  give 
notice  to  the  constables  of  the  number 
of  men  appointed  to  serve,  and  direct 
them  to  give  notice  to  the  men  chosen. 
To  forward  notice  of  the  time  and  place 
of  exercise  to  the  constables,  and  of  the 
orders  for  embodying  the  militia.  To- 
order  proper  persons  to  furnish  car- 
riages for  the  militia,  as  well  as  for  every 
other  part  of  the  British  army  on  its- 
march,  and  to  be  repaid  their  extra  ex- 
penses by  the  county  treasurer.  To 
transmit  to  the  petty  constables  certifi- 
cates from  the  clerk  of  the  peace  of  the 
service  of  officers.  Constables  are  al- 
lov\ed  one  penny  in  the  pound  of  the 
money  they  collect;  but  they  forfeit 
fifty  pounds  whenever  they  neglect  to 
assist  in  raising  money  to  be  assessed 
where  the  militia  has  not  been  raised. 

Constables  are  to  attend  subdivision 
meetings,  with  lists  of  men  liable  to 
serve,  and  verify  them;  likewise  to  pro- 
duce returns  on  oath  of  the  days  notice 
was  given  to  the  men  chosen  by  ballot. 
On  their  refusing  *to  return  lists,  they 
are  liable  to  be  imprisoned,  or  to  suffer 
fine.  It  is  their  duty  to  affile  notice  of 
the  time  and  place  of  exercise  on  the 
church  doors.  They  are  paid  for  their 
trouble  in  the  same  manner  as  the  chief 
constables  are,  but  are  only  subject  to 
201,  penalty,  for  neglecting  to  assist  i* 


(     128      ) 


vnising  money  directed   to  be  assessed 
where  the  militia  has  not  been  raised. 

They  may  likew  ise  apprehend  persons 
Suspected  of  being  deserted  Serjeants, 
corporals,  or  drummers,  belonging  to  the 

Lord  High  Constable  of  England, 
an  officer  who  anciently  was  of  so  great 
power,  that  it  was  thought  too  great  for 
a  subject;  his  jurisdiction  was  the  same 
with  that  of  the  Earl  Marshal,  and  took 
place  of  him  as  chief  judge  in  the  mar- 
shal's court. 

Constable  of  the  Tower,  a  general 
officer  who  has  the  chief  superintend- 
ance  over  the  Tower,  and  is  Lord  Lieu- 
tenant of  the  Tower  Hamlets.  He  holds 
his  appointment  by  letters  patent  from 
the  King,  and  is  not  removable  at  plea- 
sure. The  Tower,  being  a  state  prison, 
is  also  considered  as  a  garrison,  of  which 
the  constable  is  governor. 

High  Con  statue  and  Marshal, 
(Grand  Connetab/e,  et  Mar'cchal  de 
France,  Fr.)  were  officers  of  consider- 
able weight  and  dignity,  not  only  in 
France,  but  throughout   all   the  feudal 

governments  of  Europe.     The   title  of  pointed  chief  consul 

To  outrun  the  Constable,  in  a  mili- 
tary sense,  to  spend  half-a-crown  out  of 
sixpence  a  day. 

CONSTANCE,  Fr.  perseverance  and 
resolution :  qualities  which  are  essentially 
necessary  in  war. 

CONSTITUTION  (fun  pays,  Fr.  the 
nature  of  a  country;  its  local  advan- 
tages, or  disadvantages,  with  respect  to 
military  operations. 

in  geometry,  the  drawing  such  lines  of  a 
figure,  as  are  necessary,  beforehand,  in 
order  to  render  the  demonstration  more 
plain  and  undeniable. 

CONSUL,  the  person  invested  with 
the  powers  of  the  consulate. 

Chief  Consul,  (Premier  Consul,  Fr.) 
the  first,  or  chief  magistrate,  of  three 
persons,  each  bearing  the  title  of  consul, 
in  France.  The  duty  of  the  chief  consul 
was  to  command,  direct,  and  superintend 
all  the  military  establishments  of  the 
country,  and,  whenever  it  was  judged  ex- 
pedient, to  lead  her  armies  into  battle. 
Bonaparte,  in  consequence  of  the  revo- 
lution which  took  place  in  1799,  was  ap- 

constable,  of  comes  stabuli,  according  to 
the  ingenious  author  of  an  essay  on  mili 
tary  law,  explains  the  original  nature  of 

Avoir  la  Goutte  CONSULAIRE,  Fr. 

a  figurative    term    to   express   the  con- 
straint which    an   individual  labours  un- 

this  office,  which  was  that  of  commander  der  who  is  afraid  of  stirring  out,  on  ac- 

of  the  cavalry ;  and  as  these  once  con- 
stituted the  principal  strength  of  the 
imperial  or  royal  armies,  this  officer 
became  naturally  the  commander  in 
chief  of  those  armies.  The  office  of 
marshal  appears  originally  to  have  been 

count  of  any  particular  sentence  of  a 
court,  or  from  the  fear  of  being  served 
with  a  writ,  &c. 

CONSULAR,  relating  or  appertain- 
ing to  the  consul. 

CONSULATE,  a  civil    and   military 

©f  a  much  inferior   nature,  the  person  power    which    was  originally  instituted 
who  exercised  it  being  the  actual  super-  by  the    Romans,  on   the   extinction    of 
intendant  of  the  stables,  or  chief  of  the  their  kings  in  Tarquin  the  Proud, 
equerries,  whose  duty  was  to  furnish  the :      CONSULSHIP,    the    office   of  con- 
provender  for  the  horses,  and  to  oversee  sul. 

their  proper  management.  But  in  pro-  CONSUMPTION,  (contamination, 
cess  of  time  this  office  grew  into  high  I  Fjc)  the  expenditure,  or  waste  of  stores, 
consideration,  and   the  marshal,    subor-  ammunition,  &c. 

dinate  only  to  the  constable,  became  the  CONTACT,  (contact,  Fr.)  the  rela- 
second  in  command  of  the  armies,  and  the  state  of  two  things  that  touch  each 
in  the  absence  of  the  latter  supplied  his  other.  Those  points  which  touch  each 
place.     See  Marshal.  other  are  called  points  of  contact. 

The  powers  of  the  constable  as  a  field  CONTAGION,  (contagion,  Fr.)  the 
officer  were  extremely  ample  and  dig-  same  with  an  infection,  the  spreading,  or 
nilied.  The  constable  was  subordinate  catching  of  a  disease;  as  when  it  is  coin- 
only  to  the  king  in  the  command  of  the  munrcated,  or  transferred,  from  one 
army;  and  even  when  the  king  was  ac- 1  body  to  another,  by  certain  effluvia,  or 
tualiy  in  the  field,  the  efficient  command  [steams,  emitted,  or  sent  forth,  from  the 
of  the  troops  seems  to  have  been  in  this,  body  of  a  diseased  person,  or  from  a 
officer,  and  all  the  general  orders  were  contaminated  atmosphere.  Contagion 
issued  jointly  in  the  sovereign's  name  J  is  also  figuratively  used,  as  the  contagioa 
and  iH  the  constable's.  '■  of  example. 


(     1*9     ) 


Grande  CONTAGION,  Fr.  the  same 
as  peste,  the  plague. 

CONTE  pas,  Fr.  an  instrument  which 
serves  to  measure  the  ground  one  goes 
over.  It  is  also  called  odometer,  odo- 
metre,  Fr. 

CONTENIR  une  arm'ee,  un  ennemi, 
Fr.  to  keep  an  army,  or  an  enemy,  in 
check.  Of  this  description  was  sup- 
posed to  be  the  confederacy  formed  at 
Pilnitz  in  1792,  to  check  the  French 
Revolution.  But  its  issue  proved,  that 
partial  views  gained  the  ascendancy  over 
the  common  cause;  and  that  instead  of 
weakening,  or  restraining,  the  French, 
its  incongruous  materials  only  served  to 
strengthen  them. 

CONTENT,  the  capacity,  or  area,  of 
a  space,  or  the  quality  of  any  matter,  or 
space  included  in  certain  bounds. 

The  content  of  a  ton  of  round  timber 
is  forty  three  solid  feet.  A  load  of  hewn 
timber  contains  fifty  cubic  feet.  In  a 
foot  of  timber  are  contained  seventeen 
hundred  and  twenty-eight  cubic,  or 
square  inches;  and  as  often  as  seventeen 
hundred  and  twenty-eight  inches  are 
contained  in  a  piece  of  timber,  be  it 
round  or  square,  so  many  feet  of  timber 
are  contained  in  the  piece. 

CONTIGUOUS,  ( coniigu,  Fr.)  Two 
or  more  things  are  said  to  be  contiguous, 
when  they  are  disposed  so  near  each 
other,  that  they  join,  or  touch. 

Contiguous  angles,  (angles  contigus, 
Fr.)  in  geometry,  such  as  have  one  lea; 
common  to  each  angle,  otherwise  called 
adjoining  angles,  in  contradistinction  to 
those  produced  by  continuing  their  legs 
through  the  point  of  contact;  which  are 
called  opposite,  or  vertical  angles. 

CONTINGENCIES,  in  army  ac- 
counts, items  of  intermediate  expendi- 
ture; payments  made  on  account  of 
casualties,  or  unforeseen  circumstances. 

Lumping  Contingencies,  monie* 
paid  and  charged  against  the  public, 
without  any  specific  declaration  being 
made  of  the  service,  or  avowal  of  the 
person,  for  which,  and  to  whom,  such 
monies  have  been  issued.  Charges  of 
this  description  are  so  open  to  the  natu- 
ral misrepresentation  of  mankind,  that. 
for  the  sake  of  every  fair  and  honest 
servant  of  the  public,  each  item  of  ex- 
penditure ought  to  be  given. 

CONTINGENT,  something  casual,  or 
uncertain,  that  may,  or  may  not  happen. 

The  Contingent  bill  of  a  regiment 
is  an  account  of  extra  charges,  which 

depend  on  the  accidental  situation  or 
circumstances,  that  may  attend  any  re- 
giment In  its  due  course  of  service.  See 

Contingent,  (contingent,  Fr.)  the 
quota  of  armed  men,  or  pecuniary  sub- 
sidy, which  one  state  gives  to  another. 

CONTOUR,  Fr.  the  limits  of  a 
country,  of  a  town,  camp,  plan,  or 
drawing;  it  is  the  basis,  or  foundation, 
of  each. 

CONTOURNER,  Fr.  to  draw  the 
contours,  or  outline  of  a  picture;  to  give 
grace  and  symmetry  to  any  thing  which 
is  drawn,  or  designed,  by  the  hand. 

Mai  Contourner,  Fr.  to  draw  any 
thing  out  of  proportion. 

CONTRABAND.  This  term  is  ap- 
plicable to  various  foreign  commodities 
which  are  either  totally  prohibited  by 
the  English  laws,  or  are  subject  to  se- 
vere penalties  and  heavy  duties.  For 
the  encouragement  of  the  fair  trader, 
and  in  order  to  secure  the  revenue  from 
illicit  encroachments,  the  light  dragoons 
are  frequently  employed  upon  the  coast 
to  prevent  the  smugglers  from  carrying 
contraband  goods  into  the  country. 
Other  troops  are  sometimes  put  upon 
this  service;  but  light  horsemen  are  best 
calculated  to  do  the  duty.  Dragoons 
and  military  parties,  duly  authorised, 
employed  upon  this  service,  receive  a 
certain  proportion  of  every  thing  that  is 

CONTRACTILE  force,  in  mechanics, 
is  that  power,  or  property,  inherent  in 
certain  bodies,  whereby,  when  extended, 
they  are  enabled  to  draw  themselves  up 
a«ain  to  their  former  dimensions. 

CONTRAINDRE,  Fr.  to  levy  con- 
tributions on  a  town,  village,  ccc.  either 
in  monev  or  provisions. 

CONTRAINTE,  Fr.  the  exaction 
which  is  made  when  a  town,  or  country, 
is  put  under  contribution. 

CONTRAMURE,  in  fortification,  is 
a  wall  built  before  another  partition- 
wall  to  strengthen  it,  so  that  it  may 
receive  no  damage  from  the  adjacent 

CONTRAT,  Fr.  contract;  agree- 
ment.    It  also  signifies  a  deed. 

CONTRA VAIXATPON,  (contraval- 
lation,  Fr.)  a  line  formed  in  the  same 
manner  as  the  line  of  circumvallation, 
to  defend  the  besiegers  against  the  en- 
terprises of  the  garrison:  so  that  the 
army,  forming  a  siege,  lies  between  the 
lines  of  circumvallation  and  contravalla- 


(     130     ) 


(ion.  The  trench  of  this  line  is  towards 
the  town,  at  the  foot  of  the  parapet, 
and  is  never  made  but  when  the  gar- 
rison is  numerous  enough  to  harass  and 
interrupt  the  besieger  by  sallies.  This 
line  is  constructed  in  the  rear  of  the 
camp,  and  by  the  same  rule  as  the  line 
of  circumvallation,  with  this  difference, 
that  as  it  is  only  intended  to  resist  a 
body  of  troops  much  inferior  to  a  force 
which  might  attack  the  circumvallation, 
so  its  parapet  is  not  made  so  thick,  nor 
the  ditch  so  wide  and  deep;  6  feet  are 
sufficient  for  the  first,  and  the  ditch  is  8 
feet  broad,  and  5  feet  deep. 

Among  the  ancients  this  line  was  very 
common,  but  their  garrisons  were  much 
stronger  than  ours;  for,  as  the  inhabit- 
ants of  towns  were  then  almost  the  only 
soldiers,  there  were  commonly  as  many 
troops  to  defend  a  place  as  there  were 
inhabitants  in  it.  The  lines  of  circum- 
vallation and  contravallation  are  very 
ancient;  examples  of  them  being  found 
in  histories  of  the  remotest  antiquity. 
The  author  of  the  military  history  of 
Louis  le  Grand  pretends,  however,  that 
Caesar  was  the  first  inventor  of  them ; 
but  it  appears  from  the  Chevalier  de 
Folard's  treatise  on  the  method  of  at- 
tack and  defence  of  places,  used  by  the 
ancients,  that  these  lines  are  as  old  as 
the  time  in  which  towns  were  first  sur- 
rounded with  walls. 

CONTRAVENTION  militaire,  Fr. 
responsibility;  every  commanding  offi- 
cer, whatever  his  rank  may  be,  is  re- 
sponsible for  all  the  offences  committed 
by  the  troops  under  his  command. 

Contravention  also  signifies,  both 
in  French  and  English,  a  contravening, 
an  infringement,  &c.  also  a  breach : 
hence  en  cont?,avention  (Tune  lot  mili- 
taire, in  breach  of  an  article  of  war. 

CONTREBANDE,  Fr.  See  Con- 

Faire  la  Contrebande,  Fr.  to 

CONTREBANDIER,  Fr. a  smuggler, 
or  what  is  familiarly  called  a  fair  trader. 

CONTRE-«/>/)roc/fes,  Fr,  lines  in  for- 
tification, or  trenches  which  a  besieged 
garrison,  or  invested  army,  makes  to  de- 
feat the  attempts  of  its  adversaries. 

Coar  RE-batteries,  Fr.  batteries  which 
are  erected  for  the  purpose  of  answering 
those  of  an  enemy,  who  besieges  a  place, 
or  gives  battle. 

CoNTRE-^nesse,  or  CoNTRE-rwse,  Fr. 
a   stratagem   employed  to    oppose,    or 

prevent,  the  effect  of  another :  it  is  also 
called  contrc-mine. 

Com  \uz-forts,  Fr.  brick-work  which  is 
added  to  the  revetement  of  a  rampart 
OH  the  side  of  the  terre-pleine,  and 
winch  is  equal  to  its  height.  Contre- 
forts  are  used  to  support  the  body  of 
earth  with  which  the  rampart  is  formed. 
They  are  likewise  practised  in  the  re- 
vetements  of  counterscarps,  in  gorges, 
and  deini-gorges,  &c.  The  latter  are 
constructed  upon  a  less  scale  than  the 
former.  It  has  been  suggested  by  an 
able  engineer  in  the  French  service,  to 
unite  eontre-foits,  and  consequently  to 
strengthen  them,  by  means  of  arches. 

Contre-forti  likewise  form  a  part  of 
the  construction  of  powder-magazines, 
which  are  bomb-proof. 

CoNTRE-£«?'de,  ou  conserve,  ou  couvre- 
face,  Fr.  in  fortification,  counter-guard. 
Contre-/<£MC,  Fr.  a  sort  of  tempo- 
rary fortification  which  is  thrown  up 
with  earth,  and  stands  between  a  be- 
sieged town,  or  fortress,  and  a  besieging 
army,  in  order  to  prevent  the  sorties  of 
the  former. 

CoNTRE-wjfl/r/ie,  Fr.     See  Maucu. 
CoNTRE-mine,  Fr.     See  Mine.' 
Cout  RE-mineurs,  Fr.     See  Mine. 
CoNTRE-7/«m*,Fr.  up  the  river;  up  hill. 
Contre-?«o£,  Fr.  a  second  parole,  or 
countersign,  which  is  given   in   times  oi 

CoNTRE-7«wr,  Fr.  an  outward  wall 
erected  round  the  principal  wall  of  a 

CoNTRE-orJ/e,  Fr.  a  counter-order. 
CoNTRE-por/c,  Fr.  an  inward  door,  or 

CoxTRE-queue  d't/ronde,  Fr.  a  work  in 
fortification,  which  has  two  faces,  or 
sides,  making  a  rentrant  angle,  by  join- 
ing together  towards  the  inside  of  the 
wurk.  It  has  also  two  brandies,  whiclL, 
with  the  faces,  contain  a  narrower  space 
towards  the  enemy  than  on  the  other  side. 
CoxTRE-ronde,  Fr.  a  round  which  is 
made  subsequent  to  another,  to  see  if  the 
first  round  was  gone  according  to  order. 
Cont RE-sanglon,  Fr.  girth-leather. 
CoNTRE-sJi,'«e,  Fr.  the  signature,  or 
name  of  a  prince,  minister,  or  of  any 
privileged  person,  which  is  written  on 
the  outside  of  a  letter,  and  renders  it 
post  free,  &c.  This  word  is  properly 
written  Contre-seitig. 

CoNTRE-sigraer,  Fr.  to  countersign;  to 
CoNTRE-<ew/«,  Fr.     When  two  per- 


<   1*1   ) 


sons,  fighting  with  swords,  thrust  at  the 
same  time  without  parrying;  the  thrust 
is  equally  dangerous  for  both  parties, 
and  is  called  a  contre-temps,  or  counter- 

ConiRE-tranchces,  Fr.  trenches  made 
against  the  besiegers  with  their  parapet; 
they  must  communicate  with  several 
parts  of  the  town,  in  order  that  the  gar- 
rison may  be  able  to  retire  into  it  hastily, 
after  having  broken  or  stopped  the  com- 
munications; otherwise  it  would  be 
losing  time  to  erect  a  work  which  you 
would  be  obliged  to  demolish,  or  to  fill 
up,  when  you  had  reached  the  third  pa- 

CONTREE,  Fr.  country;  region. 

CONTRESCARPE,  Fr.  counter- 

CONTRESCARPER,  Fr.  to  coun- 

CONTRESCEL,  Fr.  counter-seal. 

CONTRESCELLER,  Fr.  to  coun- 

OONTRESPALIER,  Fr.  hedge-row 
of  trees. 

CONTRIBUTE,  (contribuer,  Fr.)  to 
furnish  from  good-will  and  patriotism, 
or  from  compulsion,  money,  stores,  ccc. 
for  the  support  of  an  army. 

CONTRIBUTION,  in  military  his- 
tory, is  an  imposition,  or  tax,  paid  by 
countries  who  bear  the  scourge  of  war, 
to  secure  themselves  from  being  plun- 
dered and  totally  destroyed  by  the  ene- 
my. When  a  belligerent  prince,  wanting 
money,  raises  it  on  the  enemy's  country, 
and  is  either  paid  in  provisions,  or  in 
money,  and  sometimes  in  both,  he  is 
said  to  do  so  by  contribution. 

Mettre  a  Contribution,  Fr.  to  put 
under  contribution. 

CONTROL,  comptrol,  (contrite,  Fr.) 
is  properly  a  double  register  kept  of  acts, 
issues  of  the  officers,  or  commissioners, 
in  the  revenues,  army,  &c.  in  order  to 
ascertain  the  true  state  thereof. 

CONTROLES,  Fr.  See  Muster- 

CONTROLEURS  des  guerres,  Fr. 
muster-masters.  This  term  was  like- 
wise applied  to  signify  various  other  ap- 
pointments belonging  to  the  interior 
arrangement  of  the  French  army,  viz. 
contruleurs  g'eneraux  d'artillerie,  contro- 
leurs  des  hopitaux  militaires. 

Controleur  general  des  vivres,  Fr. 
commissary-general  of  stores. 

CONTUSION,  (contusion,  Fr.)  the 
effect  of  a  ball,  or  of  any  other  hard  sub- 

stance, upon  the  human  frame,  when  it 
is  struck,  without  breaking,  or  tearing, 
the  skin. 

^  CONVALESCENT,  (convalescent,^ 
Fr.)  recovering,  returning  to  a  state  of 
health.  Hospitals  have  been  established 
during  the  present  war  in  different  dis- 
tricts, for  the  preservation  of  our  troops. 
Among  others,  there  is  in  each  district 
a  convalescent  hospital. 

List  of  Convalescents  is  a  return 
made  out  by  the  surgeon  belonging  to  a 
battalion,  hospital,  &c.  to  ascertain  the 
specific  number  of  men  who  may  shortly 
be  expected  to  do  duty. 

CONVENTION,  '(convention,  Fr.) 
an  agreement  which  is  entered  into  by 
troops  that  are  opposed  to  one  another, 
either  for  the  evacuation  of  some  parti- 
cular post,  the  suspension  of  hostilities, 
or  the  exchange  of  prisoners. 

CONVENTION,  Fr.  convention; 
contract;  agreement.  The  French  say 
de  difficile  convention,  hard  to  deal  with. 

CosvEXTios-Nationale,  Fr.  the  Na- 
tional Convention,  which  succeeded  the 
National  Assembly  at  Paris,  in  1792, 
and  at  the  tribunal  of  which  Louis  XVI. 
was  tried  and  condemned  to  death,  21st 
January,  1793. 

Conventions  entre  Souverains  pour 
restitution  des  deserteurs,  Fr.  agree- 
ments, or  stipulations,  made  between 
neighbouring  powers  to  check  deser- 
tions. In  conformity  to  these  conven- 
tions, all  deserters  whatever  are  arrested 
within  the  dominions  of  a  sovereign, 
who  has  passed  an  agreement  of  the 
kind  with  the  prince  from  whose  army 
they  have  deserted.  The  intelligence  is 
forwarded  to  the  commandant  of  the 
nearest  town,  who  sends  for  the  de- 
serter, and  forwards  him  to  his  corps, 
where  the  expenses  of  his  escort  are  re- 
paid. No  such  agreements  have  ever 
been  entered  into  by  Great  Britain. 

Conventions  secretes  entre  les  offi- 
ciers  d'un  corps,  Fr.  certain  secret  agree- 
ments which  are  entered  into  by  the 
officers  of  a  regiment,  either  for  the 
benefit  of  the  regiment,  or  in  opposition 
to  a  commanding  officer.  Of  this  de- 
scription is  the  Round  Robin. 

CONVERSION,  fr.  a  sudden  motion 
of  the  troops  whilst  manoeuvring,  or  in 
battle,  which  is  made  either  by  wheeling 
from  the  right,  or  from  the  left.  This 
word  corresponds  with  our  term  wheel. 

Conversion,  quart  de  conversion,  Fr. 
a  wheel  which  comprehends  the  quarter 

C  O  Q 

(    iss   ) 


of  a  circle,  and  turns  the  front  of  a  bat- 
talion where  the  flank  was. 

Fain  Conversion,  Fr.  See  ToVi  heel. 

CONVEX,  (ceftVMV,  Fr.)  externally 
round,  as  a  globe,  cannon  bail,  ccc. 

CONVEXITY,  (convcrite,  Fr.)  the' 
external  surface  of  any  round  body,  or 

CONVOCATION,    Fr.    the    act    ofj 
summoning    various    persons    belonging 
to  a  state,  for  the  purpose  of  discussing 
matters  which   relate  to  civil  or  military 

CONVOQUER,  Fr.  to  call  together. 

To  CONVOY,  (convoyrr,  Fr.)  This 
term  is  used  among  the  French, both  for 

sea,  or  laud. 

CONVOY,  (convoi,  Fr.)  a  detachment 
of  troops  employed  to  guard  any  supply 
of  men,  money,  ammunition,  provision, 
stores,  etc.  conveyed  in  time  of  war, 
by  land  or  sea,  to  a  town  or  army.  A 
body  of  men  that  marches  to  secure  any 
thing  from  falling  into  the  enemy's  hand 
is  also  called  a  eonvoy. 

To  COOPERATE,  (co-operer,  Fr.) 
to  put  a  welt-digested  plan  into  execu- 
tion, so  that  forces,  however  divided, 
may  act  upon  one  principle, and  towards 
one  end. 

COOK,  (cuisinicr,  Fr.)  each  troop  or 
company  has  cooks,  who  are  excused  from 
other  duties. 

COPEAU,  Fr.  chip;  shaving. 

l'i»  de  Coi'eau,  Fr.  wine  just  made, 
and  running  through  shavings. 

COPPER,  (cuivre,  Fr.)  no  other  metal 
is  allowed  to  the  magazines,  or  barrels  of 
gunpowder.  It  is  one  of  the  six  primi- 
tive metals. 

Coi'Vi:\\,(chaudiere,  Fr.)  a  large  boiler, 
such  as  is  used  in  regimental  kitchens 
for  the  soldiers. 

JUess-CopPEits,  a  term  used  in  In- 
dia among  the  King's  troops,  meaning 
any  surplus  that  may  remain  in  the  hands 
of  the  Serjeants  in  charge  of  the  messes, 
at  the  expiration  of  each  ten  days,  which 
money  it  has  been  customary  immediately 
to  divide  amongst  the  men. 

Hlolten-Coi'i'ER,  (rosette,  Fr.)  copper 
that  is  melted. 

CoPVER-plale,  (taille  douce,  Fr.)  a 
plate  on  which  pictures,  &c.  are  en- 

COQUILLES  a  boulet,  Fr.  shells  or 
moulds.  They  are  made  either  of  brass, 
or  iron;  two  are  required  for  the  cast- 
ing of  a  cannon-ball ;  but  they  never 
close  so  effectually  as  to  prevent  the  li- 
quid metal,  which  has  been  poured  in, 

from  running  somewhat  out  of  the  part 
where  they  join.  This  excrescence  is 
called  the  beard,  which  is  broken  off  1 1> 
render  the  ball  perfectly  round. 

COR,  Fr.  a  French  "horn.  A  cor  et 
a  cri,  with  hue  and  cry  ;  with  might  and 

CORBE1LLES,  Fr.  large  baskets, 
which  being  filled  with  earth,  and  placed 
one  by  another  along  the  parapet,  serve 
to  cover  the  besieged  from  the  shot  of 
the  assailing  enemy.  See  Basket. 
CORBILLARD,  Fr.  a  herse. 
CORDAGES,  Fr.  all  sorts  of  ropes 
which  are  used  in  the  artillery,  &c. 

CORDE,  Fr.  cord,  in  geometry, 
and  fortification,  means  a  straight  hue 
which  cuts  the  circumference  into  two 
parts,  without  running  through  the  cen- 

Corde-m  feu,  Fr.  a  rope-match,  com- 
posed of  combustible  materials. 

Corde  d'estrapade,  Fr.  a  rope  by  which 
men  or  women  are  hoisted  up,  by  way  of 

Cord e  de  fare,  Fr.  SeeSuBTENBANT. 
CORDEAU,  Fr.  a  cord  which  is 
used  in  measuring  ground.  It  is  di- 
vided into  toises,  feet,  and  inches,  for 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining,  with  preci- 
sion, the  opening  of  angles  and  the  ex- 
tent of  lines.  In  wet  weather  a  small 
chain  made  of  wire  is  substituted,  to 
prevent  mistakes  that  would  necessarily 
occur  from  the  end  becoming  shorter 
or  longer,  according  to  the  influence 
of  the  weather.  The  technical  terms 
among  French  engineers,  are — Manier 
le  cordeau  ;  Pendre  le  cordeau ;  Tra- 
vail, er  an  cordeau. 

Cordeau  de  campement,  Fr.  a  long 
cord  divided  at  equal  distances  with  a 
piece  of  cloth  of  a  bright  colour,  that  it 
may  be  better  seen  ;  it  serves  to  mark, 
from  left  to  right,  the  alignement  of  the 
camp  of  each  battalion  in  battle  array. 

C o r d e a u  de  iiicaurc,  Fr.  See  C h a i  n  e 

CORD  ERIE,  Fr.  a  rope-walk. 
CORDON,  in  fortification,  is  a  row 
of  stones  made  round  on  the  outside, 
and  placed  between  the  termination  of 
the  slope  of  the  wall,  and  the  parapet 
which  stands  perpendicular,  in  such  a 
manner,  that  this  difference  may  not  be 
offensive  to  the  eye;  whence  those  cor- 
dons serve  only  as  ornaments  in  walled 

The  Cordon  of  the  revetment  of  the 
rampart  is  often  on  a  level  with  the 
tene-pleiue  of  the  rampart.     It  has  beea 

COR  (     133 

observed  in  a    French    military   publi 



cation,  that  it  might  be  more  advan- 
tageously placed  some  feet  lower,  espe- 
cially when  there  is  a  wall  attached  to 
the  parapet,  to  shield  the  round*  from 
the-enemy's  fire. 

Cordon,  in  military  history, is  a  chain 
of  posts,  or  an  imaginary  line  of  separa- 
tion between  two  armies,  either  in  the 
field,  or  in  winter  quarters. 

Cordon  bleu,  Fr.  the  blue  ribbon.  See 

Cordon  rouge, Fr.thered  ribbon.  See 

Cordon  also  signifies  the  outermost  bor- 
der of  a  wall,  &c.  generally  made  of  stone. 

CORNAGE,  an  ancient  tenure,  which 
obliged  the  land-holder  to  give  notice  of 
an  invasion  by  blowing  a  horn. 

CORNE  a  amorcer,  Fr.  a  priming- 

CoRNE,    OU    OUVRAGE   a   CoRNE,    Fr. 

See  Horned-work. 

CORNES  de  belier,  Fr.  low  flanks  in 
lieu  of  tenailles,  for  the  defence  of  the 
ditch.     See  Ouvrage  a  corne. 

CORNES,  Fr.  horns.  The  French 
say  figuratively,  Lever  les  comes,  to  rebel 
against  one's  superiors. 

CORNET,  in  the  military  history  of 
the  ancients,  an  instrument  much  in  the 
nature  of  a  trumpet:  when  the  cornet 
was  sounded  alone,  the  ensigns  were  to 
march  without  the  soldiers;  whereas, 
when  the  trumpet  only  sounded,  the 
soldiers  were  to  move  forward  without 
the  ensigns.  A  troop  of  horse  was  so 

Cornet,  in  the  military  history  of 
the  moderns,  the  third  commissioned  of- 
ficer in  a  troop  of  horse  or  dragoons, 
subordinate  to  the  captain  and  lieute- 
nant, equivalent  to  the  ensign  amongst 
the  foot.  His  duty  is  to  carry  the  stand- 
ard, near  the  center  of  the  front  rank  of 
the  squadron. 

Cornet  d'ouie,  Fr.  a  horn  made  of 
beaten  iron,  which  the  officers  use  in 
going  their  rounds  to  hear  from  over  the 
parapet  what  passes  in  the  ditches,  and 
even  beyond  the  covert-way. 

CORNETTE,  Fr.     See  Cornet. 

The  Cornettes  or  Cornets  of  the 
colonel-general  of  cavalry,  in  the  old 
French  service,  as  well  as  those  attached 
to  the  quarter-master-general  and  com- 
missary-general, ranked  as  lieutenants, 
and  the  Cornettes  of  la  Colouelle-gene- 
rale  des  dragons  ranked  as  youngest 
lieutenants,  and  commanded  all  other 

Cornette,  Fr.  was  likewise  the  term 
used  to  signify  the  standard  peculiarly 
appropriated  to  the  light  cavalry.  Hence 
cornettes  and  troops  were  synonimous 
terms  to  express  the  number  of  light- 
horse  attached  to  an  army.  The  stand- 
ard so  called  was  made  of  taffetas  or 
glazed  silk,  one  foot  and  a  half  square, 
upon  which  the  arms,  motto,  and  cy- 
pher of  the  prince  who  commanded  the 
cavalry  were  engraved.  A  sort  of  scarf, 
or  long  piece  of  white  silk,  was  tied  to 
the  cornette  whenever  the  cavalry  went 
into  action,  in  order  to  render  the  stand- 
ard conspicuous,  that  the  men  might  rally 
round  it. 

Fr.  an  ornament  which,  in  ancient 
times,  served  to  distinguish  French  of- 
ficers who  were  high  in  command.  It 
was  worn  by  them  on  the  top  of  their 
helmets.  It  likewise  meant  a  royal 
standard,  and  was  substituted  in  the 
room  of  the  Pennon  Roial.  The  cor- 
nette-blanche  was  only  unfurled  when 
the  king  joined  the  army;  and  the  per- 
sons who  served  under  it  were  princes, 
noblemen,  marshals  of  France,  and  old 
captains,  who  received  orders  from  his 
Majesty  direct. 

CORNICE,  (corniche,  Fr.)  in  archi- 
tecture, the  uppermost  member  of  the 
entablature  of  a  column,  or  that  which 
crowns  the  order. 

The  cornice  is  the  third  grand  division 
of  the  trabeation,  commencing  with  the 
frieze,  and  ending  with  the  cymatium. 

According  toBelidor,  cornice  signifies 
every  salient  profile  that  crowns  a  work, 

CORNICON,  Fr.  a  species  of  trum- 
pet used  among  the  ancients.  Prior  to 
the  Romans  being  acquainted  with  the 
trumpet  and  kettle-drum,  a  Cornieon 
drew  sounds  from  the  horn  of  a  wild 
bullock,  lined  with  silver.  The  sound 
was  loud  and  shrill,  and  was  heard  from 
a  great  distance.  This  instrument,  which, 
perhaps  in  the  opinion  of  some,  will  not 
he  considered  as  a  very  wonderful  inven- 
tion, did  not  originally  belong  to  the  Ro- 
mans, but  was  borrowed  from  the  Phry- 
gians. A  Phrygian  named  Marsyas  was 
the  in ventor,who,  probably,  little  thought, 
that  a  horn  would  render  his  name  me- 

CORNICULUM,  a  kind  of  iron  or 
brass  horn  added  to  the  helmet  as  a  mi- 
litary distinction,  which  was  granted  to 
the  Roman  soldier  who  had  shewn  proofs 
of  extraordinary  valour. 

CORNISH  ring,  in  gunnery,  the  next 

(     134 



ring  from  the  muzzle  backwards 

CORN U A  Exercitus.  The  Romans 
used  to  call  by  this  name  what  we 
term  right  and  left  wing  of  an  army. 
However,  according  to  Polybius,  by 
cornua  exercitus,  they  only  meant  the 
auxiliary  troops  which  were  divided  so 
as  to  occupy  both  extremities  of  a  Hu- 
man army.  These  two  divisions  were 
.distinguished  by  the  appellation  ol'  dex- 
trum  cornu  and  sinistrum  cornu, 
and  left  wing. 

COROLLARY,  {corolluire,  Fr.)  with 
mathematicians,  an  useful  consequence 
drawn  from  something  that  has  been  ad- 
vanced before:  as,  that  a  triangle  that 
has  three  sides  equal,  has  a/so  two  angles 
equal;  and  this  consequence  should  be 
inferred,  that  a  triangle,  all  zehost  sides 
are  equal,  has  also  its  three  angles  equal. 

CORONA,         }  in  architecture,   is  a 

CORONE,        f  large  flat  member  of 

CROWN,         (  the  cornice,  so  called, 

CROWNING,  )  because  it  crowns  not 
only  the  cornice,  but  the  entablature, 
and  the  whole  order. 

CORPORAL,  (caporal,  Fr.)  a  rank 
and  file  man  with  superior  pay  to  that  of 
common  soldiers, and  with  nominal  rank 
under  a  Serjeant.  He  has  charge  of  one 
of  the  squads  of  the  company,  places 
and  relieves  sentinels,  and  keeps  good 
order  in  the  guard.  lie  receives  the 
word  of  the  inferior  rounds  that  pass  by 
his  guard.  Every  company  has  three  or 
tour  corporals. 

LaKce-CoRPORAL,  (caporal  hrcveti, 
Fr.)  one  who  acts  as  corporal,  receiving 
pay  as  a  private.  He  is  also  called  vice- 
caporal,  and  by  the  common  soldiers 
caporal  postiche. 

Corporal  «/'  a  ship,  an  officer 
whose  business  is  to  look  to  all  the  small 
shot  and  arms,  to  keep  them  clean,  with 
due  proportions  of  match,  &c 

CORPS,  with  architects,  a  term  sig- 
nifying any  part  that  projects,  or  ad- 
vances beyond  the  naked  ofa  wall,  and 
which  serves  as  a  ground  for  some  deco- 

Corps,  any  body  of  forces.  Corps 
is  also  applied  to  specific  regiments;  as 
the  corps  of  Guards;  likewise  to  a  par- 
ticular class  of  men;  as  a  tine  corps  of 
drums  and  fifes. 

Corps  de  garde,  Fr.  in  the  French  ac- 
ceptation of  the  word,  signifies  not  only 
the  place  itself,  but  likewise  the  men 
who   are   stationed   to  nmi™»*    if      Si 




protect  it.    See 

Corps  de  garde  avancee,  Fr.  When 
a  camp  is  secured  by  intrenchments,  and 
has  one  line  of  defence,  the  corps  de 
garde,  or  advanced  post  of  the  cavalry, is 
on  the  outside  of  the  line,  and  each  part 
has  its  quarter  and  main  guard.  The 
quarter  guard,  or  petit  corps  de  garde,  is 
more  in  front,  but  still  in  sight  of  the 
main  guard,  and  the  vedette  is  still  far- 
ther in  advance,  for  the  security  of  both. 

Coups  de  reserve.     See  Reserve. 

Coups  d/armte,  Fr.  the  whole  of  an 
army,  including  detachments,  &c. 

Corps  de  bataille,  Fr.  the  whole  line 
of  an  army  which  is  drawn  out  in  order 
of  battle. 

Corps  de  casernes,  Fr.  the  range  of 
buildings  called  barracks,  erected  for  the 
convenience  of  troops. 

Corps  g'tont'etrique,  Fr.  signifies  length, 
breadth,  and  depth. 

CORRELET  or  Corslet,  an  ancient 
suit  of  armour  which  was  chiefly  worn  by 
pikemen,  who  were  thence  often  deno- 
minated Corselets.  The  same  kind  of 
armour  was  worn  by  the  harquebusiers. 

To  CORRESPOND,  to  hold  inter- 
course. An  officer  or  soldier  who  cor- 
responds with  the  enemy,  is  liable  to 
suffer  death,  by  the  Articles  of  War. 

CORRESPONDENCE,  (correspon- 
dunce,  Fr.)  a  written  intercourse  which  is 
kept  up  between  officers  at  the  head  of 
the  army,  or  between  belligerent  powers, 
who  are  embarked  in  the  same  cause, 
and  who  communicate  together  in  order 
to  secure  ultimate  success. 

Military  Correspondence,  (corre- 
spondance  de gucrre,Yv.)  See  Military 
Sec r  eta  i:t . 

Secret  Correspondence,  (correspon- 
dance  secrete,  Fr.)  secret  intelligence  or 
correspondence  which  is  maintained  be- 
tween the  general  of  an  army,  and  some 
one  or  more  confidential  agents  that  are 
employed  to  watch  the  enemy. 

CORRIDOR, (corridor,  Fr.)  the  covert- 
way  which  is  formed  between  the  fosse 
and  palisade  on  the  counterscarp.  See 
Covert-wav.  This  word  is  becoming 
obsolete  as  a  military  term,  and  is  chiefly 
used  to  designate  a  gallery,  &c. 

CORRODY,  a  defalcation  from  an 
allowance  or  salary,  for  some  other  than 
the  original  purpose.  Thus  an  officer 
who  retires  upon  the  full  pay  of  a  short 
troop  or  company,  holds  a  Corrody. 

CORROYER,  Fr.  to  mix  lime  and 
sand  with  water,  well  together,  in  order 
to  make  mortar. 

CORYPHEE,  Fr.  chief;  leader. 


(     135     ) 


CORSAGE,  Fr.  the  trunk  of  the 
body ;  either  of  a  man  or  animal. 

CORSAIR,  ( corsair e,  Fr.)  in  naval 
history,  a  name  given  to  the  piratical 
cruisers  of  Barbary,  who  frequently 
plunder  the  merchant  ships  of  countries 
with  whom  they  are  at  peace;  a  pirate. 

CORSELET,  a  little  cuirass;  or,  ac- 
cording to  others,  an  armour,  or  coat 
made  to  cover  the  whole  body,  anciently 
worn  by  the  pikemen,  who  were  .usual  ly 
placed  in  the  front  and  on  the  flanks  of 
the  battle,  for  the  better  resisting  the 
enemy's  assaults,  and  guarding  the  sol- 
diers posted  behind  them. 

CORTEGE,  Fr.  the  suite  or  retinue 
which  accompanies  a  person  of  distinc- 
tion.   We  use  the  term  in  the  same  sense. 

CORTES,  the  states,  or  the  assembly 
of  the  states,  in  Madrid. 

CORVEE,  Fr.  a  species  of  hard  la- 
bour for  the  repair  of  public  roads,  &c. 
to  which  a  certain  number  of  soldiers, 
and  sometimes  the  inhabitants  of  towns 
and  villages,  were  subjected  during  the 
old  French  monarchy.  This  personal  tax 
was  done  away  at  the  Revolution,  and 
turnpikes  have  since  been  established 
throughout  France.  Corvee  likewise 
means  a  job. 

CO-SECANT,  (co-secant,  Fr.)  the  se- 
cant of  an  arch,  which  is  the  comple- 
ment of  another  to  90°. 

CO-SINE,  (co-sinus,  Fr.)  is  the  right 
sine  of  an  arch,  which  is  the  complement 
of  another  to  90°. 

COSMOGRA  PHY, (cosmographie,  Fr.) 
a  science  which  teaches  the  structure, 
shape,  disposition,  and  connection  of 
all  the  different  parts  of  the  globe;  like- 
wise the  manner  of  delineating  them  on 
paper:  it  is  composed  of  two  parts,  viz. 
astronomy  and  geography. 

COSMOLABE,  an  ancient  mathe- 
matical instrument  for  measuring  dis- 
tances both  above  and  below. 

COSMOPOLITAN,  (cosmopolitain, 
cosmopolite,  Fr.)  a  citizen  of  the  world. 

cording to  Sir  Robert  Wilson,  in  his 
brief  remarkson  the  Character  and  Com- 
position of  the  Russian  army,  the  Cos- 
saquesare  a  description  of  troopspcculiar 
to  the  Russian  Army.  There  are  some 
writers  who  believe,  that  the  Cossaques 
have  been  a  people  900  years,  and  sup- 
pose them  to  have  come  originally  from 
the  neighbourhood  of  Mount  Caucasus, 
and  to  have  settled  on  the  Don,  anciently 
called  the  Tanais;  whence  they  sent  out 

colonies,  and  conquered  Siberia,  which 
they  ceded  to  Russia  in  1574,  and  in 
1584  they  established  themselves  on  the 
Volga.  In  1574  they  made  their  first 
appearance  in  the  Russian  armies. 

The  Cossaque  is  mounted  on  a  very 
little,  ill-conditioned, but  well-bred  horse, 
which  can  walk  at  the  rate  of  five  miles  an 
hour  with  ease,  or  vie  with  the  swiftest 

The  Cossaque  has  only  a  snaffle  bridle 
on  his  horse,  for  the  convenience  of 
feeding  at  all  times,  and  even  in  the  pre- 
sence of  an  enemy.  He  carries  a  short 
whip  on  his  wrist,  as  he  does  not  wear 
a  spur;  and  as  he  is  constantly  armed 
with  a  lance,  a  pistol  in  his  girdle,  and 
a  sword,  he  never  fears  a  competitor  in 
single  combat.  The  Cosaques  distin- 
guished themselves  during  the  war  be- 
tween the  Russians  and  the  French  on 
several  occasions.  Though  supposed  to 
be  less  civilized  than  their  brethren  in 
arms,  the  uniform  tenour  of  their  con- 
duct, both  in  1814and  1815,  has  entitled 
them  to  general  esteem,  and  secured  them 
from  reproach,  even  in  France. 

COSSE,  Fr.  a  measure  of  distance  in 
the  East  Indies,  equal  to  2500  geometri- 
cal paces. 

COSSE,       )  as      Cossick    Numbers. 

COSSICK,  S  This  was  the  old  name 
of  the  art  of  algebra,  and  is  derived  from 
cosa,  Ital.  for  res  or  the  root;  for  the 
Italians  call  algebra,  regula  rei  ct  census, 
i.  e.  the  rule  of  the  root  and  the  square. 
Cossick  numbers,  with  some  algebraists, 
are  the  powers  of  numbers,  as  the  roots, 
the  square,  the  cube,  &c. 

COTANGENT,  the  tangent  of  an 
arch  which  is  the  complement  of  another 
to  S0°.  t 

COTE,  Fr.  side.  The  whole  extent 
or  length  of  a  branch  in  fortification; 
the  distance  or  space  between  two  given 
points,  or  the  detni-gorges  of  two  neigh- 
bouring bastions. 

Cote  ext'erieur  du  poligonr,  Fr. 
terior  side  of  the  polygon.  The 
which  is  drawn  from  the  capital  of 
bastion  to  another. 

Cote  inlaieur  du  poligone,  Fr. 
terior  side  of  the  polygon.  The 
which  is  drawn  from  the  angle  of 
gorge  to  the  angle  of  the  gorge  most 
contiguous  to  it.  See  sides  of  the  Po- 

Du  Cote  de  POrient,  Fr.  eastwards. 

COTE  a  Cote,  Fr.  abreast. 

COTEAU,  Fr.  a  hillock. 




(     136     ) 

C  O  V 

COTER,  Jr.  to  mark  upon  the  plans 
and  profiles  of  works  of  fortification, 
the  exact  measurement  thereof  divided 
into  toises,  feet,  inches,  and  lines :  the 
figure  which  is  used  to  distinguish  the 
ditl'erent  parts  of  the  work  is  called  the 
coti :  so  that  when  it  is  necessary  to  re- 
pair a  bastion,  the  engineer  instantly 
Knows  the  defective  part. 

COTISER,  Fr.  to  give  one's  allotted 
proportion  of  money  or  provisions,  &c. 
for  the  use  of  an  army.  Also  to  make  a 
person  contribute  any  rate  according  to 
his  means. 

COTOYER  une  arwee,  Fr.  to  keep  a 
parallel  line  with  an  enemy,  so  as  to 
prevent  him  from  crossing  a  river,  or  to 
seize  a  convenient  opportunity  to  attack 

Cotoyer  also  signifies  to  coast  along. 
COTTE  d'armes,  Fr.  the  military 
dress  of  the  ancient  Gauls,  the  length 
of  which  frequently  varied;  sometimes 
it  hung  to  the  ground  both  before  and 
behind,  with  the  sides  sloping;  some- 
times it  came  just  above  the  knee,  and 
at  oilier  times  just  below  it.  In  sub- 
sequent years  it  was  only  worn  by  the 
Ik  routs  d'armes  and  les  gardes  de  la 
tnanche,  as  we  may  have  seen  in  our 
days  Those  Gauls  that  were  opulent 
displayed  great  magnificence  in  their 
colic  d'armes.  Since  that  period  the 
privilege  has  descended  to  the  sons  of 
grandees  and  noblemen. 

CO  111',  de  muilles,  Fr.coat  of  mail. 
COTTEREAUX,  Fr.  a  banditti  that 
formerly  infested    France,    particularly 
the  province  of  Berri.     They  were  de- 
stroyed   by    Philip    Augustus    in    11G3. 
Their  only  weapon  was  a  large  knife. 
COUARD,  Fr.     See  Coward. 
COUARDISE,  Fr.    SeeCowARDicE. 
COUCH,  (couche,   Fr.)  with  painters, 
a  lay  or  impression  of  colour,  or  varnish. 
To    COICH,     a   term   used   in   the 
exercise  of  the  lance.     Bring  the  lance 
under  the  right  arm,  and  holding  it  firm 
there  by   pressing  the  arm  to  the  body, 
direct  the  point  with  the  right  hand. 

COUCHE,  Fr.  in  carpentry,  a  piece 
of  timber  which  is  laid  flat  under  the 
foot  of  a  prop  or  stay. 

COL  CHER,  Fr.  in  an  active  sense 
of  the  verb,  to  lay. 

CovcHERsur/e  carreau,Yr.  to  lay  low. 
Coucher  en  joue,  Fr.  to  take  aim  with 
a  firelock  :  figuratively,  to  keep  any  per- 
son, or  thing,  in  view,  for  the  purpose  of 
gaining  some  object. 

Coucher  vnecrit,  Fr.  to  write  down, 
to  take  down  in  writing. 

COUCHES,  Fr.  courses  or  layers 
of  sand,  which  are  spread  about  one 
foot  deep,  over  the  boarding  of  a  wooden 
bridge,  in  order  to  place  the  stones 
upon  it.  Also  any  layer  of  sand  or 
gravel  which  serves  to  have  a  pavement 
laid  upon. 

COUDE,  Fr.  an  obtuse  angle  in  the 
continuity  of  a  front  or  partition  wall, 
taken  outside,  with  one  turn,  or  bent 
within.     Also  any  angle. 

Coude,  Fr.  any  turning  or  deviation 
from  a  direct  line,  that  is  made  by  a 
river,  canal,  road,  or  branch  of  a  work 
in  fortification. 

Coude  d'unc  riviere,  Fr.  a  winding  of 
the  river. 

COUDE  E,  Fr.  an  ancient  measure 
taken  from  the  elbow  to  the  end  of  the 

COVENTRY,  a  town  in  Warwick- 

To  be.  sent  to  Coventry,  a  military 
term  used  to  express  the  situation  of  an 
officer  who  is  not  upon  a  good  footing 
with  his  brother  officers.  This  term 
derives  its  origin  from  a  circumstance 
which  happened  to  a  regiment  that  was 
quartered  in  the  town  of  Coventry, 
where  the  officers  were  extremely  ill  re- 
ceived by  the  inhabitants,  or  rather  de- 
nied all  sort  of  intercourse  with  them. 
Hence  to  be  sent  to  Coventry  signifies 
to  be  excluded  from  all  social  communi- 
cation with  others;  or,  more  properly, 
with  those  who  before  were  intimate. 

To  COVER,  in  the  mathematical  dis- 
position of  a  battalion,  company,  or 
squad,  only  means  that  a  man  is  to 
stand  in  such  a  position  in  file,  as  that, 
when  he  looks  exactly  forward  to  the 
neck  of  the  man  who  leads  him,  he 
cannot  see  the  second  man  from  him. 
Nothing  but  great  attention  at  the  drill 
can  bring  men  to  cover  so  truly  as  never 
to  destroy  the  perpendicular  direction  of 
anv  leading  body.  The  least  deviation 
in  the  men  who  cover  upon  either  flank 
of  a  leading  column,  or  division,  will 
throw  all  that  follow  out  of  the  true 

To  Cover  ground  is  to  occupy  a 
certain  proportion  of  ground,  indivi- 
dually, or  collectively.  A  foot  soldier 
upon  an  average  covers  c22  inches  of 
ground  when  he  stands  in  the  ranks. 
The  dimensions  arc  taken  from  his 
shoulder  points. 

C  O  V 

(    137    5 

c  o  u 

A  file  on  horseback  covers  or  occupies 
in  the  ranks  about  2  feet  8  inches. 
Thus  three  file  will  occupy  8  feet; 
twelve  file  32  feet  or  10  yards  and  2  feet; 
thirteen  file,  34  feet  8  inches,  or  11 
yards,  1  foot,  8  inches;  fourteen  file,  37 
feet  4  inches,  or  12  yards  1  foot  4  inches, 
and  so  on. 

One  horse's  length  from  nose  to  croup, 
on  an  average,  3  feet  and  about  2 
inches,  or  2  yards  2  feet  2  inches.  This 
consequently  will  he  the  space  which 
about  three  file  occupy  in  front. 

Cavalry  and  infantry  officers  cannot 
pay  too  much  attention  to  the  calcula- 
tion of  distances;  by  an  accurate  know- 
ledge of  which,  ground  will  he  properly 
covered,  and  any  proportion  of  men, 
on  horseback  or  on  foot,  be  drawn  up 
so  as  to  answer  the  intentions  of  an 
able  general.  The  best  way  that  an  of- 
ficer can  form  his  eye,  is  to  exercise  it 
to  the  measurement  of  ground  by  the 
regular  pace  of  2  feet,  used  in  mili- 
tary drawings;  by  this  he  can  calculate 
his  interval  exactly,  when  he  once 
knows  how  many  feet  his  division  oc- 
cupies;  for  it  is  only  halving  the  num- 
ber of  feet,  and  the  number,  so  pro- 
duced, is  his  distance  in  paces  of  two 
feet  each.  This  instruction  has  been 
given  to  cavalry  officers,  by  a  very  able 

Cover,  (u  couvert,  Fr.)  a  term  in  war 
to  express  security  or  protection  :  thus, 
to  land  under  cover  of  the  guns,  is  to  ad- 
vance ofFensi\ely  against  an  enemy  who 
dares  not  approach  on  account  of  the 
fire  from  ships,  boats,  or  batteries.  It 
likewise  signifies  whatever  renders  any 
movement  imperceptible :  as,  under 
cover  of  the  night,  under  cover  of  a 
wood,  &c.  The  gallery  or  corridor  in 
fortification  is,  however,  particularly  dis- 
tinguished by  the  term  cliemin  couvert, 
covert-way,  liecause  the  glacis  of  the 
parade  is  its  parapet. 

COVERER.  The  serjeant,  corporal, 
or  private  that  is  posted  in  the  rear  of  a 
leader  is  so  called. 

COVERT-WAY,  in  fortification,  is 
a  space  of  5  or  6  fathoms  on  the  border 
of  the  ditch  toward  the  country,  covered 
by  a  rising  ground,  which  has  a  gentle 
slope  towards  the  field.  This  slope  is 
called  the  glacis  of  the  covert-way.  See 

Second  Covert-way,  or,  as  the  French 
call  it,  avant-chemin  convert,  is  the  co- 

vert-way at  the  foot  of  the  glacis.     See 


COULER  vne  piece  de  canon,  Fr. 
to  liquify  the  metal  for  the  purpose  of 
casting  it  into  a  mould. 

COULET,  from  col,  Fr.  covering  for 
the  neck. 

COULEVRINE,  Fr.  a  piece  of  ord- 
nance of  great  length,  and  which  carries 
a  ball  to  a  considerable  distance. 

The  Coulevrine  of  Nanci  in  France, 
which  is  still  to  be  seen  at  Dunkirk,  is 
twenty-two  French  feet  long  from  the 
breech  to  the  mouth,  and  carries  au 
eighteen  pound  shot. 

COULIS,  Fr.  plaster  well  mixed,  for 
the  purpose  of  filling  up  the  joints  of 
stones,  and  to  keep  thein  together. 

Vent  Coulis,  Fr.  wind  issuing  out 
of  chinks. 

COULISSE,  Fr.  any  piece  of  timber 
which  has  grooves  in  it.  Also  pieces  of 
wood  which  hold  the  floodgates  in  a 

COULVRENIER,  Fr.  a  militia-man 
of  the  fifteenth  century.  The  Coulvre- 
nier  wore  a  habergeon  with  sleeves,  a 
gorgerin  and  salade,  a  breast  plate  of 
brass,  a  dagger,  and  a  sharp  edged  sword. 

COUNCIL  of  wa,  (conseil  de  guerre, 
Fr.)  an  assembly  of  principal  officers  of 
an  army  or  fleet,  called  by  the  general  or 
admiral  who  commands,  to  concert  mea- 
sures for  their  conduct.     See  Conseil. 

COUNTER  of  a  horse  is  that  part 
of  the  fore-hand  of  a  horse,  that  lies  be- 
tween the  shoulder  and  under  the  neck. 

COUNTER-Approaches,  lines  or 
trenches  made  by  the  besieged,  when 
they  come  out  to  attack  the  lines  of  the 
besiegers  in  form. 

Line  o/Counter-Approach,  a  trench 
which  the  besieged  make  from  their  co- 
vered-way to  the  right  and  left  of  the 
attacks,  in  order  to  scour,  or  enfilade,  the 
enemy's  works. 

Cov  mzn-battcry,  a  battery  used  to 
play  on  another  in  order  to  dismount 
the  guns.     See  Battery. 

Cov  STER-breastwork,(cont  re-parapet, 
Fr.)    See  Faussf.-braye. 

Covhizr- forts,  in  fortification,  are 
certain  pillars  and  parts  of  the  wall,  dis- 
tant from  15  to  20  feet  one  from  an- 
other, which  are  advanced  as  much  as 
may  be  in  the  ground,  and  are  joined  to 
the  height  of  the  cordon  by  vaults,  to 
sustain  the  cheinin  des  rondes,  or  that 
part  of  the  rampart  where  the  rounds 


i.     138     ) 


arc  gone,  as  well  as  to  fortify  the  wall, 
and  strengthen  the  ground.  See  Bt  1- 
i  ur.ssts. 

CoUNTER-gtlOfUfe,  ill  fortification,  are 
small  ramparts,  with  parapets  anil 
ditches,  to  cover  Mime  part  of  the  body 
of  the  place.  They  are  of  several  shapes, 
and  differently  situated.  They  are  ge- 
nerally  made  he  fore  the  bastions,  in  or- 
der to  cover  the  opposite  Hanks  from 
being  seen  from  the  covert-way;  con- 
sisting then  of  2  faces,  making  a  salient 
angle,  and  parallel  to  the  faces  of  the 
bastion.  They  are  sometimes  made  lie- 
fore  the  ravelins.     See  Fortification. 

CouMTER-round.     See  Roc  Mis. 

Cou  yiEK-mincs.     See  M  i  s  ks. 

Cowst Entrenches.    See  Siege. 

Counter  working  is  the  raising  of 
works  to  oppose  those  of  the  enemy. 

CouNTi.R-s?t«//(),(''.s  tail,  (ronht-uueue 
tfkironde,  Fr.)  in  fortification,  is  a  kind 
of  an  out-work  very  much  resembling  a 
single  tenaille. 

CouHTER-parole,  or  word,  (contre- 
viot,  Fr.)  a  parole  or  word  which  is  given 
in  times  of  trouble  and  alarm,  and  is 
taken  from  the  name  of  some  instru- 
ment, such  as  cane,  hammer,  pistol,  &c. 

Cov\7ini-ti»ie,  with  horsemen,  is  the 
defence  or  resistance  of  a  horse,  that  in- 
terrupts his  cadence  and  the  measure  of 
his  manage. 

CouNTER-//g/((,uith  architects,  a  light 
opposite  to  any  thing  which  makes  it  ap- 
pear to  disadvantage. 

Counter-/«M,  with  builders,  a  lath 
that  is  laid  in  length  between  the  rafters 

Cov St ER-gugc,  in  carpentry,  a  me- 
thod used  in  measuring  the  joints,  by 
transferring  the  breadth  of  a  mortoise  to 
the  place  in  the  timber  where  the  tenon 
is  to  be,  in  order  to  make  them  lit  to- 

To  COUNTERMAND,  (contreman- 
der,  Fr.)togive  contrary  orders  to  those 
already  issued;  to  contradict  former 
orders,  tkc. 

Fr.)  a  change  by  wings,  companies,  sub- 
divisions, or  liles,  whereby  those  who 
were  on  the  right  take  up  the  ground 
originally  occupied  by  the  left,  and  vice 
versa.    See  March. 

To  Countermarch,  (faireune  con- 
tre->/uirc/ie,  Fr.)to  change  the  front  of  an 
army,  battalion,  ike.  by  an  inversion  of 
their  several  component  parts. 

To  COUNTERMARK  a  horse,  a 
'rick  frequently  played   by  the  knowing 

ones  for  the  purpose  of  concealing  the 
real  age  of  a  horse.  This  is  done  by 
means  of  slips  and  scratches  which  are 
made  by  the  graver  on  the  outside  of  the 
hollows  of  the  teeth. 

COUNTERMURE,  (contremur,  Fr.) 
a  wall  built  up  behind  another,  in  order 
to  increase  the  strength  ofanv  work. 

COUNTERPOISE,   with 'horsemen, 

i->  the  balance  of  the  body,  or  the  liberty 
"I  the  action  and  seat  of  a  horseman, 
acquired  by  practising  in  the  manage,  so 
that  in  all  the  motions  the  horse  makes, 
the  horseman  does  not  incline  his  body 
more  to  one  side  than  to  the  other,  but 
continues  in  the  middle  of  the  saddle, 
bearing  equally  on  the  stirrups,  in  order 
to  give  the  horse  the  seasonable  and 
proper  aids. 

COUNTERSCARP,  in  fortification, 
is  properly  the  exterior  talus,  or  slope  of 
the  ditch,  on  the  farther  side  from  the 
place,  and  lacing  it.  Sometimes  the 
covert-way  and  glacis  are  meant  by  this 
expression.     See  FORTIFICATION. 

COUNTERSIGN,  in  a  general  ac- 
ceptation of  the  term,  means  any  parti- 
cular word,  such  as  the  name  of  a  place 
or  a  person,  which,  like  the  parole,  is 
exchanged  between  guards,  entrusted  to 
persons  who  visit  military  posts,  go  the 
rounds,  or  have  any  business  to  transact 
with  soldiers  in  camp,  or  garrison.  It 
ought  always  to  be  given  in  the  language 
be  si  known  to  the  troops. 


Couii/t  initiation,  a  trench  with  a  para- 
pet, made  by  the -besiegers,  betwixt  them 
and  the  besieged,  to  scciue  them  from 
the  sallies  of  the  garrison  ;  so  that  the 
troops  which  form  the  sit ue  are  en- 
camped between  the  lines  of  cite. imval- 
lation  and  cotintervallation.  When  the 
enemy  has  no  army  in  the  field,  these 
lines  are  useless. 

i  ()\JNTY-/icutcnant.  See  Lieute- 
nant of  County. 

COVS'l'Y-lrcasinrr.  See  TilSASV- 
rer  of  Col  Nl  v. 

COUP,  Fr.  a  blow,  or  stroke. 

Coup  /forme  et feu,  Fr.  shot. 

CoOP  df  canon,  Fr.  cannon-shot. 

Coifs  decorde,  Fr.  blows  given  with 
popes-ends,  st;ch  as  are  used  in  our  ships 
of  war.  Although  the  punishment  of 
flogging  does  not  exist  in  the  French 
army,  the  navy  is  subjected  to  it.  Coups 
de  corde  is  also  used  to  signify  the  seve- 
ral jerks  given  in  the  punishment  by 
estrapade.     See  Estrapade. 

c  o  u 

(     139     ) 

c  o  u 

Un  Coup  d'ipte,  Fr.  a  thrust  with  a 

Coup  de  main,  Fr.  a  sudden  and  un- 
foreseen attack,  (Src.  The  favourable 
side  of  the  proposed  action  must  ever 
be  viewed;  for  if  what  may  happen, 
arrive,  or  fall  out,  is  chiefly  thought  upon, 
it  will,  at  the  very  best,  not  only  greatly 
discourage,  but,  in  general,  produce  a 

Les  Coups  de  main,  Fr.  To  use  a 
vulgar  English  phrase,  this  term  signifies 
off-hand-business,  or  a  word  and  a  blow. 
During  the  paroxysm  of  the  French  Re- 
volution, it  was  common  to  have  re- 
course to  what  the  revolutionists  called 
Les  hommes  d'exccution  pour  fuire  des 
coups  de  main.  Of  this  description  were 
the  Septembrizers  in  1792. 

Coup  de  langue,Tr.  language  or  words 
which  are  used  for  the  purpose  of  in- 
juring another.  It  literally  signifies  a 
stroke  of  the  tongue,  or  that  mean  and 
cowardly  attack  which  is  made  against  a 
man's  character  without  his  knowledge. 
The  French  say,  Les  coups  de  langue 
blesscnt  bien  plus  fort  que  les  coups  de 
sabre;  of  this  description  is  insinuative 

Covp-d'wil,  Fr.  in  a  military  sense, 
First  Sight,  or  that  fortunate  aptitude  of 
eye  in  a  general, or  other  officer,  by  which 
he  is  enabled,  by  one  glance  on  the  map, 
or  otherwise,  to  see  the  weak  parts  of 
an  enemy's  country,  or  to  discern  the 
strong  ones  of  bis  own.  It  also  signi- 
fies to  catch  a  ready  view,  and  thereby 
to  secure  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the 
enemy's  position  and  movements  in 
action.  Repossessing  a  ready  coup-d'ail, 
a  general  may  surmount  the  greatest 
difficulties,  particularly  in  offensive  ope- 
rations. On  a  small  scale  this  faculty 
is  of  the  greatest  utility,  especially  in 
an  aide-de-camp.  Actions  have  been 
recovered  by  a  sudden  conception  of 
different  openings  upon  the  enemy,  which 
could  only  be  ascertained  by  a  quick 
and  ready  eye,  during  the  rapid  move- 
ments of  opposing  armies.  General 
Desaix,  at  the  battle  of  Marengo,  gave  a 
striking  proof  of  the  importance  of  this 
faculty,  and  so  did  the  Duke  of  Wel- 
lington at  the  battle  of  Waterloo. 

Coup-/b«rre,  Fr.  a  term  used  in 
fencing,  signifying  a  double  thrust,  or 
one  given  by  two  antagonists  at  the  same 
time.  The  French  also  say  figuratively, 
Ftrter  un  coup  fourrt  a  quelqu'vn,  to 

do  an  ill  turn  to  somebody  behind  his 

Coup  de  partance,  Fr.  the  signal  of 
departure  which  a  fleet,  or  ship  of  war, 
makes  by  firing  cannon. 

Coup  de  Jarnuc,  Fr.  an  underhand 
blow.  This  term  is  always  used  in  a  bad 
sense  by  the  French.  It  conies  from 
the  circumstance  of  a  Frenchman,  named 
Jarnuc, having  killed  his  countryman  La 
Chitaigneraie  unfairly  in  a  duel. 

COUPE,  Fr.  the  rough  draft, or  sketch, 
of  a  drawing  which  represents  the  inside 
of  a  building,  &c.  We  also  say  cut  in 
some  cases. 

(lor PL-gorge,  Fr.  a  cut-throat;  it  also 
signifies  any  dangerous  spot,  avenue,  or 
cutlet,  where  a  man  might  be  way-laid 
and  murdered.  Also  a  gambling-house, 

COUPELLE,  Fr.  a  kind  of  tin  or 
copper  shovel,  which  is  used  in  the  ar- 
tillery to  (ill  the  cartridges  with  gun- 
powder, &c. 

COUPElt  une  conmninication,un  con- 
voi,  un  pont,  une  retraitc,  une  troupe, 
Fr.  to  cut  off  a  communication,  to  in- 
tercept a  convoy,  break  down  a  bridge, 
cut  off  a  retreat,  or  any  armed  body  of 

COUPURES,  in  fortification,  are  pas- 
sages sometimes  cut  through  the  glacis, 
of  about  12  or  13  feet  broad,  in  the  re- 
entering angle  of  the  covert-way,  to  fa- 
cilitate the  sallies  of  the  besieged.  They 
are  sometimes  made  through  the  lower 
curtain,  to  let  boats  into  a  little  haven 
built  in  the  rentrant  angle  of  the  coun- 
terscarp of  the  out-works. 

Coupure,  FY.  a  ditch  that  is  dug  to 
prevent  a  besieging  army  from  getting 
too  close  to  the  walls  of  a  fortified  town, 
or  place. 

COU R->martiale,  Fr.  See  Court- 

COURAGE,  derived  from  caur,  Fr. 
heart,  that  being  supposed  to  be  the 
seat  of  it :  so  we  say,  stout  at  heart  is 
synonimous  to  brave.  This  quality  of 
the  mind  is  sometimes  natural,  and  some- 
times acquired.  It  is  equally  necessary 
to  the  officer  and  soldier.  The  French 
make  a  difference  between  bravery  and 
courage.  They  say  soldiers  may  be  very 
brave,  and  yet  not  have  courage  enough 
upon  all  occasions  to  manifest  their 
bravery.  A  general  who  is  determined, 
upon  an  emergency,  to  risk  neck  or  no- 
thing, always  knows  how  to  inspire  his 


(    140    ) 


troops  with  courage,  (provided  they  be 
well  disciplined,  for  if  not,  he  can  do  no- 
thing,) and  in  that  respect  the  famous 
Turcnnc  and  Maurice  of  Nussau,  who 
were  often  opposed  hy  a  superior  force, 
were  wonderfully  skilful.  Fernond Cor- 
tex, who  had  oidy  five  hundred  men 
of  infantry,  and  twenty  horse,  to  make 
the  conquest  of  Mexico,  perceiving  that 
his  troops,  (which  he  called  an  army,) 
were  ('lightened  at  the  great  number  of 
Indians  mustering  against  them,  ordered 
his  ships  to  be  set  on  fire.  He  con- 
quered the  enemy  ;  but  we  must  con- 
fess, that  he  had  to  deal  with  barbarians, 
who  mistook  his  twenty  horsemen  for 
sea  monsters,  and  the  firing  from  the 
musketry  and  artillery,  for  the  thunder 
from  above.  All  manner  of  stratagems 
must  be  recurred  to,  in  order  to  revive, 
or  inspire,  courage.  A  general,  for  in- 
stance, who,  at  the  head  of  an  inferior 
force,  cannot  avoid  a  batlie,  causes  it  to 
be  rumoured,  that  the  enemy  will  give 
no  quarter,  and  that  he  has  heard  the 
report  from  his  spies,  &G. 

Courage  tnilitaire,  Fr.  military 
prowess,  active  fortitude.  A  peculiar 
degree  of  hardihood,  by  which  the  miud 
is  driven  to  acts  of  uncommon  boldness 
and  enterprise.  The  late  General  Sir 
Thomas  Picton,  K.  B.  was  remarkable 
for  this  species  of  courage. 

COURANTJN,  Fr.  in  artificial  fire- 
works, this  term  is  given  to  those  fu- 
sees that  carry  the  fire  from  one  quarter 
to  another  by  means  of  a  cord  which  is 
stretched  very  light  in  the  air. 

COUryBT,  a  double  evurbwe,  Fr.  a 
curved-line  which  has  two  other  curves 
within  it.  M.  Clanaut  has  written  very 
learnedly  upon  this  head  in  a  book  in- 
tiujjfd,  Kecherches  sur  Us  Courbt.s  a 
double  con r burr. 

COURBETTER,  Fr.  to  curvet. 

COURCON,  Fr,  a  strong  piece  of 
iron  which  serves  to  connect  and  secure 
the  moulds  for  cannon. 

COUREURS,  Fr.  light  armed  troops 
that  are  mounted,  and  go  upon  recon- 
noitring parties,  or  in  pursuit  of  a  flying 
enemy.  It  literally  means  runners. 
Those  who,  on  a  march,  leave  their  ranks 
to  go  marauding,  are  also  called  coureurs. 

COURGE,  Fr.  a  gourd ;  a  yoke. 
Also  a  stone  or  iron  crow  which  sustains 
the  false  mantle-tree  of  an  old  chimney. 

COURIER,  a  messenger  sent  post,  or 
express,   to  carry  dispatches  of  battles 

gained,  lost,  &c.  or  any  other  occurrences 
that  happen  in  war,  &c. 

Coukier  de  cabinet,  Fr.  a  state  mes- 

Couriers  des  vivres,  Fr.  were  two 
active  and  expert  messengers  attached 
to  the  French  army,  whose  duty  con- 
sisted wholly  in  conveying  packets  of  im- 
portance to  and  fro,  and  taking  charge  of 
pecuniary   remittances. 

COURIR  au.v  mines,  Fr.  to  run  to 

COURONNE  de  pieur,  Fr.  the  head 
of  a  stake,  which  is  sometimes  bound 
round  with  iron,  to  prevent  it  from  split- 
ting when  driven  down  bv  the  rammer. 

COURONNER,  F> .  to  terminate  or 
finish  any  piece  of  work. 

COURON  EM  ENT,or  Couronnement, 
Fr.  in  fortification,  implies  the  most  ex- 
terior  part  of  a  work  when  besieged. 

COURONNES  gverrilres,  Fr.  mili- 
tary crowns  or  garlands.    See  Crowns. 

COURROYES,  Fr.  stirrup-leathers. 
Dragoons  are  sometimes  punished  with 
these  articles.  The  culprit  is  obliged  to 
pass  through  two  lines  facing  inwards, 
and  receives  a  blow  from  every  soldier  as 
he  goes  by. 

COURS  de  Hues,  Fr.     See  Lisses. 

COURSE,  with  architects,  a  conti- 
nued range  of  bricks  or  stones  of  the 
same  height  throughout  the  length  of  the 

COURSER.     See  Charger. 

COURSES,  Fr.  the  incursions  which 
an  army  makes  into  an  enemv's  country. 

COU RM  FR,  Fr.  that  canal  in  a  wa- 
ter-mill, or  in  any  other  hydraulic  ma- 
chine, where  the  bottom  of  the  ladle- 
wheel  is  confined,  and  where  the  water 
issues  with  great  force  from  under  the 
flood-gate,  to  put  the  wheel  in  motion. 

COURSIER,  Fr.  a  gun  which  is  placed 
in  the  forecastle  of  a  galley  for  the  pur- 
pose of  firing  over  the  ship's  beak.  The 
weight  of  its  ball  is  from  33  to  34ll>. 

COUKSEY,  in  a  galley,  a  space,  or 
passage,  about  a  foot  and  a  half  broad, 
on  both  sides  of  which  slaves  are  placed. 

CQ\TRT-niartial,(Cour-niartialc,  Fr.) 
a  court  appointed  for  the  invent ;gation 
and  subsequent  punishment  of  ut'.ences 
in  officers,  under-officers,  soldieis,  and 
sailors:  the  powers  of  which  are  regu- 
lated by  the  Mutiny-bill,  in  the  words, 
and  to  the  effect  following.  "  His  Ma- 
jesty may,  from  time  to  time,  grant  a 
commission,  under  his  royal  sign  manual, 

c  o  u 

(     141     ) 

C  0  u 

to  any  officer,  not  under  the  degree  of  a 
field-officer,  for  holding  a  general  court- 
martial  within  this  realm;  and  also 
grant  his  warrant  to  the  lord-lieutenant 
of  Ireland,  or  other  chief  governor  or 
governors  there,  for  the  time  being,  or 
the  governor  or  governors  of  Minorca, 
Gibraltar,  and  any  of  his  Majesty's  do- 
minions beyond  (he  seas  respectively,  or 
the  person  or  persons,  their  commander 
in  chief,  from  time  to  time,  to  appoint 
courts-martial  in  the  kingdom  or  Ire- 
land, and  other  places  and  dominions 
respectively;  in  which  courts-martial, 
all  offences  mentioned  in  the  Articles  of 
War,  and  all  other  offences  hereinafter 
specified,  shall  be  tried  and  proceeded 
against  in  such  manner  as  the  act  lor 
that  purpose  directs."  The  courts  have 
power  by  their  sentence  of  judgment  to 
inflict  corporal  punishment,  not  extend- 
ing to  life  or  limb,  on  any  soldier  for  im- 
moralities, misbehaviour,  or  neglect  of 
duty.  A  general  court-martial  shall  not 
consist  of  a  less  number  than  13,  where- 
of none  are  to  be  under  the  degree  of  a 
commissioned  officer;  and  the  president 
of  such  general  court-martial  shall  nei- 
ther be  the  commander  in  chief,  or  go- 
vernor of  the  garrison  where  the  offender 
shall  be  tried,  nor  under  the  degree  of  a 
field  officer,  unless  where  a  field  officer 
cannot  be  had;  in  which  case  the  officer 
next  in  seniority,  not  being  under  the 
degree  of  a  captain,  shall  preside  at 
such  court-martial;  and  that  such  court- 
martial  shall  have  power  and  autho- 
rity to  administer  an  oath,  to  every  wit- 
ness, in  order  to  the  examination  or  trial 
of  any  of  the  offences  that  shall  come  be- 
fore them. 

That  in  all  trials  of  offenders  by  gene- 
ral courts-martial,  to  be  held  by  virtue 
of  this  act,  every  officer,  present,  at  such 
trial,  before  any  proceedings  be  had 
thereupon,  shall  take  an  oath,  upon  the 
Holy  Evangelists,  before  the  court  and 
judge  advocate,  or  his  deputy. 

A  regimental  Court-Martial  can- 
not sentence  to  the  loss  of  life  or  limb. 
The  colonel  or  commanding  officer  ap- 
proves the  sentence  of  a  regimental 
court-martial.  By  a  clause  in  the  Mu- 
tiny-bill of  1806,  all  the  members  of  a 
regimental  court-martial  must  be  sworn. 

A  garrison  Court-Martial  only 
differs  from  a  regimental  one  by  beins; 
composed  of  officers  of  different  regi- 
ments. The  governor,  or  other  com- 
manding  officer    of    the   garrison,   ap- 

proves the  sentence.  For  further  parti- 
culars respecting  courts-martial,  see 
Regimental  Companion,  vol.  ii.  5th 

Court  of  inquiry,  a  meeting  of  of- 
ficers who  are  empowered  to  inquire  in- 
to the  conduct  of  the  commander  of  an 
expedition,  &c.  or  to  see  whether  there 
be  ground  for  a  court-martial,  &c. 
Courts  of  inquiry  cannot  award  punish- 
ment, but  must  repoit  to  the  officer  by 
whose  order  they  were  assembled. 
Courts  ot  inquiry  are  also  appointed  to 
examine  into  the  quality  and  distribu- 
tion of  military  stores,  &c. 

COURTAUD,  with  horsemen,  a  crop, 
or  cropped  horse;  a  Lob-tail. 

Courtaud,  with  gunners, a  short  kind 
of  ordnance  used  at  sea. 

COURTADER,  Fr.  to  crop  a  horse's 

COURTIER,  Fr.  an  agent. 

Courtier  de  change,  Fr.  a  money 

Courtier  priviUgii,  Fr.  an  agent  of 

COURT1NE,  Fr.  See  Curtain  in 

COUSSIN,  Fr.  a  sort  of  wedge,  or 
small  piece  of  wood,  which  is  placed  un- 
der the  breech  of  a  cannon  in  order  to 
point  it  properly,  and  to  keep  it  steady 
in  the  proposed  direction. 

C017SSINET,  Fr.  a  wedge  of  wood 
which  is  fixed  between  the  carriage  and 
the  center  part  of  a  mortar,  and  serves 
to  keep  it  in  a  prescribed  degree  of  ele- 

COUSSINET  a  mousquetaire,  Fr.  a 
bat;  formerly  worn  by  a  French  soldier 
on  his  left  side  beneath  the  cross-belt. 
It  hung  upon  hooks  near  the  butt  of  his 
musquet.  Its  object  was  to  resist  the 
recoil  of  a  large  fire  arm,  particularly 
during  a  siege. 

COUSTILLE,  Fr.  an  offensive  wea- 
pon which  was  occasionally  used  by  the 
troops  in  the  fifteenth  century,  in  the 
time  of  Charles  VII.;  it  was  longer  than 
the  common  sword,  sharp  edged  from 
the  hilt  to  the  point,  of  a  triangular 
shape,  and  very  slender. 

COUSTILLER,  Fr.  a  person  armed 
with  a  const  Me. 

COUTEAU,  Fr.  a  knife. 

Couteau  de  chasse,  Fr.  a  hanger. 
Couteau   de   bois,  ou  spatule,  Fr.  a 
wooden   instrument  in   the   shape  of  a 
short  blunt  blade.     It  is  used  in  press- 
ing down  earth  or  hay  between  a  shell 

C  R  A 

(   i«   ) 

C  R  A 

and   the  inside  of  a  mortar,  in  oredr  to 
keep  the  former  compact  and  steady. 

COUTELA&,  Fr.     See  Cutlass. 

COUTER,  Fr.  to  cost;  to  have  a 
price,  or  value.  This  expression  is  used 
figuratively  among  the  French  in  a  mili- 
tary sense — viz.  Ce  general  expoto  sis 
troupet  a  tout  moment;  Its  hommes  ne 
lui  content  guere. — That  general  ex- 
poses his  troops  every  moment,  he  puts 
no  price  or  value  upon  the  loss  of  men. 

A  plate  COUTURE,  Fr.  utterly;  en- 
tirely. Defaite  a  plate  couture,  an  utter 

COUVADE,  Fr.  the  act  of  skulking. 

Faire  U  Couvade,  Fr.  to  lurk  in  camp, 
or  quarters,  when  others  are  gallantly 
fighting  in  the  field  of  battle. 

COUVERT,  Fr.  cover. 

Pays  Couvert,  Fr.  a  woody  coun- 

COUVRE-FACE,  Fr.  a  tern.  us<  ,1  h\ 
some  engineers,  and  among  others  by 
Coehorn,  to  express  the  counter-guard : 
others,  particularly  Montaleinhert,  con- 
vey by  couvre-f ace  generate  a  second  line 
of  complete  investment. 

Le  COUVRE-FEU,  Fr.  a  signal 
made  by  the  ringing  of  a  bell,  or  heat  of 
drum,  to  give  notice  to  the  soldiers  or 
inhabitants  of  a  fortified  place,  that  the 
gates  are  shortly  to  be  shut.  It  literally 
means  the  covering,  or  extinction,  of  lire, 
or  light.    See  Curfew. 

COUVRIR,  Fr.  to  cover,  defend, 

Coivrir  unc  rille,  un  port,  unc 
troupe,  un  pays,  un  magasin,un  entrepot, 
une  armee  usance  ante,  Fr.  to  lie  encamp- 
ed in  front  of  a  town,  bridge,  body  of 
men,  any  particular  ground  or  post, 
magazine,  or  between  a  fortified  place 
and  the  main  besieging  army,  so  as  to 
prevent  the  approaches  of  an  enemy. 
To  this  end  temporary  works  should  he 
erected,  defended  by  chosen  troops,  who 
must  he  attacked  and  beaten,  before 
possession  can  be  obtained  of  any  of 
the  above-mentioned  objects. 

Couvrir  une  marche,  un  mouvement, 
une  communication,  Sfc.  Fr.  to  cover  the 
march  or  movement  of  an  army,  by 
means  of  detachments,  which  are  sent 
forward  for  that  purpose. 

COWARD,  according  to  Dr.  John- 
son, a  word  of  uncertain  derivation.  A 
poltroon;  a  wretch  whose  predominant 
passion  is  fear;  a  thing  unworthy  of,  and 
unfit  for,  the  navy  or  army.  It  is  some- 
times used  as  an  adjective. 

(  OY. \ UX,  Fr.  hip  rafters. 

COYER,  Fr.  a  piece  of  timber  which 
is  laid  diagonally  in  the:  groove,  or  hol- 
low of  a  roof, 

COYON,  Fr.  a  coward;  a  base  das- 
tardly fellow.' 

COYONADE,  Fr.  cowardice;  das- 
tardly conduct. 

CRAB.     See  Gin. 

CRABBAT,  Hcravatei    Fr.)     Baiby 

CRAVAT,  S  derives  this  word  from 
one  Crabbat,  a  Croatian,  who  first  wore 
a  sort  of  neckcloth.  Before  the  Revo- 
lution, there  was  a  German  regiment  in 
the  French  service, called  Royal  Cravats, 
probably  from  the  men  having  originally 
been  recruited  out  of  Croatia,  and  also 
wearing  the  neckcloth.  This  regiment 
gave  way  at  the  famous  sortie  of  Lisle, 
in  1792,  when  Colonel  Dillon  led  out  a 
body  of  troops  to  attack  an  advanced 
post  of  the  Austrians.  The  consequence 
of  their  panic  was  the  inhuman  murder 
of  that  brave  officer,  and  of  Berthier  the 
engineer,  who  was  suspended  from  a 
lamp  iron,  and  shot,  anil  cut  at  by  the 
fugitives  as  they  returned  to  the  citadel. 

CRADLE,  a  machine  made  of  stout 
sail-cloth  for  the  purpose  of  shipping 
and  unshipping  horses;  also  a  hollow 
piece  of  leather  for  a  fractured  or  bro- 
ken limb  to  rest  in. 

Cradle,  with  shipwrights,  a  frame  of 
timber  raised  along  the  outside  of  a 
ship  by  the  bulge,  serving  more  securely 
and  commodiously  to  launch  her. 

CRAIK.E.  The  constablery  of  this 
place,  a*  far  as  it  regards  the  militia,  is 
deemed  a  part  of  the  North  Riding  of 
Yorkshire,  and  is  subject  to  the  juris- 
diction of  the  Lord  Lieutenant. 

CRAMPON  dc  cuir,  Fr.  a  loop,  or 
tab  of  leather. 

CRAMPONS,  Fr.  pieces  of  iron 
hooked  at  the  end;  grappling  hooks. 
Iron  instruments  distributed  amongst 
the  troops  intended  to  storm  a  rampart, 
and  which  they  fastened  to  their  shoes 
by  means  of  a  strong  strap  of  leather, 
to  he  able  to  climb  up. 

CRAMPONNER,  Fr.  to  join  or 
fasten  together  with  cramp-irons. 

Ciiami'onner  des  fcrs  dc  cheoal,  Fr. 
to  shoe  a  horse  with  frost  nails. 

CRAMPONNET,  Fr.  a  little  cramp 
iron  ;  tack  or  hoop. 

Les  CRAMPONS  d'unfer  de  cheval, 
Fr.  the  frost  nails  of  a  horse-shoe; 
caulks;  the  caulkings. 

CRANE,  an  instrument  made  with 


rope?,  pullies,  and  hooks,  by  which  great 
weights  are  raised. 

CRANE,  Ft.  literally  the  skull, brain 
pan, or  bone  of  the  head.  The  French 
say  of  a  stubborn  hot-headed  man,  Cest 
une  crane 

CRANEQUfN,  Fr.  the  gaffle  of  a 
cross  bow.  It  is  also  written  Crenne- 
uuin,  and  signifies  an  engine  for  battery, 
used  in  old  times. 

C  It  AN  EQU I ER,  C  It  A  S  EQUI- 
NIER,  Fr.  formerly  an  order  who 
served  both  on  foot  and  horseback;  hi? 
bow  was  very  light;  in  the  origin  it  was 
made  of  wood,  next  of  hum,  and  finally 
of  iron:  it  was  bent  by  means  of  an  iron 
bandage,  called  crunequin,  which  was 
fastened  round  the  waist.  The  Dukes 
of  Burgundy  used  to  have  six  hundred 
ot  them  in  their  suite.  This  appellation 
was  also  formerly  given  to  an  inferior 
officer  who  had  the  management  of 
warlike  machines. 

CRAPAUD,  ou  affut,  Fr.  Crapaud 
literally  means  a  toad.  It  is  a  sort  of 
gun-carriage  without  wheels,  on  .which  a 
mortar  is  carried. 

CItAPAUDINE,  Fr.  a  sort  of  sucker, 
which  is  placed  at  the  bottom  of  reser- 
voirs and  basons,  in  order  to  keep  them 
dry,  or  to  draw  off  the  water.  Crapau- 
dine  also  signifies  the  cavity  in  which 
the  hinge  of  a  door,  &c.  turns. 

CRAPAUDINE,  in  a  horse,  an  ulcer 
on  the  coronet,  called  also  a  tread  upon 
the  coronet. 

CRATCH,  {r  atelier,  Fr.)  a  rack,  in 
which  hay  is  put  for  cattle. 

CRATCHES,  {crevasse,  Fr.)  a  crack; 
a  disease  in  horses. 

CRATES,  engines  of  war  used  by  the 
ancients  to  cover  the  workmen  in  pro- 
portion as  they  drew  nearer  to  the  walls 
of  a  besieged  town. 

CRAVATES.  Fr.     See  Croats. 

Rot/ales  Cravates,  Fr.  a  mounted 
militia,  or  species  of  Life  Guards,  for- 
merly so  called  in  France. 

Cravates  des  dvapeaux,  Fr.  the  cor- 
ners of  a  colour  or  Hag. 

CRECHE,  Fr.  a  manger;  a  crib. 

CREDIT,  {credit,  Fr.)  trust  reposed, 
with  regard  to  property:  correlative  to 
debt.  Johnson.  It  is  customary,  upon 
the  arrival  of  troops  that  are  to  conti- 
nue quartered  in  a  town,  village,  &c.  to 
warn  the  inhabitants  not  to  give  credit 
to  the  men. 

CREDITS.     See  Debts  and  Credits. 

(   i*3   )  CRE 

CREESE,  a  dagger  used  by  the  Ma- 

CREMAILLE,  in  field  fortification, 
is  when  the  inside  line  of  the  parapet  is 
broken  ill  such  a  manner  as  to  resemble 
the  teeth  of  a  saw;  whereby  this  advan- 
tage is  gained,  that  a  greater  fire  can  be 
brought  to  bear  upon  the  defile,  than  if 
only  a  simple  face  were  opposed  to  it; 
and  consequently  the  passage  is  render- 
ed more  difficult.  Belidor,  in  his  Dic- 
tionnaire  Porlatif  de  I'Ingenieur,  writes 
the  word,  Cremilliere. 

CREMILLIERE,  Fr.  a  pot-hanger. 

CREMILLON,  Fr.ahook. 

CRENAUX,  Fr.  small  openings,  or 
loop,  holes  which  are  made  through  the 
walls  of  a  fortified  town  or  place.  They 
are  extremely  narrow  towards  the  ene- 
my, and  wide  within;  so  that  the  balls 
from  the  besiegers  can  scarcely  ever  en- 
ter, whereas  two  or  three  soldiers  may 
fire  from  within. 

CRENELE,  Fr.  embattled;  having 

CRENELER,  Fr.  to  indent;  notch. 

CRENELLATED  Parapet,  an  em- 
battled parapet  with  loop-holes  to  fire 

CRENELURE,  Fr.  indenting. 

CREOLE,  CREOLIAN,  {Creole,  Fr.) 
A  person  born  in  the  West  Indies,  but 
of  European  Origin.  Creoliansare  very 
tenacious  of  their  birth,  and  will  not 
associate  with  blacks,  or  mulattoes. 

ulcer  seated  in  the  midst  of  the  forepart 
of  a  horse's  foot,  about  an  inch  above  the 

CREPUSCULE,  Fr.  twilight. 

CRESCENT.     See  Orders. 

CRESSET,  any  great  light  upon  a 
beacon,  light-house,  or  watch-tower. 

CREST  of  the  parapet,  or  <>f  the 
glacis,  is  the  superior  surface,  or  too,  of 
the  parapet  of  any  work. 

Crest,  (crcte,  Fr.)  a  tuft  of  feathers, 
a  plume,  a  tassel,  generally  worn  in  the 
helmet.  These  crests  were  originally 
made  of  horse-hair;  and,  according  to 
Herodotus,  were  invented  by  the  Ethio- 

CiiEsr-fallen,  dispirited,  out  of  heart, 
cast  down,  cVc. 

CRETE,  in  fortification,  implies  the 
earth  thrown  out  of  the  ditch  hi  a  forti- 
fication, trench,  tkc.  The  most  elevated 
part  of  a  parapet,  or  glacis. 

Crete   d'un   chemin   couvert,    d'une 

C  R  I 

(      144      ) 

C  R  () 

piece  tlr  fortification^  d'unc  montagne, 
d'nn  rocker,  &c.  Fr.  the  peak  or  highest 
pari  of  a  covert-way,  o*-  of  any  work 
in  fortification;  the  summit  of  a  hill, 
rock,  &c. 

'J'lie  French  say  figuratwely,  Buisser 
hi  crete,  to  be  less  haughty,  to  lose  one's 
vigour  or  strength. 

CREVICE,  (  crevasse,  Fr.)  a  chasm  or 
hollow  Bpace  which  is  made  by  time,  or 
mismanagement,  in  a  piece  of  ordnance 
ike;  it  also  signifies  a  crack  in  a  wall, 

CRT,  Fr.  the  acclamation  or  shout 
which  is  made  by  soldiers  when  the 
enemy  gives  way,  and  a  battle  is  won. 
Also  the  sound  uiven  by  the  voice  in 
challenging  a  sentry.  Cri  also  signifies 
the  motto  which  is  written  upon  colours, 
or  coats  of  anus  belonging  to  illustrious 

Cm  des  amies,  Fr.  a  savage  custom 
which  is  still  preserved  by  the  Turks 
and  other  uncivilized  nations,  whenever 
they  go  into  action.  It  was  formerly 
practised  among  the  French,  Spaniards, 
and  the  English,  ike.  The  national 
exclamations  were  Montjoie  and  St. 
Dcnys  for  France,  St.  James  for  Spain, 
St.  George  for  England,  Farrah  formerly 
lor  Ireland,  St.  Andrew  for  Scotland,  St. 
Malo,  or  St.  Yves,  for  the  Dukes  of 
Britttany,  St.  Lambert  for  the  principa- 
lity of  Liege,  ike.  The  war-hoop  may 
likewise  be  considered  in  this  light.  It 
is  s  till  practised  among  the  savages  of 
America.    See  War  hoop. 

In  making  any  desperate  assault,  or 
in  charging  bayonet,  or  when  one  bat- 
talion is  directly  opposed  to  another,  or 
squadron  to  squadron,  French  soldiers 
frequently  use  the  cri  des  armes ;  Tuez  ! 
tiuzf  and  the  Spaniards  vociferate  "hiatal 
Silence  and  calmness  in  the  soldier,  and 
steadiness  and  observation  in  the  officer, 
are,  nevertheless,  superior  to  such  un- 
governable effusions.  The  former  must 
contribute  to  regularity,  the  latter  sel- 
dom fail  to  create  disorder. 

CRIBLB,  JV.a  riddle;  a  sieve. 
CRIBLE  de  coups,   Fr.  covered  with 
blows,  or  wounds;  pierced  through  and 

CRIBLEIt,  Fr.  to  lame;  to  cripple; 
to  render  unfit  for  service. 

CRICjCRJCQ,  Fr.a  machine  which 
is  u^ed  to  move  forwards,  or  drag  up  a 
piece  of  ordnance,  a  mortar,  tkc.  or  any 
load,  from  the  ground.  The  c  is  not  pro- 
nounced in  this  word. 

CRIC,  Fr.  a  poignard  used  by  the 
Malya  people.  The  c  is  pronounced 
in  this  word. 

CRIME  de  lezc-majestc,  Fr.  high 

CRIMP,  (raceoleur,  Fr.)  a  person 
who  makes  it  his  business  to  entice 
others  into  a  military  life,  generally  by 
mil. or  meahs. 

CRINIERE,  Fr.  that  part  of  the  ca- 
parison which  covers  the  horse's  neck. 
The  name  of  crinicre  is  also  given  to  a 
hunch  of  culling  horse-hair  worn  upon 
the  helmets  of  the  dragoons,  which  flows 
down  on  the  sides,  like  a  garland,  or  up- 
on the  hack. 

CRINIERE,  or  manefuire,    a  defence 
for  the  neck   of   a    horse  against  a  blow 
from  a  sword.     It  consisted  of  a  number 
of  small  plates,  generally  about  twelve, 
hooked   together,  and  fastened   to    the 
chant  Von,  so  as  to  be  moveable. 
CRIQUES,  Fr.  small  ditches. 
CRISIS,  (crise,  Fr.)  the  point  of  time 
at  which  any  affair  comes  to  the  height. 
CRISTA,  a  plume.     See  C  ft  EST. 
CRIT,  Fr.  a  small  dagger. 
CROATS,  light  irregular  troops  from 
Croatia.     Their    method  of  fighting   is 
the  same  as  the  I'andours.     They  wear 
a     short     waistcoat,      and     long    v\hite 
breeches,    with    light    boots,   and  a  cap 
greatly  resembling  the  hussar  cap.  Their 
arms    are    a    long    firelock 
barrel,   and    short    bayonet, 
hanger,  and  a  brace  of  pistols.     The  late 
Empress  Queen  of  Austria  had  5000  of 
these  troops,  the  greatest  part  of  which 
had  no  pay,  but  lived  by  plunder. 

CROC,"  uic  Crochet  de  Sape,  Fr.  a 
pole  with  an  iron  hook,  used  to  place  the 
gabions  and  fascines. 

CROCHET  de  tranchie,  Fr.  the  fur- 
ther end  of  a  trench  or  boyav,  which  is 
purposely  carried  on  to  conceal  the  head 
of  the  bui/uu,  in  order  to  prevent  it  from 
being  enfiladed;  and  to  serve  as  a  small 
place-of-arms  from  whence  soldiers  may 
fire  against  sallying  parties. 
CROCS,  Fr.  whiskers. 
CROCUS,  (saf'ran  des  mitaux,  Fr.)  a 
calcined  metal  used  by  soldiers  to  clean 
their  muskets,  tkc. 

CROISADE,  CRUSADE,  (croisade, 
Fr.)  a  holy  war,  or  an  expedition  of  the 
Christians  against  the  Infidels  for  the  re- 
covery of  the  Holy  Land,  so  called  from 
those  who  engaged  in  it  wearing  a  cross 
on  their  clothes. 

CROIX   de  St.  Andre,  Fr.  St.  An- 

wilh    rifled 
a  crooked 

C  R  O 

(     145     ) 

C  R  O 

(1  rew's  cross,  so  called  from  the  saint  of 
that  name  having  been  crucified  upon  it. 
It  consists  of  two  pieces  of  wood  placed 
diagonally  across  each  other. 

Croix  'de  St.  Louis,  Fr.  the  cross 
of  St.  Louis,  a  French  order  which  is 
purely  of  a  military  nature.  It  was  in- 
stituted by  Louis,  surnamed  the  Great, 
in  1693. 

In  1719  the  number  of  grand  crosses 
to  be  distributed  in  the  French  army  was 
limited,  with  appropriate  allowances,  in 
the  following  manner: 

445  commandeurs  and  chevaliers,  12 
grand  crosses  at  6000  livres,  13  com- 
mandeurs at  4000  livres,  27  ditto  at 
3000,  35  chevaliers  at  2000,  38  ditto  at 
1500,  106  ditto  at  1000,  1  ditto  at  900, 
99  ditto  at  800,45  ditto  at  600,  25  ditto 
at  500,  35  ditto  at  400,  5  ditto  at  300, 
and  4  ditto  at  200. 

The  King  is  Sovereign  Grand  Mas- 
ter of  the  Order.  Land  and  sea  officers 
waer  it  promiscuously.  The  cross  con- 
sists of  an  enamelled  golden  Jieur  de  Lis, 
which  is  attached  to  the  button-hole  of 
of  the  coat  by  means  of  a  small  ribbon, 
crimson  coloured  and  watered. 

On  one  side  is  the  cross  of  St.  Louis 
■with  this  inscription :  Ludovicus  Magnus 
instituit,  1693  ;  on  the  reverse  side  a 
blazing  sword  with  the  following  words, 
Bellice  virtutis  premium. 

This  is  the  only  order  which  can  be 
properly  and  strictly  called  military. 
There  are  several  others,  which  we  judge 
superfluous  to  our  present  undertaking. 

CRONE,  Fr.  a  round  low  tower, 
covered  at  the  top  like  a  windmill, 
which  stands  upon  the  sea-side,  or  on 
the  banks  of  a  river,  and  turns  upon  a 
pivot,  with  a  hook,  serving  to  load  and 
unload  cargoes. 

CRONET,  the  iron  at  the  end  of  a 
tilling  spade. 

To  CROP,  (tondre,  Fr.)  to  cut  short. 

A  Crop,  (tite  toadue,  Fr.)  what  was 
called  among  the  followers  of  Oliver 
Cromwell,  a  roundhead.  During  the 
late  war,  the  officers  and  soldiers  were  re- 
lieved from  a  certain  regulated  length  of 
tail,  and  permitted  to  have  short  hair 
without  powder. 

CROQUANT,  Fr.  the  name  of  a 
faction  which  committed  great  depre- 
dations towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  in  several  provinces  on  the 
pther  side  of  the  Loire.  In  1593,  the 
peasantry  of  Perigord,  Limousin,  and 
Potto*,  assembled  i«   larje  bodies,  ap- 

pointed their  commanders,  refused  ta 
pay  the  taxes,  over-ran  the  country,  ana 
gave  no  quarter  to  any  of  the  nobility 
that  had  the  misfortune  to  fall  into  their 
hands.  They  were  named  Croquants, 
from  the  word  croquer,  to  devour,  or 
pilfer;  literally  to  crack. 
>  CROQUES,  Fr.a  rough  sketch  taker* 
of  any  thing. 

CROSS,  the  ensign,  or  grand  standard 
borne  by  the  crusaders  in  the  Holy  Land. 

Gran D-Cross,  a  superior  mark  of  dis- 
tinction belonging  to  the  military  order 
of  the  Bath,  lately  created.     See  Order. 

Cnoss-battery,  (batterie  de  travers, 
Fr.)     See  Battery. 

C'Ross-^ire  is  when  the  lines  of  fire 
of  two  or  more  adjoining  sides  of  a 
field  redoubt,  &c.  cross  one  another;  it 
is  frequently  used  to  prevent  an  enemy's 
passing  a  defile.  It  may  be  two  ways 
obtained :  first  by  constructing  the  re- 
doubt with  the  face  opposite  to  the  defile, 
tenailed;  that  is,  forming  a  re-entering 
angle.  The  other  way  is,  to  defend  the 
defile  by  two  redoubts,  whose  faces  com- 
mand the  passage;  flanking  each  other 
at  the  same  time. 

CROSS-6ar  shot,  {balle  ramie,  Fr.)  shot 
with  iron  bars  crossing  through  them, 
sometimes  standing  6  or  8  inches  out  at 
both  sides:  they  are  used  at  sea  for 
destroying  the  enemy's  rigging.  At  a 
siege  they  are  of  great  service  in  demo- 
lishing the  enemy's  palisading,  &c. 

Cfioss-/>ars,  (croistes,  Fr.)  bars  laid 
across  one  another. 

CROss-iars,  sometimes  called  the  splin- 
ter, or  master-bar,  that  part  of  the  car- 
riage which  the  shafts  are  fixed  in,  and 
from  which  the  draft  of  the  carriage  is 

Cross-6ow,  called  by  the  Latins  arcus 
balistarius,  or  balista  manualis,  was  an 
offensive  weapon  which  consisted  of  a 
bow  fixed  to  the  top  of  a  sort  of  staff",  or 
stick  of  wood,  which  the  string  of  the 
bow,  when  unbent,  crossed  at  right 
angles.     See  Bow. 

CROSSES,  distinctions  given  to  mili- 
tary men  for  exploits  and  good  conduct 
in  war.     See  Order. 

CROUP,  (crouppe,  Fr.)  the  buttocks 
of  a  horse. 

CROUPADES,  Fr.  higher  leaps  than 
common  curvets.  The  bouncing  of  a 

CROUPE,  Fr.  the  top  of  a  hill. 

CROUPIERE,  or  buttoek-piece,  hs>rs« 


(    no    ) 

C  11  u 

CROW,  an  iron  bar,  used  as  a  lever 
in  moving  heavy  ordnance  or  carriages, 
&c.  The  crows  used  in  the  artillery 
service  are  4  feet  6  inches,  and  5  feet 
iu  length. 

CROWN,  (couronne,  Fr.)  ttie  orna- 
ment of  the  head  which  denotes  impe- 
rial and  regal  dignity.  It  also  signifies 
reward,  honorary  distinction,  as  ucrotni. 
of  laurels,  &c. 

'Hie  crowns,  in  ancient  military  his- 
tory, were  of  various  uses  and  denomi- 
nations, viz. 

Oral  Crown,  corona  ovatis,  given  to  a 
general  who,  without  effusion  of  Wood, 
had  conquered  the  enemy. 

Naval  Ckown,  corona  navalia,  dishi- 
buted  to  those  who  first  should  board  an 
enemy's  ship. 

Camp  Crown,  corona  castrensis,  the 
reward  of  those  who  first  parsed  the  pali- 
sades, and  forced  an  enemy's  camp. 

Mural  CROWN,  corona  vrura/is,  the 
recompense  and  mark  of  honour  due  to 
those  who  first  mounted  the  breach  at 
the  assault  of  a  besieged  town. 

Civic  Crown,  corot't  civica,  more 
esteemed  than  the  preceding:  it  was  the 
distinguishing  mark,  of  those  who  had 
saved  the  life  of  a  Roman  citizen  in 
battle.  It  was  given  to  Cicero  for  dis- 
sipating the  conspiracy  of  Catiline,  and 
denied  to  Cassar,  because  he  imbrued 
his  hands  in  the  blood  of  his  fellow- 

TriBwpAaZCROWN,  corona  triumphalis, 
the  symbol  of  victory,  and  presented  to 
a  general  who  gained  any  signal  advan- 
tage to  the  republic. 

Grass  Crown,  corona  "ranrinca,  was 
delivered  by  the  whole  Roman  people 
to  any  general  who  had  relieved  an 
army  invested,  or  besieged,  by  the  enemy. 
The  other  crowns  were  distributed  by 
the  emperors  and  generals;  this  was 
given  to  Fabius  by  the  Roman  people, 
for  obliging  Hannibal  to  decamp  from 

Olive  Crown,  corona  oliva,  the  sym- 
bol of  peace,  and  presented  to  the  nego- 
ciators  of  it. 

Iron  Crown,  (couronne  dc  fcr,  Fr.) 
a  crown  which  was  formerly  worn  by  the 
kings  of  Lombardy,  and  by  Charlemagne 
as  emperor  of  the  West ;  iu  imitation 
of  whom,  Napoleon  the  First  was 
crowned  with  it  by  the  Pope,  us  king  of 
Italy,  in  1806. 

Crown  of  thorny  (couronne  cfepincs, 
Fr.)  a  crown  well  known  in  holy  history, 

as  having  been  placed,  in  mockery, upon 
the  bleeding  temples  of  our  Redeem ef 
by  order  of  Pontius  Pilate  to  satisfy  the 
Jews.  It  also  signifies  any  crown  ac- 
quired by  usurpation,  or  supported  by 
tyranny,  or  imbecility.,  in  fortification,  an 
out-uork  that  takes  up  more  ground 
(than  any  other.  It  consists  of  a  large 
gorge,  and  two  sides  terminating  to- 
wards the  country  iu  two  demi-bastions, 
each  of  which  is  joined  by  a  particular 
Cttrfain, forming  two  half  has  lions  and  one 
whole  one.  Crovvn-vvoi  ks  arc  made  before 
the  curtain,  or  the  bastion,  and  generally 
serve  to  enclose  some  buildings  which 
cannot  be  brought  within  the  body  of 
the  place',  Or  to  cover  the  town-gates,  or 
else  to  occupy  S  spot  of  ground  which 
might  lie  advantageous  to  the  enemy. 
Sec  Fob  i  ion. 

CKOWN  Ft)  horn-aork,  in  fortifica- 
tion, is  a  horn-work,  with  a  crown-work 
before  it. 

ClvOWS;/ir/  are  4  pointed  irons,  so 
made,  that  what  way  soever  fhev  fall,  one 
point  is  alvvavs  uppermost.  The  short 
ones  are  about  4  inches  in  length,  and 
the  long  ones  (5  or  7.  The  short  ones  are 
thrown  on  bridges^&C  and  the  long  ones 
on  the  earth;  both  serving  to  incommode 
the  cavalry,  that  they  may  not  approach 
without  great  difficulty. 

C ROWS- 1<7/,  a  surgeon's  instrument 
for  extracting  bullets,  broken  hones,  &c. 

CRUCIIES  a  feu,  Fr.  earthen  pots 
with  two  handles,  filled  with  grenades, 
having  the  intervals  between  them  filled 
with  powder:  these  jirc-pols  are  first 
stopped  with  a  sheep  skin  fastened 
round  the  neck;  a  match  is  nextfixed' 
to  each  handle;  these  are  set  fire  to, 
and  thrown  upon  the  enemy,  on  their 
approach  to  storm  the  walls;  the  mo- 
ment the  pots  break,  the  fire  from  the 
matches  communicates  to  the  powder 
and  to  the  grenades. 

CRUPELLAIRES,  Fr.  the  nobiliy 
amongst  the  ancient  Gauls,  all  of  them 
fervent  is,  that  is  to  say,  covered  with 
iron;  they  served  on  foot,,  until,  pur- 
suant to  a  regulation  of  Charles  \  TJ. 
king  of  France,  they  were  named  homines 
des  amies,  men  at  arms,  and  each  of  them 
was  obliged  to  keep  four  horses. 

CRUPPER,  a  leather  strap  which  is 
placed  under  a  horse's  tail  to  prevent 
the  saddle  from  moving  forwards.  It 
forms  a  part  of  a  horseman's  military 


(     U7     ) 

C  U  I 

Cr.v  rvzn-buckles  are  large  square 
buckles  fixed  to  the  saddle-tree  behind, 
to  fasten  the  crupper,  each  buckle  hay- 
ing a  roller  or  two,  to  make  it  draw 

CU,      I  Fr.  literally  the   bottom,  or 

CUL,  i  brainless  part  of  the  human, 
or  animal,  frame. 

Cu  de  basse  fosse,  Fr.  a  deep  dun- 

Tirer  le  Cu  en  arriere,  Fr.  to  loiter, 
Co  hang  behind, 

Tour  faile   en   Cu   de   lampe,  Fr.  a 
.  tower  winding  downwards  like  a  wreathed 

Cu  or  Cul  de  lampe,  according  to 
Belidor,  signifies  also  a  kind  of  pen- 
•dentive  which  hangs  from  the  mouldings 
•  in  Gothic  vaults;  also  an  assemblage  of 
sculptured  stones  which  serve  to  sup- 
port centr.f/-boxes,  or  small  turrets  at- 
tached to  the  salient  angles  of  stone  and 
brick  works. 

Cu  de  sac,  Fr.  a  blind  alley ;  an  alley, 
street,  or  place,  that  has  no  thoroughfare. 

Avoir  leCvL  sur  la  selle,  Fr.  to  be  on 

Tenir  conseil  de  guerre  le  Cul  sur  la 
selle,  Fr.  to  hold  a  council  of  war  on 

CUBATION,    )  {cubation,  Fr,)  is  the 

CUBATURE,  S  cubing  of  a  solid,  or 
the  art  of  measuring  the  solidity  of 
bodies.  This  solidity  is  usually  ascer- 
tained by  multiplying  together  their 
three  several  dimensions:  viz.  their 
length,  breadth,  and  height  or  depth. 

The  cubature  has  respect  to  the  con- 
tent of  a  solid,  as  the  quadrature  has 
to  the  superficies  of  a  figure:  so  that 
the  cubature  of  the  sphere  turns  on 
the  same  thing  as  the  quadrature  of  the 

CUBE,  ^  solid  contained  between  six 
equal  square  sides.  The  solidity  of  any 
cube  is  found  by  multiplying  the  super- 
ficial content  of  any  one  of  the  sides  by 
the  height.  Cubes  are  to  one  another 
in  the  triplicate  ratio  of  their  diagonals. 

CvBE-root  is  the  side  of  one  of  the 
squares  constituting  the  cube. 

CUBIC-J'oot  implies  so  much  as  is 
contained  in  a  cube,  whose  side  is  1  loot 
or  12  inches. 

Cubic  hyperbola  is  a  figure  expressed 
by  the  equation  x  y  '2— a,  having  2 
asymptotes,  and  consisting  of  2  hyper- 
bolas, lying  iii  the  adjoining  angles  of 
the  asymptotes,  and  not  in  the  opposite 

angles,  like  the  Apollonian  hyperbola., 
being  otherwise  called,  by  Sir  Isaac 
Newton,  in  his  linearum 
lertii  ordinis,  an  hyperbolismus  of  a 
parabola;  and  is  the  65th  species  of 
lines,  according  to  him. 

Cubic  number  is  that  which  is  pro- 
duced by  multiplying  any  number  by 
itself,  and  then  again  the  product  by  that 

Cubic  parabola,  a  curve  of  the  se- 
cond order,  having  infinite  legs,  diverging 
contrary  ways. 

CUE  or  Queue,  the  hair  tied  in  form 
of  a  tail.  All  the  British  soldiers,  ex- 
cepting the  grenadiers  and  light  infantry, 
were  formerly  ordered  to  wear  their 
hair  cue'd.  They  are  now  permitted  to 
wear  it  short, 

En  CUERPO,  en  chemise,  Fr.  from 
the  Spanish,  in  one's  shirt. — Se  battre  eri 
cuerpo,  To  tight  in  one's  shirt. 

CUILLER,  on  cuillirt  a  canon,  Fr. 
a  copper  ladle  or  scoop,  which  is  used 
to  draw  the  cartridge  out  of  the  gun. 

CUIR  bouilli,  Fr.  jacked  leather,  such 
as  jack-boots,  leathern  bottles,  pouches, 
&c.  are  made  of. 

CUIRASSE,  a  piece  of  defensive 
armour,  made  of  plate,  well  hammered, 
serving  to.coverthe  body,  from  the  neck 
to-  the  girdle,  both  before  and  behind, 
called  breast  and  back-plate. 

CUIRASSIERS,  a  sort  of  heavy  ca- 
valry armed  with  cuirasses,  as  most  of 
the  German  horse  are.  The  several 
German  powers  have  regiments  of  cui- 
rassiers, especially  the  Emperor,  and  the 
King  of  Prussia.  The  late  King  of 
France  had  also  one  regiment;  but  we 
have  had  none  in  the  English  army  since 
the  Revolution.  There  were  troops  of 
this  description  engaged  in  the  battle  of 
Waterloo,  who  had, until  that  time,  been 
thought  invincible,  but  were  completely 
routed  and  destroyed  by  the  superior 
weight  and  dexterity  of  the  Life  Guards; 
notwithstanding  the  peculiar  advantages 
of  their  armour,  which  was  musket-proof 
in  most  parts. 

CUISII,  from  cuisse,  Fr.  thigh.  See 

CUISINES,  Fr.  kitchens;  ditches  dug 
by  the  soldiers,  in  rear  of  the  camp,  to 
cook  their  victuals. 

CUISSARS,  Fr.  are  plates  or  scales 
made  of  beaten  iron,  which  formerly 
served  to  cover  the  thighs. 

CUITE,    Fr.   a    technical    word    to 

C  U   N 

(     148    ) 


express  the  preparation  of  saltpetre  for 
the  making  of  gunpowder.  See  Salt- 
l'l.I  rf. 

CUL  de  chaudron,  Fr.  the  hollow  or 
excavation  left  after  the  explosion  of  a 

CULASSE,  Fr.  breech  of  a  gun;  butt- 
end  of  a  musket. 

CULATE,  Fr.  that  part  which  stands 
between  the  touch-hole  of  a  cannon  and 
the  button. 

CULBUTER,  Fr.  to  overthrow; 
break;  turn  upside  down. 

Cui.buter  tine  culonne,  Fr.  to  oxer- 
throw  a  column. 

CULCIT/E,  mattresses  used  from 
time  immemorial ;  at  first  they  were 
made  of  dried  herbs,  next  of  feathers, 
and  finally  of  wool.  In  proportion  as 
the  Romans  relaxed  from  their  former 
severe  discipline,  they  would  carry  mat- 
tresses with  them,  notwithstanding  they 
were  forbidden.  During  the  siege  Of 
Numantia,  Scipio,  finding  that  all  pro- 
hibitions were  superfluous,  set  the  ex- 
ample to  his  troops;  insisted  upon  hav- 
ing no  bed  made  for  himself,  but  con- 
stantly slept  on  a  bundle  of  hay.  It  is 
not  necessary,  however,  that  a  general 
should  lie  on  the  bare  ground  for  ever; 
let  it  suliice  that  he  has  done  so  once; 
he  stands  more  in  need  of  sleep  than 
any  other  man  in  his  army ;  he  is  ex- 
posed to  be  summoned  up  frequently  in 
the  course  of  the  night;  besides,  the 
fatigues  and  agitation  of  mind  which 
he  has  undergone  on  the  preceding  day, 
require  that  he  should  enjoy  some  re- 
pose to  be  able  to  resume  the  labour  of 
the  morrow.  The  Duke  of  Wellington 
has  been  remarkable  for  his  neglect  of 
bodily  comfort;  especially  during  the 
campaigns  in  the  Peninsula. 

CULEE  d'etre  boidant,  Fr.  a  massy 
pile  which  receives  and  sustains  the  de- 
clivities of  an  arch  or  a  buttress. 

CULEIRE,  Fr.  a  crupper,  which  see. 
CULLION  head,  a  sconce,  or  block- 
house, the  same  as  a  bastion. 

CULOT,  Fr.  the  thickest  part  of  a 

CULOTTE,  Fr.  breeches.     See  Sa  n  S- 


CULSTODE,  Fr.     See  Custode 

Culveri  s-ordinurt/, 
Culveri  n  oft/te  largest  si 
CULVERTAIL,    in    carpentry,    the 
same  as  dove-tail. 
CUNEUS.     See  Wedge. 

f       See 

CUNETTE.     See  Cuvette. 

CURB,  a  chain  of  iron,  made  fast  to 
the  upper  part  of  the  branches  of  the 
bridle,  in  a  hole  called  the  eve,  and  run- 
ning over  the  beard  of  the  horse. 

CURBOULY,a  boot  of  jacked  leather, 
which  was  formerly  worn  by  hoiseincu. 

CURE-pit',  Fr.     See  Hoksk-imcker. 

CURFEW-fct//,  a  signal  given  in  cities 
taken  in  war,&c.  to  the  inhabitants  to  go 
to  bed.  The  most  memorable  curlew 
in  England  was  that  established  by  \\  il- 
liain  the  Conqueror,  who  ordered,  under 
severe  penalties,  that  at  the  ringing  of  a 
bell,  at  8  o'clock  in  the  evening,  every 
one  should  put  out  his  lights  and  tires, 
and  go  to  bed,  &c. 

CURRIER,  a  kind  of  piece  form*  rly 
used  in  sieges.  According  to  Sir  John 
Smith,  in  his  remarks  on  the  writiugs  of 
Captain  Berwick,  a  currier  was  of  the 
same  calibre  and  strength  as  ,t  harque- 
huss,  but  had  a  longer  barrel. 

CURRYCOMB,  an  iron  instrument 
used  for  currying  horses. 

To  CURTAIL  a  horse,  to  dock  him, 
to  cut  oft'  his  tail. 

CURTAIN,    in    fortification,    is   that 

part  of  the  body  of  the  place  which  joins 

the' flank  of  one  bastion  to  that  of  the 

next.     See  Fortification. 

CURTELASSE, )  G  r  „.,  . 
,,,TUTrT  .  v  *  }  See  Cutlass. 

CURTICONE,  in  geometry,  a  cone 
whose  top  is  cut  otT  by  a  plane  parallel 
to  its  basis. 

CURVATURE  of  a  line  in  its  bend- 
ing, or  flexure,  whereby  it  becomes  a 
curve  of  such  peculiar  properties. 

CURVE,  {courbe,  Fr.)  in  geometry,  a 
line,  wherein  the  several  points  it  con- 
sists of,  tend  several  ways,  or  are  placed 
in  different  directions. 

CURVILINEAL,  (curviligne,  Fr.) 
crooked  lined,  or  consisting  of  crooked 

Curvilinear  figures,  in  geometry, 
are  spaces  bounded  by  crooked  lines;  as 
circles, ellipses,  spherical  triangles,  &c. 

CUSTODE,  Fr.  a  holster  cap. 

CUSTREL,  the  shield-bearer  of  the 
ancients  was  so  called. 

7b  CUT,  in  farriery,  to  interfere.  See 

Cut,  the  action  of  a  sharp  or  edged 
instrument.  There  are  six  cuts  esta- 
blished for  the  use  of  the  cavalry,  to  be 
made  with  the  broad  sword,  or  sabre. 
See  Sword  Exercise. 

To  Cut  off,  to  intercept,  to  hinder  from 


(     149     ) 

C  Z  A 

union  or  return.  In  a  military  sense, 
this  phrase  is  variously  applicable,  and 
extremely  familiar. 

To  Cut  short,  to  abridge;  as  the  sol- 
diers were  cut  short  of  their  pay. 

To  Cut  up,  to  destroy  promiscuously. 
When  the  cavalry  are  sent  in  pursuit  of 
a  flying  enemy,  the  latter  are  generally 
cut  up. 

To  Cut  through,  szvord  in  hand.  A 
small  body  of  brave  men,  headed  by  a 
good  officer,  will  frequently  extricate  it- 
self from  apparent  captivity,  or  destruc- 
tion, by  cutting  its  way  through  supe- 
rior force.  British  soldiers  have  often 
exhibited  proofs  of  this  extraordinary  ef- 
fort of  national  courage. 

Cut  and  thrust  szcord,  See  Spa  droon. 

To  Cut  the  round,  or  Cut  the  volt, 
is  to  change  the  hand  when  a  horse 
n-ork.s  upon  volts  of  one  tread,  so  that 
dividing  the  volt  in  two,  he  turns  and 
parts  upon  a  right  line  to  recommence 
another  volt. 

CUTLER,  an  artificer  whose  business 
is  to  forge,  temper,  and  mount  all  sorts 
of  sword-blades,  &c. 

CUTTTNG-o/f.  See  Retrenchment. 

CUTTS,  a  soi"-  of  flat-bottomed  boats, 
formerly  used  for  the  transportation  of 

CUVTE,  Fr.  This  word  literally  sig- 
nifies a  tub;  but  it  is  also  used  by  the 
French  to  express  any  thing  steep  of 
ascent,  as  fosses  a  fond  de  cuve,  steep 

CUVETTE,  Fr.  a  cistern  :  a  small 
ditch,  or  reservoir.  In  fortification,  it 
is  a  small  ditch  of  10  or  12  feet  broad, 
made  in  the  middle  of  a  large  dry  ditch, 
about  4  or  4|  feet  deep,  serving  as  a  re- 
trenchment to  defend  the  ditch,  or  else 
to  let  water  in,  (if  it  can  be  had  during  a 
siege,)  and  afford  an  obstacle,  should  the 
enemy  endeavour  to  cross  the  fosse. 

CYCLISCUS,  in  surgery,  an  instru- 
ment made  in  the  form  of  a  half-moon, 
for  scraping  away  corrupt  flesh,  &c. 

CYCLOID,  a  curve  formed  by  a  point 
in  a  circle  revolving  upon  aplane.    Thus 

every  point  in  the  outer  rim  of  a  car- 
riage wheel  in  motion  moves  in  a  cycloid. 
M.  Huyghens  has  applied  the  cycloid  to 
clocks,  by  which  he  renders  their  move- 
ments more  equal  and  regular. 

CYCLOIDAL  space,  the  space  con- 
tained between  the  cycloid  and  the  sub- 
tense thereof. 

CYCLOMETRY,  (cyclomitrie,  Fr.) 
the  art  of  measuring  cycles,  or  circles. 


CYLINDER,  a  solid  body,  having 
two  flat  surfaces  and  one  circular. 

Cylinder,  or  concave  cylinder  of  a 
gun,  is  all  the  hollow  length  of  the  piece 
or  bore.     See  Cannon. 

Charged  Cylinder,  the  chamber,  or 
that  part  which  receives  the  powder  and 

Vacant  Cylinder,  that  part  of  the 
hollow  or  bore  which  remains  empty  when 
the  piece  is  loaded. 

CYLINDROID  is  a  frustum  of  a 
cone,  having  its  bases  parallel  to  each 
other,  but  unlike. 

CYMAR,  a  slight  covering;  a  scarf. 

CYMBAL,  (cymbale,  Fr.)  a  warlike 
musical  instrument  in  use  among  the  an- 
cients, made  of  brass  and  silver,  not  un- 
like our  kettle-drums,  and,  as  some  think, 
in  their  form,  but  smaller.  They  are 
now  used  by  the  British  and  other  Eu- 
ropean nations,  in  their  martial  music. 

CZAR,  a  title  of  honour  assumed  by 
the  great  dukes,  or,  as  they  are  now  styled, 
emperors  of  all  the  Russias.  This  title  is 
no  doubt,  by  corruption,  taken  from 
Cesar,  emperor :  and  the  Czars  accord- 
ingly bear  an  eagle  as  the  symbol  of  their 
empire.  The  first  that  bore  this  title  was. 
Bazil,  the  son  of  Basilides,  about  the  year 
1470.  The  empress  is  called  the  Czarina 

CZARIENNE,  Fr.  a  term  applied 
only  in  the  following  manner:  Sa  Majeste 
Czarienne,  his  or  herCzarine  Majesty. 

CZARINE,  the  Czar's  wife;  or  the  fe- 
male sovereign  of  Russia. 

CZARO WITZ,  the  son  of  the  Czar  or 
Czarine  of  Russia, 

(     150    ) 



D  A  U 

TT\  BY  the  Articles  of  War  it  is  enacted, 
*-*'  that  a  court-martial  may  order  any 
non-commissioned  officer  or  soldier  who 
has  been  convicted  of  desertion,  to  he 
marked  on  the  left  side,  two  inches  be- 
low the  arm-pit,  with  the  letter  D.  Such 
letter  not  to  be  less  than  half  an  inch 
long,  and  to  be  marked  upon  the  skin 
with  some  ink,  or  gunpowder,  or  other 
preparation,  so  as  to  be  visible  and  con- 
spicuous, and  not  liable  to  be  obliterated. 

DAG,  an  obsolete  word  for  hand-gun, 
or  pistol ;  so  celled  from  serving  the  pur- 
poses of  a  dagger,  being  carried  secretly, 
and  doing  mischief  suddenly. 

DAGGER,  (dugiie,  Fr.)  in  military 
affairs,  a  short  sword  or  poignard,  about 
12  or  13  inches  long. 

DAGUE  de  prcvbl,  Fr.  a  cat  o'nine 

DALES,  Fr.  flagstones. 

DAM.     See  Dyke. 

DAMAS,  Fr.  a  sabre  made  of  the  best 
polished  steel,  and  well  tempered  :  it  rs 
excessively  sharp,  and  is  so  called  from 
Damascus  in  Syria,  where  the  first  of  the 
kind  were  manufactured. 

To  DAMASK,  (damasquiner,  Fr.)  to 
inlay  iron  or  steel,  with  gold  or  silver, 
as  to  damask  the  hilt  or  blade  of  a  sword. 

DAMASQUINE,  Fr.  is  said  of  a 
poignard,  sabre,  sword,  musket,  pistol, 
shield,  helmet,  or  lance,  that  is  orna- 
mented with  sold  or  silver. 

DAME,  Fi .  a  bank  of  earth  ;  a  dam. 
Dame  likewise  means  a  piece  of  wood 
with  two  handles,  used  to  press  down 
turf  or  dirt  in  a  mortar. 

Dame  oh  quille,  Fr.  a  small  turret 
which  is  erected  upon  a  rampart  wall, 
or  on  the  top  of  a  building,  to  overlook 
the  country,  and  prevent  soldiers  from 

Dame  jeannc,  Fr.  a  large  bottle  in 
which  wine  or  other  liquors  may  be  kept. 

DAMNED,  (dumne,  Fr.)lost;  profli- 

Z'awieDAMNliE  de quelqu'un,Tr. the 
tool,  or  unprincipled  instrument  of  any 

DANE-gefr,  an  ancient  tribute  of 
twelve  pence  laid  upon  every  hide  of  land 

by  the  Danes,  after  they  had  invaded 

DANGERS  to  which  land  forces  are 
exposed,  (dangers  pour  les  troupes  de 
terre,  Fr.)  Under  this  title  are  compre- 
hended unknown  defiles,  certain  passages 
in  a  country  that  have  not  been  recon- 
noitred ;  bridges  which,  from  the  stra- 
tagem of  the  enemy,  are  rendered  unsafe; 
rocks,  straits  of  rivers,  a  wood,  a  forest, 
an  ambuscade  ;  a  height  in  the  shape  of 
a  curtain,  behind  which  troops  are  con- 
cealed ;  marshes,  sandy  grounds;  false  in- 
formation; traitors;  weariness;  the  want 
of  pay  and  of  provisions;  hard  treatment ; 
want  of  discipline;  the  bad  example 
given  by  the  officers;  neglect;  unbound- 
ed security;  bad  morals;  plunder  allowed 
unseasonably:  all  the  above  are  things 
which  at  various  times  may  expose  an 
army ;  but  a  wise  and  prudent  general 
knows  how  to  remove  all  dangers  of  the 
kind.  Mistrust  and  want  of  confidence, 
occasioned  by  the  improvident  appoint- 
ment of  weak  commanders,  are  likewise 
great  dangers  for  an  army. 

DANSE  militaire,  Fr.  a  military  dance 
used  among  the  ancients. 

DARD.'JV.  a  dart. 

Dard  a  J'ru,  Fr.  a  javelin  trimmed 
with  lire-works,  that  is  thrown  on  ships, 
or  against  places  which  you  wish  to  set 
on  fire. 

DARDER,  Fr.  to  throw  a  dart,  or 
any  other  pointed  weapon. 

D  ARDEUR,  Fr.  a  person  who  throws 
a  dart. 

DARE,  a  challenge  or  defiance  to 
single  combat. 

DARRA  I X.     Sec  HATTLF.-aTVYn/. 

DA  USE,  Fr.  the  interior  part  of  a 
port,  which  is  shut  with  a  chain,  and 
where  gallies  and  other  small  craft  are 

DART,  in  ancient  military  history,  im- 
plies a  small  kind  of  lance, thrown  by  the 
hand.  It  was  invented  by  Etholus  or 
GEtolus,  the  son  of  Mars. 

DAUPHIN,  a  title  given  to  the  eldest 
SOU  "t  France,  and  heir  presumptive  to 
the  crown,  on  account  of  the  province  of 
Dauphiny,  which,  in  1343,  was  given  to 


(     151     ) 


Philip  of  Valois,  on  this  condition,  by 
Humbert,  dauphin  of  the  Viennois. 

Dauphin,  Fr.  a  warlike  engine  used 
by  the  ancients  to  pierce  through  and 
sink  the  gallies  of  their  enemy.  It  threw 
a  heavy  mass  of  lead  or  of  iron  with 
such  impetuosity  as  to  do  great  execu- 
tion. This  engine  is  mentioned  in  the 
account  of  the  naval  engagement  in 
which  the  Athenians,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Nicias,  were  defeated  by  the 

Dauphins  des  canons,  Fr.  dolphins 
which  are  made  in  relief  on  the  trunnions 
of  field  pieces. 

DAY,  in  a  military  sense,  implies  any 
time  in  which  armies  may  be  engaged, 
from  the  rising  of  one  day's  sun  to  that 
of  another.  According  to  Johnson  it 
signifies  the  day  of  contest,  the  contest, 
the  battle.     Hence  a  hard-fought  day. 

DAYSMAN,  an  umpire  of  the  com- 
bat was  so  called. 

DE,  Fr.     See  Die. 

DEA.TH's-head Hussars.  SeellussARS. 

DEBACLE,  Fr.  breaking  of  a  frozen 

DEBACLEUR,  Fr.  water-bailiff. 

DEBANDADE,  Fr.  £  la  dcbandade, 

Se  battre  a  la  Debandade,  to  fight  in 
a  loose,  dispersed  manner. 

Laisser  a  la  Debandade,  to  leave  at 
random,  or  in  disorder,  as  the  late  Em 
peror  of  the  French  left  his  army  on  the 
18th  day  of  June,  1815,  after  the  battle  of 

DEBANDEMENT,  Fr.  the  act  of 
being  out  of  the  line,  or  irregularly 

DEBARCADEUB,  Fr.  place  for  the 
landing  of  a  ship's  cargo. 

DE  BARD  EUR,  fr.  a  lighterman. 

DEBARK.     See  Disembark. 

DEBARQUEMEN T,  Fr.  disembark- 

DEBAUCHERi,  Fr.  to  debauch,  se- 
duce, or  entice  a  .soldier  iVum  the  ser- 
vice of  his  king  and  country.  During 
the  reign  of  Louis  XV.  and  in  former 
reigns,  it  was  enacted,  that  any  person 
who  should  be  coinicted  ol  having  de- 
bauched, or  enticed,  a  soldier  from  his 
duty  should  sutler  death.  By  a  late  act 
of  parliament  it  is  made  a  capital  offence 
to  entice,  or  seduce,  a  soldier  from  any 
regiment  in  the  British  service. 

DEBENTURE  is  a  kind  of  war- 
rant, given  in  the  office  of  the  board  of 
ordnance,    whereby    the    person    whose 

name  is  therein  specified,  is  entitled  to 
receive  such  a  sum  of  money  as  by  for- 
mer contract  had  been  agreed  on,  whe- 
ther wages  or  otherwise.  Debenture,  in. 
some  of  the  acts  of  parliament,  denotes 
a  kind  of  bond  or  bill,  first  given  in  1649, 
whereby  the  government  is  charged  to 
pay  the  soldier,  creditor,  or  his  assigns, 
the  money  due  on  auditing  the  account 
of  his  arrears.  The  payments  of  the 
board  of  ordnance  for  the  larger  services 
at  home  are  always  made  by  debentures; 
and  the  usual  practice  has  been  to  make 
those  payments  which  are  said  to  be  in 
course  of  ollice,  at  a  period  which  is 
always  somewhat  more  than  three 
months  after  the  date  of  each  debenture, 
and  which  can  never  exceed  six  :  to  pay, 
for  instance,  at  once  for  the  three 
months  of  January,  February,  and 
March,  as  early  as  possible  after  the 
30th  of  June. 

Army-Debentures  are  generally  made 
up  at  the  Pay-Onice,  by  virtue  of  war- 
rants from  the  War-Orhce,  with  the 
state  of  regimental  charges  annexed, 
after  which  is  issued  the  final,  or  clearing 
warrant.     See  Warrant. 

DEBET,  Fr.  balance.  It  also  signi- 
fies the  same  as  dibit  ens,  debtor. 

DEBILLER,  Fr.  to  take  off  the 
horses  that  are  used  in  dragging  boats 
up  a  river. 

DE  BITER,  Fr.  to  saw  stones  for 
the  purpose  of  converting  the  several 
pieces  into  flag-stones,  &c.  It  also  sig- 
nifies to  saw  wood  into  thin  planks. 

DEBLAI,  Fr.  the  depth,  or  exca- 
vation, made  by  dicing. 

DEBLAYER,  Fr.  to  make  holes  or 
excavations  in  the  earth  with  spades  or 
pick-axes,  &c. 

Deiilaver  un  camp,  Fr.  to  evacuate 
a  camp  for  the  purpose  of  cleaning  and 
purifying  the  ground. 

Deblaver  les  terres  d'unjhsse,  Fr.  to 
throw  away  the  superfluous  earth  which 
is  not  used  in  constructing  a  parapet. 

ToDEBLOCADE,  from  the  French 
Dcbloquer ;  to  raise  the  sis-ge  of  a  place, 
or  to  clear  the  avenues  to  a  town  of  an 
enemy  that  prevents  ready  access  to  it. 

DEBORDEMENr,  IV.  This  word 
is  applied  to  that  excess  and  want  of 
gootl  order  among  troops,  which  induce 
them  to  overrun  a  country  that  is  friend- 
ly or  otherwise.  Debordanmt  was  the 
ancient  appellation  given  to  the  irrup- 
tion of  a  tribe  of  barbarians,  who  came 
from  afar  to  invade  a  strange  country. 


(    *&    ) 


DEBORDER,  Fr.  to  extend  to  the 
right  or  left  so  as  to  he  be  von  d  the  ex- 
treme points  of  a  Fortified  town  or  place. 

DEBOUCH^,  Fr.  the  outlet  of  a 
wood,  or  narrow  pass. 

Debouche  de  tranchee,  Fr.  the  open- 
ing which  is  made  at  the  extremity  of  a 
trench,  in  order  to  carry  the  work  more 
forward,  by  forming  new  boyaus,  and 
to  attack  a  place  more  closely. 

DEBOUCHEMENT,  Fr.  the  march- 
ingot'  an  army  from  a  narrow  place  into 
one  more  open. 

DEBOUCIIER,  Fr.  to  march  out 
of  a  defile  or  narrow  pass,  or  out  of  a 
wood,  village,  &c.  either  to  meet  an 
enemy  or  to  retire  from  him.  It  also 
signifies  to  begin  a  trench  or  boyau,  in 
fortification,  in  a  ziz-zag  direction  from 
a  preceding  one. 

D&boochbr  une  grosse  louche  a  feu, 
Fr.  to  take  the  wadding  out  of  a  heavy 
piece  of  ordnance. 

DEBOURRER,  Fr.  to  take  the  wad- 
dingout  of  a  cannon,  or  musket. 

DEBOURS,  Fr.  disbursements. 

DEBOUT,  Fr.  Up!  a  word  of  com- 
mand in  the  French  service,  when  troops 
kneel  upon  one  knee  in  the  presence  of 
the  consecrated  host. 

DEBRIS  it'inie  urmee,  Fr.  the  remains 
of  an  army  which  has  been  routed. 

DEBTS  and  Credits.  Every  captain 
of  a  troop  or  company  in  the  British 
service  is  directed  to  give  in  a  monthly 
statement  of  the  debts  and  credits  of  his 
men  ;  and  it  is  the  duty  of  every  com- 
manding officer  to  examine  each  list,  and 
to  see  that  no  injustice  or  irregularity  has 
been  countenanced  or  overlooked,  in  so 
important  an  object  as  every  money  mat- 
ter between  officer  and  soldier  most  un- 
questionably is. 

DEBUSQUER,  Fr.  to  drive  an  ene- 
my's party  from  au  ambuscade  or  ad- 
vantageous position. 

DECAGON,  (decagonc,  Fr.)  in  for- 
tification, is  a  polygon  figure,  having  10 
sides,  and  as  many  abgles,  and  if  all  the 
sides  and  angles  be  equal,  it  is  called  a 
regular  decagon,  and  may  be  inscribed 
in  a  circle.  The  sides  of  a  regular  deca- 
gon are,  in  power  and  length,  equal  to 
the  greatest  segment  of  an  hexagon  in- 
scribed in  the  same  circle,  and  cut  in 
extreme  and  mean  proportion. 

To  DECAMP,  (dkamper,  Fr.)  to 
march  an  army  or  body  of  men  from 
the  ground  where  it  before  lay  en- 
camped.    It  also  signifies  to  quit   any 

any  place  or  position  in  an   unexpected 


DECAMPEMENT,  Fr.  the  break- 
ing up  of  an  encampment. 

DECAMPER,  Fr.  to  leave  one  camp 
in  order  to  go  and  occupy  another. 

DECANI  S,  in  Roman  military  his- 
tory, an  officer  who  presided  over  ten 
other  officers,  and  was  head  of  the  con- 
tubernium,  or  serjeant  of  a  file  of  Ro- 
man soldiers. 

DECASQUER,  Fr.  to  take  off  one's 

DECEDER,  Fr.  to  die  a  natural 
death ;  hence  decease. 

DECEMPEDAL,  ( decern fede,  Fr.) 
an  ancient  measure  of  ten  feet. 

DECEMVIR,  (dicemvir,  Fr.)  In 
Roman  history  one  of  the  ten  magis- 
trates that  were  created,  on  various  occa- 
sions, under  the  republican  government. 

DECEMVIRATE,  (dicemvirat,  Fr.) 
the  station,  or  dignity,  of  a  decemvir; 
also  the  period  of  its  duration. 

DECIIARGE,  Fr.  the  act  of  firing 
off  a  musket. 

Decharge  generate,  Fr.  a  general 

Decharge  etarmessur  un  mort,  Fr.  a 
discharge  of  musketry  over  a  dead  body. 

Une  Decharge  de  coups  de  batbn,  Fr. 
a  bastinado;  a  volley  of  blows. 

DECIIARGEURS,  Fr.  men  appoint- 
ed to  attend  the  park  of  artillery,  and  to 
assist  the  non-commissioned  officers,&c. 
who  are  employed  on  that  service.  It  is 
the  duty  of  the  former  to  keep  a  specific 
account  of  articles  received  and  consumed^ 
in  order  to  enable  the  latter  to  furnish 
their  officers  with  accurate  statements. 

DECIIIRER  la  cartouche  avec  les 
dents,  Fr.  to  bite  cartridge. 

DECHOUER,  Fr.  a  sea  term,  sig- 
nifying to  get  a  ship  afloat,  which  has 
touched  or  been  stranded. 

To  DECIMATE  (decimer,  Fr.)  to 
chuse  one  out  of  ten,  by  lot. 

DECIMATION,  in  "Roman  military 
history,  a  punishment  inflicted  upon 
such  soldiers  as  quitted  their  post,  or 
behaved  themselves  cowardly  in  the  field. 
The  names  of  all  the  guilty  were  put 
into  an  urn  or  helmet,  and  as  many  were 
drawn  out  as  made  the  tenth  part  of  the 
whole  number;  the  latter  were  put  to 
the  sword,  and  the  others  saved. 

DECLARATION  of  tear,  (declara- 
tion de  guerre,  Fr.)  a  public  proclama- 
tion of  a  state,  declaring  it  to  be  at 
war  with  any  foreign  power,  and  forbid- 


(     153     ) 

D  E  D 

ding  all  and  every  one  to  aid  or  assist 
the  common  enemy,  at  their  peril. 

To  Declare  rear,  (declarer  la  guerre, 
Fr.)  to  make  it  publicly  known  that  one 
power  is  upon  the  eve  of  acting  offensive- 
ly against  ahother. 

DECLICQ,  DECEIT,  Fr.  a  rammer; 
a  machine  used  to  drive  down  piles,  staves, 
&c.    It  also  signifies  a  battering  ram. 

DECLIVITY,  as  opposed  to  acclivity, 
means  a  gradual  inclination  or  obliquity 
reckoned  downwards. 

DECOIFFER,  Fr.  to  uncap. 

Decoiffer  une  fusee,  Fr.  to  take 
off  the  wax,  or  mastic  composition,  by 
which  the  inflammable  matter  is  con- 
fined. This  term  is  also  used  with  re- 
gard to  shells.  The  French  sometimes 
say,  grater  la  fusee  des  bombes,  to  scrape 
oft"  the  fuse  of  a  bomb. 

DECOLLER,  Fr.  to  behead.  For- 
merly, no  person  under  the  rank  of  a 
gentleman  could  be  beheaded  in  Fiance. 
In  Austria  it  is  an  ignominious  punish- 

DECQMBRER,  Fr.  to  carry  away 
the  loose  stones,  &c.  which  have  been 
made  in  a  breach  by  a  besieging  enemy. 

DECOMBRES,  Fr".  the  rubbish 
which  is  the  consequence  of  a  breach 
being  made  in  a  work;  or  any  other 
loose  ruins  that  may  have  been  occa- 
sioned by  time. 

DECOMPTE,  Fr.  in  a  general  sense, 
discount,  or  deduction  made,  on  any 
given  sum  or  allowance. 

Decompte  also  signifies  a  liquidation, 
or  balance,  which  from  time  to  time  was 
made  in  the  old  French  service,  between 
the  captain  of  a  company  and  each  pri- 
vate soldier,  for  monies  advanced,  or  in 

DECONFIRF.,  Fr.  discomfit;  route. 

DECOUCHER,  Fr.  to  sleep  out  of 

DECOUDRE,  ctre  en  decoudre,  Fr. 
to  be  on  bad  terms;  to  be  determined 
to  fight. 

DECOURAGER,  JV.  to  dishearten. 

DECOUSU,  Fr.  unstitched,  disorder- 
ed, from  decoudre :  thus  an  army  may 
be  partially  broken,  vet  not  discomfited. 

DECOUSURE,  Fr.  a  part  unstitch- 
ed, or  broken,  after  having  been  sewed. 
Cela  n'est  pas  dechire,  ce  n'est  qu'une 

A  DECOUVERT,  Fr.  exposed;  not 
covered  or  protected. 

Aller  a  Decouvert  attaquer  I'enne- 
mi,  Fr.  to  attack  an  enemy  in  open  day. 

DECOUVERTE,  allcr  a  la  dicou- 
verte,  Fr.  to  patrole;  to  reconnoitre. 

Decouverte  sur  ?ner,  ctre  a  la  decoa- 
verte,  Fr.  to  be  placed  in  the  round-top, 
6r  at  the  mast-head,  for  the  purpose  of 
keeping  a  good  look-out. 

DECOY,  a  stratagem  to  carry  oft'  the 
enemy's  horses  in  a  foraging  party,  or 
from  the  pasture ;  to  execute  which,  you 
must  be  disguised,  and  mix  on  horseback 
in  the  pasture,  or  amongst  the  foragers 
on  that  side  on  which  you  propose  to 
fly:  you  must  then  begin  by  firing  a  few 
shots,  which  are  to  be  answered  by  such 
of  your  party  as  are  appointed  to  drive 
up  the  rear,  and  are  posted  at  the  oppo- 
site extremity  of  the  pasture,  or  forag- 
ing ground;  after  which  they  are  to  gal- 
lop from  their  different  stations  towards 
the  side  fixed  for  the  flight,  shouting  and 
firing  all  the  way  :  the  horses  being  thus 
alarmed,  and  provoked  by  the  example 
of  others,  will  break  loose  from  the 
pickets,  throw  down  their  riders  and  their 
trusses,  and  setting  up  a  full  gallop,  will 
naturally  direct  their  course  to  the  same 
side;  insomuch  that,  if  the  number  of 
them  was  ever  so  great,  you  might  lead 
them  in  that  manner  for  several  leagues 
together:  when  you  are  got  into  some 
road,  bordered  by  a  hedge,  or  ditch,  you 
must  stop  as  gently  as  possible;  and 
without  making  any  noise;  the  horses 
will  then  suffer  themselves  to  be  taken 
without  any  opposition.  It  is  called  in 
French  Haraux,  and  Count  Saxe  is  the 
only  author  that  mentions  it. 

to  Decoy,  to  allure,  entice,  or  draw 

DECOYED,  an  enemy  is  said  to  be 
decoyed  when  a  small  body  of  troops 
draws  him  into  action,  whilst  the  main 
body  lies  in  ambush  ready  to  act  with 
the  greatest  effect. 

DECRIRE  un  pays,  Fr.  to  give  a  de- 
scription of  a  country. 

DECUPLE,  in  arithmetic,  a  term  of 
relation  or  proportion,  implying  a  thing 
to  be  ten  times  as  much  as  another. 

DECURION,in  Roman  military  his- 
tory, a  commander  of  ten  men  in  the 
army,  or  chief  of  a  decury. 

DECURY,  (decurie,  Fr.)  ten  RomajP 
soldiers  ranged  under  one  chief,  or  leader, 
called  the  Decurion. 

DECUSSATION,  in  geometry,  op- 
tics, ecc.  the  point  at  which  two  lines, 
rays,  &c.  cross,  or  intersect,  each  other. 

DEDANS  d'une  rille  de  guerre,  Fr. 
the  inside  of  a  fortified  town,  i.  e.  all  tks 

D  E  F 

(     154     ) 

J)  E  V 

works  whi<  h  are  within  the  line  of  cir-jtown   or   place    may    be   entirely  ovcr- 


(lowed  and    become    an    inert  stagnant 

DEEP,  a  term  used  in  the  disposition  pool.  Mere  submersion  is,  in  fact,  the 
or  arrangement  of  soldiers  that  arfe  distinguishing  character  of  this  species 
placed  in  ranks  before  each  other;  of  defence,  which  does  not  afford  any 
hence  two  deep,  three  deep,  8cC.  Troops  other  movement  than  what  naturally 
are  told  off  in  ranks  of  two,  or  three  ;  arises  from  the  greater  or  lesser  elevation 
deep,  and  on  some  occasions  in  four  or 

DEFAIRE,  Fr.  to  defeat. 

of  the  waters,  without  the  means  of  urg- 
ing them  beyond  a  given  point. 

Distant  Defence  consists  in   being 
DEFAITE,  Fr.  defeat.     The  loss  of  able  to  intet  nipt  the  enemy's  movements 

a  battle.     An  army  is  vaincue  (ovcrpow 
ered)  when  the  field  of  battle  is  lost;  it 

is  dt/'uilc  when,  besides  the  loss  of  the  passing,    or    to    insulate    batteries,    ihe 

by  circuitous   inundations;  to  inundate, 
for  instance,  a  bridge,  when  a  convoy  is 

held  of  battle,  there  are  a  great  number 
killed,  wounded,  and  made  prisoners. 
The  word  defaite  is  only  applicable  to  an 
army,  but  never  to  a  detachment;  in  the 
latter  case  it -is  said  to  have  been  over- 

DEFAULTER.     See  Deserter. 

Defaulter,  a  term  generally  used  to 
signify  any  person  whose  accounts  are 
incorrect,  particularly  with  the  public; 
as  a  public  defaulter. 

DEFEAT,  {defaite,  Fr.)  the  over- 
throw of  an  army. 

DEFECTION,  an  abandoning  of  a 
king  or  state;  a  revolt. 

DEFENCE,  in  fortification,  consists 
of  all  sorts  of  works  that  cover  and  de- 
fend the  opposite  posts;  as  flanks,  para- 
pets, caesinates,  and  fausse-brays.  It 
is  almost  impossible  to  fix  the  miner  to 
the  face  of  a  bastion,  till  the  defences  of 
the  opposite  one  are  ruined;  that  is,  till 
the  parapet  of  its  Hank  is  beaten  down, 
and  the  cannon,  in  all  parts  that  can 
fire  upon  that  face  which  is  attacked,  is 
dismounted.     See  Fortification. 

Active  Defence,  generally  consider- 
ed, means  every  spei  ies  of  offensive  ope- 
ration which  is  resorted  to  by  the  be- 
sieged, to  annoy  the  besiegers.  Such, 
for  instance,  is  the  discharge  of  heavy 
ordnance  from  the  walls,  the  emission  of 
shells,  and  the  firing  of  musketry.  A 
mass  of  water  may  likewise  be  under- 
stood to  mean  active  defence,  provided 
it  can  lie  increased  according  to  the  exi- 
gency of  the  service,  and  be  suddenly 
made  to  overflow  the  outworks,  or  en- 
trenchments of  the  besieging  enemy. 
Mines  which  ;ue  carried  beyond  the  for- 
tifications may  likewise  be  included  un- 
der this  head. 

Passive  Defence  is  chiefly  confined 
to  inundations,  and  is  effected  by  letting 
out  water  in  such  a  manner,  that  the 
level  ground  which  lies  round  a  fortified 

heads  of  saps  or  lodgments  which  have 
been  made  in  the  covert-way,  is  to  act 
upon  a  distant  defence.  By  this  species 
of  defence,  an  enemy's  communications 
may  be  perpetually  intercepted,  and  his 
approaches  so  obstructed  as  to  force 
him  to  leave  dangerous  intervals. 

See  Belidor's  treatise  on  Hydraulic 

Line  of  Defence  represents  the 
flight  of  a  musket-ball  from  the  place 
where  the  musketeers  stand,  to  scour  the 
face  of  the  bastion.  It  should  never  ex- 
ceed the  reach  of  a  musket.  It  is  either 
fichant,  or  razant:  the  first  is  when  it  is 
drawn  from  the  tingle  of  the  curtain  to 
the  flanked  angle;  the  last  when  it  is 
drawn  from  a  point  in  tfie  curtain,  raz- 
ing the  face  of  the  bastion. 

Line  of  Defence  is  the  distance  be- 
tween the  salient  angle  of  the  bastion 
and  the  opposite  flank;  that  is,  it  is  th^ 
face  produced  to  the  flank.  See  Forti- 

Defence  of  rivers,  in  military  affairs, 
is  a  vigorous  effort  to  prevent  the  ene- 
my from  passing;  to  effect  which,  a  care- 
ful and  attentive  officer  will  raise  re- 
doubts, and  if  necessary  join  curtains 
thereto:  he  will  place  them  as  near  the 
banks  as  possible,  observing  to  cut  ft 
trench  through  the  ground  at  the  wind- 
ings of  the  river,  which  may  be  favoura- 
ble to  the  enemy,  and  to  place  advanced 
redoubts  there,  to  prevent  bis  having 
any  £ rou ml  lit  to  form  on, &c.  See  Rivers. 

To  be  in  a  posture  of  Defence  is  to 
lie  prepared  to  oppose  an  enemy,  whe- 
ther in  regard  to  redoubts,  batteries,  or 
in  the  open  field. 

To  DEFEND,  to  fortify,  secure,  or 
maintain  a  place,  or  cause. 

Dlii  E\ ID  ANT,  Fr.  a  synonimous 
word  for  jlanquant. 

DEFENSE,  Fr,  prohibition.  Anorder 
issued  by  some  superior  officer  forbid- 

D  E  F 

(     155     ) 

D  E  G 

ding  the  troops  of  a  garrison,  or  camp,  to 
do  certain  things. 

Defenses  (Tune  place,  Fr.  the  works 
of  a  fortified  place.  See  Defence  in 

Relative  to  the  defence  of  fortified 
places,  the  reader  may  he  gratified  by 
referring  to  the  Reveries  or  Memoires  of 
Marshal  Saxe,  and  to  a  work  entitnled 
Reflexions,  by  Baron  D'Espagnuc,  in  his 
Supplement  to  these  Reveries,  page  91. 

DEFENSIVE,  serving  to  defend;  in 
a  state,  or  posture,  of  defence. 

DEFENSivE-IFa?-.     See  War. 

DEFERLER,  Fr.  to  unfurl;  to 
spread  out.  This  term  is  only  used  by 
the  French  in  a  naval  sense,  as  Diferler 
l.cs  voiles,  To  let  go  the  sails,  or  sheets. 

DEFIANCE.     See  Challenge. 

DEFICIENT,  wanting  to  complete, 
as  when  a  regiment,  troop,  or  company 
has  not  its  prescribed  number  of  men. 

Deficient    numbers,    in   arithmetic, 

are    such   whose   parts   added    together 

.make   less  than   the  integer.     Thus   8, 

whose  quota  parts  are  1,  2,  and  4,  which 

together  make  onlv  7. 

D±FI,Fr.  a  challenge. 

Defi  (Tarmes,  Fr.  a  challenge,  or  pro- 
vocation, to  fight,  much  in  practice  some 
centuries  back. 

DEFIER,  Fr.  to  set  at  defiance. 

To  DEFILADE,  to  move,  or  pass  oft' 
by  files;  also  to  march  through  narrow 

DEFILE,  {defile,,  Fr.)  in  military 
affairs, a  narrow  passage,  or  road,  through 
which  the  troops  cannot  inarch,  other- 
wise than  by  making  a  small  front,  and 
filing  off;  so  that  the  enemy  may  take 
an  opportunity  to  stop  or  harass  their 
march,  and  to  charge  them  with  so  much 
the  more  advantage,  because  the  rear 
cannot  come  up  to  the  relief  of  the  front. 

Defile,  among  the  French  is  also 
called  filitre. 

To  Defile,  (difiler,  Fr.)  is  to  reduce 
divisions  or  platoons  into  a  small  front, 
in  order  to  march  through  a  defile; 
which  is  most  conveniently  done  by  fac- 
ing to  either  the  right  or  left,  and  then 
wheeling  to  either  right  or  left,  and 
marching  through  by  files,  ike.  It  has 
been  mentioned  by  a  writer  on  military 
manoeuvres,  that  defiling  should  be  per- 
formed with  rapidity,  for  this  obvious 
reason,  that  a  body  of  men  which  ad- 
vances towards,  or  retires-  from  an  ap- 
proaching enemy,  may  get  into  line,  or 
into  columns,  prepared  for  action,  with- 

out loss  of  time.  There  may,  however, 
be  exceptions  to  this  general  rule.  For 
instance,  if  the  regiment  is  passing  a 
bridge,  either  retreating  or  advancing, 
and  the  bridge  is  not  firm,  the  pressure 
upon  it  must  be  as  little  as  possible; 
because  if  it  should  break  down,  the  re- 
giment is  suddenly  separated,  and  the 
remainder  may  be  cut  to  pieces.  In 
passing  a  common  defile,  the  pace  must 
be  proportioned  to  the  nature  of  the 

DEFILEMENT,  the  art  of  disposing 
all  the  works  in  a  fortress  so  that  they 
may  be  commanded  by  the  body  of  the 
place.     See  Fortification. 

DEFILING  a  lodgment.  See  Enfi- 

DEFORMER,  Fr.  in  a  military 
sense,  signifies  to  break:  as d "ej or merune 
co/onne,  to  break  a  column. 

DEFY.     See  Challenge. 

DEGAGEMENT,  Fr.  the  absolute 
discharge  of  a  soldier.  - 

Degagement,  Fr.  a  small  passage,  or 
staircase,  belonging  to  a  suite  of  apart- 
ments, through  which  a  person  may  go, 
without  being  obliged  to  return  the  same 
way  he  came. 

DEGAGER  un  soldat,  Fr.  to  give  a 
soldier  his  discharge. 

DEGAINER,  Fr.  to  draw  one's 

DEGAINEUR,  Fr.  a  hector;  a  bully. 

DEGARNIR  uneforteresse,une  ligne, 
tin  poste,  Fr.  &c.  to  dismantle  a  fortress, 
a  line  of  fortification*  a  post,  by  with- 
drawing the  troops,  and  sending  away 
the  cannon. 

DEGAST,  Fr.  the  laying  waste  an 
enemy's  country,  particularly  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  a  town  which  an  army 
attempts  to  reduce  by  famine,  or  which 
refuses  to  pay  military  exactions. 

DEGAT,  Fr.  waste;  spoil;  devasta- 

DE GA UC HI R,  Fr.  to  plane;  to 
level ;  to  make  smooth  and  even,  as  car- 
penters i\o  wood,  and  masons  stone; 
also  to  level  a  talus  by  a  slope  of  earth. 

DEGORGEOIR,  Fr.  a  sort  of  steel 
pricker  used  in  examining  the  touch- 
hole  of  a  cannon. 

DEGORGER,  Fr.  to  clear  out  some 

D  egorger  une  embrasure,  Fr.  to  lower 
the  earth  in  an  embrasure,  so  as  to  have 
a  perfect  view  of  any  object  against 
which  u  piece  of  ordnance  is  to  be  point- 

D  E  G 

(     156     ) 


DECOURDl,  Jr.  polished.  It  is 
baid  proverbially  of  a  soldier  who  under- 
stands liis  duty  well,  that  he  is  a  man 
degourdi;  in  the  like  manner  it  is  said 
of  a  clumsy,  awkward  recruit,  that  he 
must  be  degourdi,  that  is  to  say,  that  he 
must^be  properly  drilled. 

DEG0UTER,  Fr.  to  disgust;  to  set 
against  any  tiling. 

Chcxal  DEGOUTE,  a  horse  that  is 
off  his  feed. 

DEGRADATION,  {degradation,  Fr.) 
in  a  military  life,  the  act  of  depriving  an 
officer  for  ever  of  his  commission,  rank, 
dignity,  or  degree  of  honour;  and  tak- 
ing away,  at  the  same  time,  title,  badge, 
and  every  other  privilege  of  an  officer ; 
also  a  sentence  passed  on  non-commis- 
sioned officers  only,  who  before  they  can 
receive  any  corporal  punishment,  except 
imprisonment,  must  be  degraded  to  the 
ranks,  or  station  of  a  private  soldier.  So 
late  as  the  reign  of  Charles  I.  private 
soldiers,  for  misbehaviour  in  action,  were 
degraded  to  pioneers. 

Degradation  sue  les  Ouvrages  par 
Zercu  de  /'enntmi,  Fr.  See  Ouvrages 

DEGRADE,  Fr.  This  is  said  of  a 
building,  when,  from  want  of  the  neces- 
sary repairs,  it  becomes  uninhabitable. 
The  term  also  applies  to  a  wall,  when  the 
plaster  or  mortar  is  fallen  oil",  and  the 
shards, or  bricks,  are  w  ithout  any  cement, 
or  connexion. 

To  DEGRADE,  to  lessen;  to  lower 
in  the  estimation  of  others. 

DEGRADER,  Fr.  to  degrade.  In 
France,  military  criminals  were  never  de- 
livered over  to  the  charge  of  the  civil 
power,  or  sent  to  be  executed,  without 
having  been  previously  degraded;  which 
was  done  in  the  following  manner: 

As  soon  as  the  serjeant  of  the  com- 
pany to  which  the  culprit  belonged  had 
received  orders  from  the  major  of  the 
regiment,  to  degrade  and  render  him  in- 
capable of  bearing  arms,  he  accoutred 
him  cap-a-pee,  taking  care  to  place  his 
right  hand  upon  the  butt  end  of  the 
musket,  while  the  soldier  remained  tied. 
lie  then  repeated  the  following  words: 
"  Te  trouvant  indigne  de  porter 
amies,  nous  t'en  degradons." 
thee  unuort/ij/  to  bear  arms,  we  thus  de- 
grade and  remhr  tine  ineupable  of  t/ici/i. 
lie  then  drew  the  musket  from  his  arm 
backwards,  took  off  his  cross-belt,  sword, 
&c.  and  finally,  gave  him  a  kick  upon 
the  posteriors.   After  which,  the  serjeant 


retired,  and  the  executioner  seized  tho 
criminal.     Set  Drum-out. 

DEGRADER  une  muraille,  Fr.  to 
beat  down  a  wall, 

Terre  «  DEGRAISSER,  Fr.  fuller's 
earth;  the  use  and  application  of  which 
are  well  known. 

DEGRAYOYER,  Fr.  to  wash  away 
the  gravel,  &c.  in  loosen;  to  undermine. 

DEGREE,  (degre,  Fr.)  a  division  of  a 
circle,  including  a  360th  part  of  its  cir- 
cumference. Every  circle  is  supposed  to 
be  divided  into  360  ,  parts  called  degrees, 
and  each  degier  into  ti(/,  other  parts, 
called  minutes;  each  of  these  minutes 
being  divided  into  CO"  seconds,  each  se- 
cond into  thirds,  and  so  on. 

Degree  of  latitude,  (degre  de  lati- 
tude, Fr.)  a  portion  of  land  between  two 

Degree  of  longitude,  (degfk  de  I  »igi- 
lude,  Fr.)  a  portion  of  land  between  two 

DEGROSSER  on  1)  1  £G R( )SSI R,  Fr. 
to  take  oil  the  rough  or  outside  of  any 
thing;  to  chip;   to  clear  up;   to  fashion. 

DEHARNACHER,  Fr.  to  unsaddle 
a  horse,  and  tale  off  every  part  of  his 
harness  and  armour. 

DEHORS,  in  the  military  art,  are  all 
sorts  of  out-works  in  general,  placed  at. 
some  distance  from  the  walls  of  a  forti- 
fication, the  better  to  secure  the  main 
places,  and  to  protect  the  siege,  &c.  See 

DE.1ETTER,  Fr.  to  open;  to  give; 
as  wood  will  when  it  has  not  been 
thoroughly  dried  before  it  is  used. 

DELAL5RER,  Fr.  to  tear  to  pieces; 
to  rend  ;   to  ruin;   to  destroy. 

DELATION,  Fr.  information,  such 
as  is  given  by  a  reporter,  tale-bearer,  or 


DELATOR,  (de/ateur,  Fr.)  an  in- 
former. Under  the  Roman  emperors 
these  contemptible  creatures  were  veiy 
common.  Tacitus  informs  us,  that  the 
tyrants  encouraged  them  to  carry  on  that 
infamous  trade  by  granting  them  re- 
wards. Caligula  allowed  them  one- 
eighth  of  the  property  of  the  accused 
person.  As  the  informers  consulted 
only  their  own  interest,  they  invariably 
lodged  their  informations  against  the 
most  respectable  citizens,  so  that  tran- 
quillity and  personal  safety  were  entire- 
ly out  of  the  question ;  till  at  last  Titus 
and  Trajan  put  an  end  to  that  public 
nuisance,  and  had  the  informers  put  to 
death.     The  same  infamous  system  was 

D  E  M 

(     157     ) 

D  E  M 



revived  in  France  in  the  espionnage 
practised  under  Robespierre,  and 
throughout  the  French  Revolution. 

DELIAISON,  Fr.     See  Liaison. 

DELINEATION,    an     outline, 
tketch.     See  Design. 

DELIVER.     See  Surrender. 

To   Deliver   up,   to   surrender; 
give  up.     Thus  Charles  I.  was  delivered 
up  to  Oliver  Cromwell's  army. 

To  Deliver  battle, {a  term  taken  from 
the  French  Livrer  batuille,)  to  attack  an 
enemy, and  come  to  blows. 

DELIVRER  une  troupe,  une  ville 
assie'g'ce,  Fr.  to  relieve  a  body  of  men,  or 
besieged  town,  by  forcing  the  enemy  to 

DELLIS,  Fr.  select  men  from  Alba- 
nia, who  volunteer  their  services  for  the 
armies  of  the  Grand  Siguor,  and  receive 
no  pay:  their  undaunted  courage  is  su- 
perior to  that  of  any  other  nation.  No 
man  is  admitted  into  that  body  unless 
lie  be  of  a  proper  height,  robust,  and  of 
a  martial  countenance.  Previous  to 
their  being  embodied,  they  must  give 
proofs  of  their  valour.  The  Sanjacs 
and  Beyglerbeys  select  their  guard  from 
amongst  these  Albanians,  on  account  of 
their  courage  and  fidelity.  They  are 
armed  with  a  sabre,  a  lance,  a  battle- 
axe,   and  sometimes  with   pistols;    but 

pressibn;  for,  amongst  civilized  nations., 
to  iiive  the  lie  is  a  very  gross  insult; 
amongst  military  men  it  is  reckoned  the 
greatest  offence:  and  the  satisfaction  re- 
quired is  not  so  easily  given  as  it  was 
among  the  Romans,  when  the  offender 
had  only  to  say  to  the  affronted  person, 
Nollrm  dictum,  lam  sorry  for  zchat  I  said. 

DEMEURER,  Fr.  to  lodge;  to  re- 
main; to  stay.  This  word  is  used  figu- 
ratively among  the  French,  to  signify 
possession  of  any  thing,  as  le  champ  de 
batuille  ?n'est  demeure,  the  field  of  battle 
was  mine. 

Demeurer  sur  la  place,  Fr.  to  be  left 
dead  on  the  spot. 

DEMI-BASTION  is  a  work  with 
only  one  face  and  one  flank.  See  For- 

DEMI-CANNON.     See  Cannon. 

DEMI  CULVERIN.    See  Cannon. 

DEMI-DIAMETRE,  Fr.  See  Se- 

DEMLD1STANCE  des  polygones, 
Fr.  is  the  distance  between  the  exteriof 
polygons  and  the  angles. 

Demi-Distances,  Fr.  half-distances; 
as  serrez  la  colonne  a  demi-distanccs, 
close  the  column  at  half-distances. 

DEMI-FILE,  Fr.  is  that  rank  in  a 
French  battalion,  which  immediately 
succeeds  to  the  serre-demi-file,  and  is  at 

they  prefer  other  weapons  to  fire-arms,  the  head  of  the   remaining  half  of  its 

as  they  may,  in  their  opinion,  acquire 
more  glory  by  making  use  of  the  former. 

DELOGER,  Fr.  to  dislodge;  to 
march  off.  This  term  is  used  among  the 
French  both  to  signify  the  act  of  with- 
drawing one's  self,  and  that  of  forcing 
another  to  quit  a  position.  Hence,  di- 
loger  Vennemi,  to  dislodge  an  enemy. 

DELOGEMENT,  Fr.  the  act  of 
suddenly  quitting  a  town  or  village  upon 
which  troops  have  been  quartered,  or  of 
breaking  up  camp.  Decamper  is  a  more 
appropriate  term. 

DELOYAL,  Fr.  disloyal;  regardless 
of  all  faith  and  honour;  perfidious. 

DEMANTELER,  Fr.  to  dismantle; 
to  destroy  the  works  of  a  fortified  place. 

D  EMARCATION,  {demarcation,Fv.) 
a  stipulated  separation,  or  division  of  ter- 
ritory, ike.  See  Line  of  Demarcation. 
DEMENTI,  Fr.  the  lie.  A  young 
soldier  must  know,  from  the  moment  he 
embraces  the  profession  of  arms,  that 
this  word  can  never  escape  with  impuni- 
ty from  the  lips  of  a  man  of  honour,  and 
especially  of  asoldier;  in  short,  upon  no 
occasion  whatever  must  he  use  the  ex-, 


DEMI-GORGE  is  half  the  gorge,  or 
entrance  into  the  bastion,  not  taken  di- 
rectly from  angle  to  angle,  where  the 
bastion  joins  the  curtain,  but  from  the 
angle  of  the  flank  to  the  center  of  the 
bastion ;  or  the  angle  which  the  two 
curtains  would  make  by  their  prolonga- 
tion.   See  Fortification. 

DEMI-LANCE,  a  light  lance,  or 

DEMI-LUNE,  in  fortification,  is  a 
work  placed  before  the  curtain  to  cover 
it,  and  prevent  the  flanks  from  being 
discovered  sideways.  It  is  made  of  two 
faces,  meeting  in  an  outward  angle. 
See  Fortification. 

DEMi-lunes  dctachces,Fr.  These  works 
are  constructed  like  bastions,  either 
level,  flat,  or  elevated,  according  as  cir- 
cumstances require,  and  which  depends 
upon  the  elevation,  or  depth,  of  the 

Dzm-parabole,  Fr.  a  curved  line, 
but  less  so  than  that  of  the  parabola. 
Vide  Parabola. 

DEiii-parallcles,   or   Places  cCarmes, 


(     158    ) 

D  E  P 

Fr.  parts  of  trenches  conducted  in  pa- 
rallel lines  in  front  of  the  place  between 
the  second  and  third  parallel,  with  a 
view  of  protecting  from  a  shorter  dis- 
tance, the  head  of  the  saps,  until  the 
third  parallel  be  completed.  Their  length 
and  depth  are  the  same  as  those  of  the 
parallels:  they  are  from  forty  to  fifty 
toises  long. 

Dzui-pigue,  Fr.  a  long  javelin,  or 

Dsm-revitement,  Fr,  a  rrvetement 
made  of  brick-work,  which  supports  the 
rampart  from  the  bottom  of  the  ditch, 
to  a  foot  above  the  level  of  the  country. 
The  demi-rev&tement  costs  less  than  the 
r&oetement  entier,  and  is  equally  as  ad- 
vantageous in  every  respect. 

Dr,Mi-/(K/r  a  droite,  rr.     See   Right 


T)EMi-four  a  gauche,  Fr.    See  Left 


DEMISSION,  Fr.  resignation;  the 
act  of  giving  up  any  place  of  trust,  &c. 

DEMOISELLE,  IV.  a  pavior's  instru- 
ment ;  a  rammer.     It  is  also  called  a  hie. 

DEMOLIR  uric  place,  Fr.  to  destroy 
the  fortifications  of  a  fort,  that  it  may 
jio  longer  be  in  a  state  of  defence. 

DEMOLITION,  the  act  of  over- 
throwing buildings. 

DEMONTER  une  piece  d'artillerie, 
Fr.  to  dismount  a  piece  of  artillery;  to 
take  it  off  its  carriage. 

Demonter  une  troupe  a  clieval,  Fr. 
to  wound  or  lame  the  horses  of  a  troop 
of  cavalry,  so  as  to  render  them  unfit 
fur  service. 

DEMUNIR,  Fr.  to  take  away  from 
a  place  the  provision  and  ammunition 
it  contained. 

DEMURER,  Fr.  to  unwall ;  also  to 
drain  a  place  of  stones. 

DENISON,  a  free  man,  or  native 
of  a  country  or  state,  as  opposed  to 
alien.     It  is  also  written  Denizen. 

DENOM BREMEN!',  Fr.  list;  sur 
vey;  the  complement  of  a  troop  or 
company  ;  also  the  number  of  battalions, 
&c.  which  compose  an  army,  or  of  in- 
habitants that  dwell  in  a  town. 

DENONCER  un  soldat,  Fr.  to  gi 
notice  to  the  captain  of  a  troop  or  com- 
pany, or  to  the  regiment,  of  a  soldier's 
intention  to  desert. 

Dexgncer  une  troupe,  Fr.  to  give 
intelligence  of  the  movement  of  an 
armed  body  of  men,  of  its  strength, 
proposed  route,  &c. 

DENONCIATEUR,   Fr.  an    iafor 

mer;  or,  to  speak  in  the  courteous  lan- 
guage of  government,  a  reporter. 

Denoxciateur  d'un  d'eserteur,  Fr. 
the  person  who  discovers  and  gives  up  a 
deserter  for  a  specific  reward. 

DENREE,  Fr.  commodity;  ware; 

DENSITY  of  bodies.    See  Motion. 

DEPARTMENT  (dipartement,  Fr.) 
separate  allotment;  province  or  busi- 
ness assigned  to  a  particular  person  or 
place;  hence  Civil  or  Military  Depart- 
ment; Home  or  Foreign  Department, 
signifying  the  same  as  office.  Also,  in 
French,  any  particular  district. 

J)EPASSER,  (or  Deuorder,)  Fr. 
to  over-run. 

Se  laisserTiEPASSKR,  Fr.  to  suffer  your- 
self to  be  overtaken. 

DEPECHES,  Fr.  dispatches,  letters, 
&c.  which  are  carried  by  a  special  mes- 

DKPENSES  secretes,  Fr.  imply  secret 
service  money. 

DEPERIR,  Fr.  to  waste  away;  an 
army  is  said  to  be  in  this  state  when  it 
is  afflicted  with  a  pestilential  or  epi- 
demical disorder;  when  it  is  short  of 
provisions;  when  the  troops  do  not 
enter  into  cantonments  as  the  season 
requires  it,  or  if  they  suffer  from  any 
other  accident. 

DEPEUPLER,  Fr.  to  depopulate. 

DEPLOY,  (dcplouer,  Fr.)  to  display, 
to  spread  out ;  a  column  is  said  to  de- 
ploy, when  the  divisions  open  out,  orex- 
tend  to  form  line  on  any  given  division. 

DEPLOYMENT,  (d'eploiement,  Fr.) 
or  flank  march,  in  a  military  sense,  the 
act  of  unfolding  or  expanding  any  given 
body  of  men,  so  as  to  extend  their  front. 

Deployment  into  Une  on  a  front  di- 
vision, the  rigid  in  front,  is  effected  by 
halting  that  division  in  the  alignment, 
and  all  the  others  in  their  true  situations, 
parallel  and  well  closed  up  to  it ;  and 
then  by  taking  a  point  of  formiug  upon, 
and  dressing  by  the  prolongation  of  that 
division.  For  a  minute  explanation  of  the 
deployments  on  a  rear  and  central  divi- 
sion, sec  Rules  and  Regulations,  p.  186. 

Oblique  Deployments  differ  from 
those  movements  which  are  made  when 
a  battalion  stands  perpendicularly  to  the 
line  on  which  it  is  to  form.  These  de- 
ployments are  frequently  made  on  an 
oblique  line  advanced,  on  an  oblique 
line  retired;  and  when  the  close  column 
halted  is  to  form  in  line  in  the  prolon- 
gation of  its  Hank,  and  on  either  the 

D  E  P 

(     159     ) 

D  E  P 

front,  rear,  or  central  division.     See  In- 
fantry Regulations,  p.  192. 

DEPORTATION,!1/-,  the  act  of  trans- 
porting or  sending  away;  what  we  call 

DEPORTER,  Fr.  to  transport;  to 
send  away. 

DEPOSTER  un  ennemi,  on  une 
troupe,  Fr.  to  oblige  an  enemy  to  quit 
his  position;  to  drive  him  out  of  a  for- 
tified place,  &c. 

DEPOT,  {depot,  Fr.)  any  particular 
place  in  which  military  stores  are  depo- 
sited for  the  use  of  the  army.  In  a  more 
extensive  sense,  it  means  several  maga- 
zines collected  together  for  that  purpose. 
It  also  signifies  an  appropriate  fort,  or 
place  for  the  reception  of  recruits,  or 
detached  parties,  belonging  to  different 
regiment's.  The  barracks  near  Maid- 
stone are  depots  for  the  British  cavalry, 
and  the  Isle  of  Wight  is  allotted  for  the 

During  hostilities,  the  greatest  atten- 
tion should  be  given  to  preserve  the 
several  depots  which  belong  to  the  fight- 
ing army.  Hence  the  line  of  operation 
should  be  invariably  connected  with 
them  ;  or  rather,  no  advance  should  be 
made  upon  that  line,  without  the  strictest 
regard  being  paid  to  the  one  of  com- 

Depot  is  also  used  to  denote  a  par- 
ticular place  at  tiie  tail  of  the  trenches, 
out  of  the  reach  of  the  cannon  of  the 
place.  It  is  here  that  the  besiegers  ge-j 
nerally  assemble,  who  are  ordered  to 
attack  the  outworks,  or  support  the 
troops  in  the  trendies,  when  there  is 
reason  to  imagine  the  besieged  intend 
making  a  vigorous  sally. 

DEPOUILLE,  Fr.  " Mcttre  endipou- 
ille  is  an  expression  made  use  of  in  the 
casting  of  cannon,  and  signifies  to  strip 
it  of  the  matting,  clay,  &c. 

Depouilles  de  V ennemi,  Fr.  See 

DEPOUILLEMENT,  Fr.  the  act 
of  stripping  another.  In  the  French 
army  this  crime  is  punished  most  se- 
verely, and  is  thus  distinguished  in 
the  last  military  code. 

Depouillement  <Tun  mart;  sans  or- 
dre,  Fr.  the  stripping  of  the  dead  with- 
out any  authority  for  so  doing;  punished 
by  five  years  imprisonment  in  irons. 

Depouillement  d'un  vivant,  Fr. 
the  stripping  of  the  living;  ten  years 
imprisonment  in  irons. 


the  robbing  or  stripping  of  any  person 
by  a  victualler  or  camp  follower;  twen- 
ty years  imprisonment  in  irons. 

Depouillement  avec  mutilation,  ou 
assassinat,  Fr.  the  stripping  of  an  indi- 
vidual, accompanied  by  blows  or  muti- 
lation, or  with  assassination,  death. 

DEPOUILLER,  IV.  to  strip.  The 
French  say  figuratively,  Juuer  an  Rot 
depouille,  to  strip  one  of  all  his  property. 

DEPRESSION,  the  placing  of  any 
piece  of  ordnance,  so  that  its  siiot  be 
thrown  under  the  point  blank  line. 

DEPRESSED  gun,  any  piece  of  ord- 
nance having  its  mouth  depressed  below 
the  horizontal  line. 

DEPTH,  a  technical  word  peculiarly 
applicable  to  bodies  of  men  drawn  up  in 
line  or  column. 

Depth  of  a  battalion  or  squadron,  the 
number  of  ranks,  or  the  quantity  of 
men.  Infantry  were  formerly  drawn  up 
6  or  8  deep,  that  is,  it  consisted  of  so 
many  ranks;  but  now  troops  are  gene- 
rally drawn  up  only  3  deep,  and  in  de- 
fence of  a  breast-work  but  2  deep;  also 
in  line  of  battle. 

Depth  of  formation.  The  funda- 
mental order  of  the  infantry  in  which 
they  should  always  form  and  act,  and 
for  which  all  their  various  operations 
and  movements  are  calculated,  is  three 
ranks.  The  formation  in  two  ranks  is  to 
he  regarded  as  an  occasional  exception 
that  may  be  made  from  it,  where  an  ex- 
tended and  covered  front  is  to  be  oc- 
cupied, or  where  an  irregular  enemy, 
who  deals  only  in  fire,  is  to  be  opposed. 
The  formation  in  two  ranks,  and  at  open 
files,  is  calculated  only  for  light  troops 
in  the  attack  and  pursuit  of  a  timid  ene- 
my, but  not  for  making  an  impression 
on  an  opposite  regular  line,  which  vigo- 
rously assails,  or  resists. 

Depth  is  also  applicable  to  an  army 
marching  towards  any  given  object,  in 
desultory  columns. 

DEPUTY,  a  person  appointed  by 
commission  to  act  instead  of  another. 

Deputy  barrack-masters. 

Dtp u tv  commissaries. 

Deputy  judge-advocate. 

Deputy  lieutenants,  civil  officers  be- 
longing to  the  militia  of  Great  Britain, 
and  appointed  by  the  several  county 
lieutenants.  His  Majesty  may  authorise 
any  three  to  grant  commissions,  and  to 
act  when  the  county-lieutenant  is  abroad, 
or  when  there  is  none.  If  twenty  quali- 
fied persons  can  be  found, -it  is  usual  to 

D  E  S 

160     ) 

D  E  S 

appoint  that  number  for  each  county. 
For  specific  qualifications,  see  the  26th  of 
George  III. 

Df.pi'ty  muster-masters. 

DERIVE,  Fr.  a  marine  term,  signify- 
ing the  driving  of  a  ship;  the  angle  of 
Ice-way,  or  drift;  also  tlie  stray  line,  or 
allowance  made  for  stray  line;  likewise 

Belle  Derive,  Fr.  a  good  offing. 

DEROBER  une  marclie,  Fr.  to  steal 
a  march. 

DEROUILLER,  Fr.  to  take  of  the 
rust;  as  derouillcr  clcs  amies,  to  clean 
and  new-furbish  arms. 

D E ROUTE,  Fr.  the  total  overthrow 
of  an  army,  battalion,  or  of  any  armed 

DEROUTER  Vennemi,  Fr.  to  disc  in- 
sert an  enemy;  to  get  him  into  such  a 
precarious  situation,  that  he  can  form  on 
judgment  of  the  issue  of  an  engagement. 

DESACOTER,  Fr.  to  take  down  the 
props,  or  stays  by  which  any  thing  has 
been  supported. 

DESAR9ONNER,  Fr.  to  dismount 
a  horseman  :   the  same  as  Dimontcr. 

DESARMEMENT,  IV.  the  act  of 
disarming,  or  reducing  troops. 

DESARMER,  Fr.  to  reduce  any  given 
number  of  troops,  by  taking  away  their 
arms,  &c. 

Desarmer  une  piece  d'artillerie,  Fr. 
to  draw  the  charge  out  of  a  piece  of 
artillery;  it  also  signifies  to  dismount  it 

DESARROI,  Fr.  disorder;  confusion. 

DESASSIEGER,  Fr.  to  cause  a  siege 
to  be  raised.  (This  word  is  become 
obsolete;  it  is  not  to  be  found  in  the 
T)ictionnairc  tie  T 'Academic  Francoisc ; 
but  it  is  a  military  expression.) 

DESAVANTAO  E,  Fr.  disadvantage; 
a  state  not  prepared  for  defence. 

To  DESCEND  signifies  to  leave  any 
position  on  an  eminence  for  immediate 

To  Descend  upon,  to  invade.  When 
an  enemy  from  surrounding  heights  sud- 
denly marches  against  a  fortified  place, 
he  is  said  to  descend  upon  it.  Thejerm 
is  also  applied  to  troops  debarking  from 
'their  ships  for  the  purpose  of  invasion. 

DESCENDRE  /a  garde,  Fr.  to  come 
oft*  guard,  alter  being  regularly  relieved. 

Descendhe  la  tranc/iec,  Fr.  to  quit 
the  trench,  on  being  regularly  relieved. 

Descendue  une  riviere,  Fr.  to  follow 
the  stream  of  a  river. 

DESCENT,  (descente,  Fr.)  hostile  in- 

vasion of  any  state  or  kingdom;  the  de- 
barkation of  troops  on  any  coast,  for  the 
pui  pose  of  acting  offensively. 

DESCENTE  de  Josse,  Fr.  a  hollow 
passage  which  is  made  by  the  besiegers, 
to  get  under  the  glacis  of  a  fortress  into 
its  fosse. 

Descente  de  fosse  sou  t  era  inc.  ou  cou- 
vertc,  Fr.  a  hollow  passage  which  may 
have  been  effected  under  ground. 

Descente  de  fosse  a  del  ouverte,  Fr. 
a  passage  towards  the  ditch  or  fosse  of  a 
fortified  place,  which  has  not  been  ef- 
fected under  cover. 

I )  ESC  ENTS  into  the  ditch,  (descente* 
dans  le  fosse,  Fr.)  cuts  and  excavations 
made  by  means  of  saps  in  the  counter- 
scarp beneath  the  covert-way.  They 
are  covered  with  thick  boards  and  hur- 
dles, and  a  certain  quantity  of  earth  is 
thrown  upon  the  top,  in  order  to  obviate 
the  bad  elfects  which  might  arise  from 
shells,  &c.     See  Fortification. 

DESCLIQUER,  Fr.  This  word  is 
expressive  of  the  action  of  the  ancients 
when  throwing  stones  at  the  besiegers. 

DESCRIBENT,  in  geometry,  a  term 
expressing  some  line,  or  surface,  which 
by  its  motion  produces  a  plane  figure, 
or  a  solid. 

DESEMPARER  un  camp,  break 
up  camp;  to  strike  the  tents. 

DESEMFRISONNER,  Fr.  to  take 
out  of  prison. 

DESENBRAYER,  Fr.  to  unskid  a 

DESENCLOUER,  Fr.  to  take  the  nail 
out  of  a  cannon  that  has  been  spiked; 
it  also  signifies  to  remove  obstructions 
from  any  passage  that  has  been  incum- 

Desencloulr  un  chcral,  Fr.  to  take 
out  the  nail  that  pricks  a  horse. 

DESENRAYER,  Fr.  to  unskid  a 
wheel ;  to  take  off  the  chain,  or  cord,  by 
which  it  is  kept  fast. 

DESENROLER,  Fr.  to  give  a  soldier 
his  discharge,  to  strike  him  off  the  mus- 

To  DESERT,  (deserter,  Fr.)  to  go 
away  by  stealth  after  having  been  regu- 
larly enlisted ;  to  abandon  any  person, 
or  cause. 

DESERTER,  in  a  military  sense,  a 
soldier  who,  by  running  away  from  his 
regiment,  troop,  or  company,  abandons 
the  service. 

Deserters  from  the  militia  may  be 
apprehended  by  any  person  in  the  same 
manner    that    deserters    are   from   the 


(    161    ) 


Regular  army.  And  every  person  who 
shall  lie  discovered  in  the  act  of  conceal- 
ing, or  assisting  a  deserter,  is  to  forfeit 
51.  Persons  apprehending  a  deserter 
are  entitled  to  20s. 

Penalty  of  Desertion.  All  officers 
and  soldiers,  who,  having  received  pay,  or 
having  been  duty  enlisted  in  our  service, 
shall  be  convicted  of  having  deserted  the 
same,  shall  suffer  death,  or  such  other 
punishment , as  by  a  court-martial  shall 
be  inflicted. 

Any  non-commissioned  officer  or  sol- 
dier, who,  shall,  without  leave  from  his 
commanding  officer, absent  himself  from 
his  troop  or  company,  or  from  any  de- 
tachment with  which  he  shall  be  com- 
manded, shall,  upon  being  convicted 
thereof,  be  punished  according  to  the 
nature  of  the  offence,  at  the  discretion 
uf  a  cotirl-marliaf. 

No  non-commissioned  officer  or  sol- 
dier shall  enlist  himself  in  any  other  regi- 
ment, troop,  or  company,  without  a  re- 
gular discharge  from  the  regiment,  troop, 
or  company,  in  which  he  last  served,  on 
the  penalty  of  being  reputed  a  deserter, 
and  suffering  accordingly:  and  in  case 
any  officer  shall  knowingly  receive  and 
entertain  such  non-commissioned  officer 
or  soldier,  or  shall  not,  after  his  being 
discovered  to  be  a  deserter,  immediately 
confine  him,  and  give  notice  thereof  to 
the  corps  in  which  he  last  served,  he,  the 
said  officer  so  offending,  shall  by  a  court- 
martial  be  cashiered. 

Whatsoever  officer  or  soldier  shall  he 
convicted  of  having  advised  any  other 
officer  or  soldier  to  desert  our  service, 
shall  suffer  such  punishment  as  shall  be 
inflicted  upon  him  by  the  sentence  of  a 

Justices  may  commit  Deserters.  And 
whereas  several  soldiers  being  duly  en- 
listed, do  afterwards  desert,  and  are  often 
found  wandering,  or  otherwise  absenting 
themselves  illegally  from  his  Majesty's 
service;  it  is  further  enacted,  that  it 
shall  and  may  be  lawful  to  and  for  the 
constable,  heudborough,  or  tything-tnan 
of  the  town  or  place,  where  any  person, 
who  may  be  reasonably  suspected  to  be 
such  deserter,  shall  he  found,  to  appre- 
hend, or  cause  him  to  be  apprehended, 
and  to  cause  such  person  to  be  brought 
l>eiore  any  justice  of  the  peace,  living  in 
or  near  such  town  or  place,  who  hath 
power  to  examine  such  suspected  per- 
son: and  if  by  his  confession,  or  the 
testimony  of  one  or  more  witness  or  wit- 

nesses upon  oath,  or  by  the  knowledge 
of  such  justice  of  the  peace,  it  shall  ap- 
pear, or  be  found,  that  such  suspected 
person  is  a  listed  soldier,  and  should  be 
with  the  troop  or  company  tt>  which  he 
belongs;  such  justice  of  the  peace  shall 
forthwith  cause  him  to  be  conveyed  to 
the  gaol  of  the  county  or  place  where 
he  shall  be  found,  or  to  the  house  of  cor- 
rection, or  other  public  prison,  in  such 
town  or  place  where  such  deserter  shall 
be  apprehended ;  or  to  the  Savoy,  in 
case  such  deserter  shall  be  apprehended 
within  the  citv  of  London  or  West- 
minster, or  places  adjacent ;  and  trans- 
mit an  account  thereof  to  the  secretary 
at  war  for  the  time  being,  to  the  end 
such  person  may  be  proceeded  against 
according  to  law :  and  the  keeper  of 
such  gaol,  house  of  correction,  or  prison, 
shall  receive  the  full  subsistence  of  such 
deserter  or  deserters,  during  the  time 
that  he  or  they  shall  continue  in  his 
custody,  for  the  maintenance  of  the  said 
deserter  or  deserters;  but  shall  not  be 
entitled  to  any  fee  or  reward,  on  account 
of  the  imprisonment  of  such  deserter  or 
deserters,  any  law,  usage,  or  custom  to 
the  contrary  notwithstanding. 

Reuard  for  taking  up  Deserters. 
And  for  the  better  encouragement  of 
any  person  or  persons  to  secure  or  ap- 
prehend such  deserters  as  aforesaid  ;  be 
it  further  enacted  by  the  authority  afore- 
said, that  such  justice  of  the  peace  shall 
also  issue  his  warrant  in  writing  to  the 
collector  or  collectors  of  the  land-tax 
money  of  the  parish  or  township  where 
such  deserter  shall  be  apprehended,  for 
paying,  out  of  the  land-tax  money  aris- 
ing or  to  arise  in  the  current  year,  into 
the  hands  of  such  person  who  shall  ap- 
prehend, or  cause  to  be  apprehended, 
any  deserter  from  his  majesty's  service, 
the  sum  of  20s.  for  every  deserter  that 
shall  so  he  apprehended  and  committed; 
which  sum  of  20s.  shall  he  satisfied  by  such 
collector  to  whom  such  warrant  shall  be 
directed,  and  allowed  upon  his  account. 

Penalty  for  concealing  Deserters,  or 
buying  their  arms,  clothes,  &c.  Provided 
always,  that  if  any  person  shall  harbour, 
conceal,  or  assist  any  deserter  from  his 
Majesty's  service,  knowing  him  to  be 
such,  the  person  so  offending  shall  for- 
feit, for  every  such  offence,  the  sum  of 
5l.  or  if  any  person  shall  knowingly 
detain,  buy,  or  exchange,  or  otherwise 
receive,  any  arms,  clothes,  caps,  or  other 
furniture  belonging  to  the  king,  from 


(     162     ) 


any  soldier  or   deserter,  or  aDy  other 
person,  upon  any  account  or  pretence 
whatsoever,  or  cause  the  colour  of  such 
clothes  to  be  changed ;    the  person  so 
offending   shall   forfeit    for   every    such 
offence  the  sum  of  5 1,  and  upon  convic- 
tion by  the  oath  of  one  or  more  credible 
witness  or  witnesses,  before  any  of  his 
Majesty's  justices  of  the  peace,  the  said 
respective  penalties  of  5l.  and  51.   shall 
be  levied  by  warrant  under  the  hands 
of  the  said  justice  or  justices  of  the 
peace,  by  distress  and  sale  of  the  goods 
and  chattels  of  the  offender;  one  moiety 
of  the  said   first   mentioned  penalty  of 
51.  to  be  paid  to  the  informer,  by  whose 
means   such   deserter   shall    be    appre- 
hended ;    and    one   moiety  of  the  said 
last-mentioned  penalty  of  5l.  to  be  paid 
to  the  informer;  and  the  residue  of  the 
said  respective  penalties  to  be  paid  to 
the  officer  to  whom  any  such  deserter  or 
soldier  did  belong :  and  in  case  any  such 
offender,  who  shall  be  convicted,  as  afore- 
said, of  harbouring  or  assisting  any  such 
deserter  or  deserters,  or  having  know- 
ingly  received   any  arms,  clothes,  caps, 
or  other  furniture  belonging  to  the  king, 
or    having   caused   the   colour    of   such 
clothes  to  be  changed,  contrary  to  the 
intent  of  this  act,  shall  not  have  suffi- 
cient goods  and   chattels,  whereon  dis- 
tress may  be  made,  to  the  value  of  the 
penalties  recovered  against  him  for  such 
offence,  or  shall  not  pay  such  penalties, 
within    4    days   after    such    conviction; 
then,  and   in  such  case,  such  justice  of 
the  peace  shall   and    may,    by  warrant 
under  his  hand  and  seal,  either  commit 
such  offender  to  the  common  gaol,  there 
to  remain  without  bail  or  mainprize  for 
the  space  of  three  months,  or  cause  such 
offender  to  be  publicly  whipped,  at  the 
discretion  of  such  justice. 

DESERTEUR,  Fr.     See  Deserter. 

DESIIONNEUR,  Fr. dishonour,  loss 
of  character. 

Se  DES110NORER,  Fr.  to  disgrace 

DESIGN,  (dessein,  Fr.)  in  a  general 
sense,  implies  the  plan,  order,  repre- 
sentation or  construction  of  any  kind  of 
military  building,  chart,  map,  or  draw- 
ing, &c.  In  building,  the  term  Ichno- 
graphy  may  be  used,  when  by  design  is 
only  meant  the  plan  of  a  building,  or  a 
flat  figure  drawn  on  paper:  when  some 
side  or  face  of  the  building  is  raised 
from  the  ground,  we  may  use  the  term 
orthography  j  and  when  both  front  and 

sides  are  seen  in  perspective,  we  may 
call  is  xenography. 

DESIGNING,  the  art  of  delineating, 
or  drawing  the  appearance  of  natural 
objects,  by  lines  on  a  plain. 

DESIGNS,  (desseins,  Fr.)  premedi- 
tated plans,  schemes  for  execution,  &c. 

DESOBEISSANCE,  Fr.  disobedience 
of  orders.  During  the  war  in  Italy,  (as 
may  be  seen  in  the  Histoire  de  France, 
vol.  37,  by  Gamier,)  an  act  of  laudable 
disobedience  (if  it  may  be  so  called)  is 
said  to  have  been  committed  by  a  private 
soldier,  whilst  an  expedition  ot  great 
moment  was  taking  place  under  the 
command  of  Marechal  de  Brisac. 

DESOLER,  Fr.  to  ravage,  to  ruin  a 
country  by  heavy  exactions,  to  destroy 
it  by  sword  and  fire. 

DESORDRE,  Fr.  disorder;  confu- 
sion, such  as  occurs  among  troops  when 
they  are  defeated  ;  the  licentious  con- 
duct manifested  among  troops  when 
entering  a  conquered  place.  A  general 
has  it  always  in  his  power,  when  his 
troops  enter  a  conquered  town,  to  pre- 
vent their  committing  any  disorder. — 
Marshal  Saxe  having  taken  Prague  in 
1741,  previous  to  his  entering  the  town, 
^ave  the  most  positive  and  strict  orders, 
that  not  the  least  disorder  should  be 
committed.  These  orders  were  so  punc- 
tually obeyed,  that  most  of  the  inhabi- 
tants did  not  perceive,  till  the  following 
day,  that  they  had  changed  their  sove- 
reign. The  magistrates,  through  grati- 
tude, went  in  a  body  to  present  to  tha 
marshal,  a  diamond  worth  40,000  livres, 
on  a  magnificent  gold  dish :  there  had 
been  engraved  in  the  setting  an  inscrip- 
tion relative  to  the  transaction  :  they 
likewise  caused  rich  presents,  and  large 
bounties  to  be  distributed  amongst  the 
French  officers  and  soldiers.  When  war 
is  carried  on  in  this  way,  half  its  calami- 
ties are  softened  down ;  it  secures  im- 
mortality to  the  conqueror,  at  the  same 
time  that  he  acquires  the  love  and  the 
esteem  of  the  conquered.  Conquerors 
of  this  cast  experience  to  the  very  last 
a  pleasing  retrospect,  which  those  who 
only  think  of  filling  their  pockets,  are 
ever  strangers  to.  The  discipline  esta- 
blished by  Charles  XII.  was  so  severe, 
that  even  those  towns,  which  were  taken 
by  storm,  after  having  been  summoned 
three  times,  were  not  plundered  without 
a  particular  permission  proclaimed  by 
the  trumpeters  of  the  army,  and  the. 
pillage  was  carried  on  in  such  good  or- 

D  E  T 

der,  that  it  subsided  the  instant  the  se- 
cond signal  was  given. 

DESSELLER,  Fr.  to  unsaddle. 
DESSINATEUR,  Fr.  a  draftsman; 
or  the  person  who  sketches  out  and 
finishes  the  plans,  profiles  and  elevations 
of  works  intended  to  be  made  by  direc- 
tion of  a  chief  engineer. 

DESTINATION,  (destination,  Fr.) 
the  place,  or  purpose,  to  which  any  body 
of  troops  is  appointed,  in  order  to  do,  or 
attempt,  some  military  service. 

To  DETACH,  to  send  out  part  of  a 
greater  number  of  men  on  some  parti- 
cular service,  separate  from  that  of  the 
main  body. 

DETACHED  pieces,  (pieces  detachces, 
Fr.)  in  fortification,  are  such  out-works 
as  are  detached,  or  at  a  distance  from 
the  body  of  the  place;  such  as  half- 
moons,  ravelins,  bastions,  &c. 

DETACHMENT,  (detachement,  Fr.) 
an  uncertain  number  of  men  drawn  out 
from  several  regiments,  or  companies, 
equally,  to  be  marched  or  employed  as 
the  general  may  think  proper,  whether 
on  an  attack,  at  a  siege,  or  in  parties  to 
scour  the  country.  Detachments  are 
sometimes  made  of  entire  squadrons  and 
battalions.  One  general  rule,  in  all  mi- 
litary projects  which  depend  upon  us 
alone,  should  be  to  omit  nothing  that 
can  ensure  the  success  of  our  detach- 
ment and  design ;  but  in  that  which  de- 
pends upon  the  enemy,  to  trust  some- 
thing to  chance. 

DETAIL  of  duty,  a  roster  or  table 
for  the  regular  and  exact  performance 
of  duty,  either  in  the  field,  garrison  or 
in  cantonments.  The  general  detail  of 
duty  is  the  proper  care  of  the  majors  of 
brigade,  who  are  guided  by  the  roster  of 
the  officers,  and  by  the  tables  for  the 
men  to  be  occasionally  furnished.  The 
adjutant  of  a  regiment  keeps  the  detail 
of  duty  for  the  officers  of  his  regiment, 
as  does  the  serjeant-major  that  for  the 
non-commissioned,  and  the  latter  that 
for  the  privates. 

To  beat  an  enemy  in  Detail,  (battre 
Vennemi  en  detail,  Fr.)  to  destroy  one 
corps  after  another;  to  drive  an  enemy 
from  his  several  positions  by  desultory 

An  officer  o/Detail,  one  who  enters 
minutely  into  the  whole  interior  of  a 
corps,  troop,  or  company. 

Detail.  This  word  is  sometimes 
used  for  detachment;  hence,  lo  send  out 
small  details. 

(  i6s  )  D  E    T 

DETAIL,  Fr.   Faire  le  detail  d'unc 

armee,  d'une  compagnie,  ou  d'un  corps 
de  gens  de  guerre,  is  to  keep  a  strict 
eye  upon  every  part  of  the  service,  and 
to  issue  out  instructions  or  orders,  that 
every  individual  belonging  to  a  military 
profession  may  discharge  his  trust  with 
accuracy  and  fidelity.  Faire  le  detail 
d'une  compagnie  likewise  means  to  make 
up  a  company's  reports,  &c. 

Detail  de  fortification,  Fr.  a  private 
account  of  the  materials  and  expenses 
attending  a  work. 

DETENDRE,  Fr.  This  word  lite- 
rally means  to  stretch.  The  French  say, 
ditendre  an  camp,  to  strike  the  tents  of 
a  camp. 

DETENTE,  Fr.  a  trigger. 
DETENU,  Fr.  detained;  kept  against 
one's  will.      A  term  adopted,  and  en- 
forced beyond  its  legitimate  meaning,  by 
the  French  government,  at  the  continua- 
tion of  hostilities  between  France  and 
England  in  1803;  when,  for  reasons  best 
known  to  himself,  Bonaparte,  then  First 
Consul,  judged  it  expedient  to  detain 
and  imprison  all  British   subjects  who 
were  found  about  the  French  dominions 
after  the  departure  of  their  ambassador^ 
It  is  not  within  the  limits  of  our  under- 
taking  to    discuss    this    question;    but, 
viewing   it,  as  we   must,  in  a  military 
point  of  view,  we  do  not  hesitate  to  say, 
that  the  sudden  and  unexpected  seizure 
of  so  many  innocent  and   unoffending 
travellers  is  an  indelible   stain   in    the 
character  of  a  powerful  enemy.      The 
act  has  certainly  a  precedent;  but  where 
and  when  is  that  precedent  to  be  found? 
In  civil  discord  and  convulsion,  and  at  a 
period  when  humanity  was  a  crime,  and 
death  and  carnage  were  the  order  of  the 
day.    It  has  been  said,  that  this  measure 
was  embraced  to  reconcile  the  Irish  to 
their  probable  destiny,  if  ever  it  should 
be  found  necessary  to  make  use  of  them, 
as   enfans  perdus,   against  their  native 
country,  and  that  these  detenus  (we  are 
borne  out  by  the  public  prints  for  using 
the  term)  would  remain  as  hostages  to 
secure  to  men  in  open  rebellion  all  the 
rights  and   privileges   of  fair  warriors. 
So  much  for  the  new-fangled  law  of  na- 
tions quoad  Fiance. 

DETERMINER  une  action,  ou  un 
mouvement,  Fr.  to  put  into  motion  a 
project  or  design  which  has  been  pre- 
viously weighed  and  concerted;  it  also 
means  to  force  the  enemy  to  come  to 


D  E  V 

(     164     ) 

D  E  V 

DETONATION,  (detonation,  Fr.)  a 
sudden  and  violent  inflammation  and  ex- 
plosion, such  as  occur  iu  t lie  ignition  of 

gunpowder  and  of  nitre. 

DETRAQUER,  Fr.  a  French  ex- 
pression which  is  peculiarly  applicable 
to  bad  horsemanship.  It  literally  sig- 
nifies, to  put  out  of  order ;  to  spoil.  A 
Trench  military  writer  very  properly 
observes  on  the  subject,  that  many 
young  riders  imagine  themselves  extreme- 
ly clever  and  expert,  if  they  can  make 
their  horses  exhibit  a  fine  curved  neck, 
flee,  by  suddenly  applying  the  spurs,  and 
checking  on  the  bit;  the  consequence  of 
which  is,  that  the  poor  animal  reaches 
the  spot  of  destination  heated  and  al- 
most mired  to  death. 

DETREMFE,  Fr.  water  colours. 

1'undre  en  Detrempe,  Fr.  to  paint 
in  water  colours. 

DETRIER,  Fr.  a  led  horse. 

DETRIPLER  les  files,  Fr.  to  take 
borne  files  out  of  a  battalion,  troop,  or 
company,  when  the  men  are  drawn  up 
.three  deep. 

DETROIT,  Fr.  any  narrow  arm  of 
.the  sea;  a  canal ;  a  narrow  passage,  &c. 

Detroit,  ou  Detresse,  Fr.  the  critical 
state  into  which  an  army  may  be  brought 
by  having  its  line  of  communication  cut 

DEVANCER  une  armce,  une  troupe, 
Tr.  to  take  an  advantageous  position  in 
front  of  an  army,  or  of  any  other  armed 
body  of  men,  by  means  of  a  forced 
march,  &c. 

DEVANS,  Fr.  places  in  front  of  an 
army.  The  King  of  Prussia,  in  his  Art 
of  War,  says — "  Plucez  pour  sureti  des 
corps  sur  vos  devans."  Vide  his  Art  of'War. 

DEVANT,  Fr.  before;  hi  front.  Avoir 
le  pus  devant,  to  take  precedence. 

DEVANTURH,  Fr.  a  fore  work. 

DEVASTATEURS,  Fr.  a  term  ap- 
plied by  the  French  to  the  Spaniards, 
on  account  of  their  barbarous  and  in- 
human conduct  in  Mexico  and  Peru.  It 
now  generally  signifies  soldiers  who  are 
not  disciplined,  and  pillage  every  country 
thev  enter. 

Devastation,  the  act  of  destroy- 
ing, laying  waste,  demolishing  or  un- 
peopling towns,  cvc. 

DEYASTER,  Fr.  to  lay  waste. 

DEVELOPPEE,  Fr.  a  curve  formed 
by  the  opening,  or  unfolding  of  another 

DEVELOPPEMENT  de  dessein,  Fr. 
the  representation  of  all  the  plans,  faces 

and  profiles  of  works  constructed  or  pro- 

DEVELOPPER,  Fr.  to  unfold,  to 
unravel ;  as  Se  dcveloppcr  sur  la  tete 
d'une  colonne,  to  form  line  on  the  head 
of  a  column. 

DEVELOFr-Er.  une  armec,  Fr.  to  draw 
up  an  ;u  in v  in  tegular  array. 

DEYERSOIR,  Ft:  any  place  into 
which  v\titer  empties  itself;  as  from  a 
sluice,  &c. 

DEVICE,  (devise,  Fr.)  a  motto;  the 
emblems  on  a  shield  or  standard.  The 
origin  of  mottos  is  connected  with  that 
of  heraldry.  The  study  of  mottos  will 
lifclp  us  to  trace  back  the  military  expe- 
ditions of  the  remotest  antiquity.  The 
standard?,  the  banners,  the  pennons,  the 
coats  of  mail,  the  shields  of  the  ancients, 
discover  historical  facts  under  an  un- 
known cypher,  or  a  motto  composed 
only  of  a  few  words.  Parables  were  the 
mottos  of  the  Hebrews,  and  hieroglyphics 
those  of  the  Egyptians.  The  Greeks, 
Athenians,  Carthaginians,  in  short,  all 
the  European  nations  had  their  mottos 
and  emblematical  figures;  and  we  may 
venture  to  say,  that  military  institutions 
gave  rise  to  the  civil  ones. 

DEUIL  mililuire,  Fr.  military  mourn- 
ing. The  Author  of  the  Dictionnaire 
Militaire  makes  the  following  singular 
remark  respecting  military  mourning: 

"With  regard  to  the  military  mourn- 
ing which  is  worn  by  British  officers,  it 
appears,  peihaps,  singular  and  not  suf- 
ficiently dignified  in  a  Frenchman's  eye, 
because  the  French  peasants,  out  of 
economy,  adopt  the  same;  it  is,  how- 
ever, in  my  opinion,  noble  and  impres- 
sive. Whereas  the  mourning  which  our 
officers  observe,  is  too  fantastic  and 
com  tier-like,  without  a  sufficient  indi- 
cation of  martial  sentiment,  by  which 
alone  it  ought  to  be  suggested." 

DEVIS,  Fr.  estimate,  plan,  &c.  of  a 

DEVISE,  Fr.  motto.    See  Device. 

DEVOIR  Militaire,  Fr.  a  strict  and 
correct  observance  of  military  duty. 

DEV  ON.  The  tinners  belonging  to 
that  county  may  be  arrayed  by  the  war- 
den of  the  stannaries. 

DEVOTE  Dtt  ESS;  (denouement,  Fr.) 
such  as  a  good  army  manifests  towards 
able  generals. 

turn  any  thing  from  its  straightforward 
direction;  fjgu  rati  very  to  mislead. 

DEVLTDER,  Fr.  in  the  manege,  is. 

D  I  A 

(     165     ) 

D  I  A 

applied  to  a  horse  that,  upon  working 
upon  volts,  makes  his  shoulders  go  too 
fast  for  the  croupe  to  follow  easily. 

DEY,  the  chief  of  the  government 
of  Tunis,  a  vassal  to  the  Grand  Turk. 

DIA,  Fr.  a  noise  which  is  made  bv 
the  French  drivers  of  carriages  to  make 
their  horses  turn  to  Uie  left.  They  use 
the  word  hu-hau,  to  make  them  go  to 
the  right.  The  French  say,  figuratively, 
of  an  obstinate  man,  who  will  not  hear 
reason —  It  rCentend  n  i  a  Dia,  ?ii  a  hu-hau. 

DIABLE,  Fr.     See  Chat. 

DIABLESSE  de  Boix  le  Due,  Fr.  a 
piece  of  ordnance  so  called  from  having 
nist  been  used  at  Bnis  le  Due,  a  strong 
town  of  Dutch  Brabant,  in  the  Nether- 

DIADEM,  (diudime,  Fr.)  the  mark 
of  royalty  worn  round  the  head. 

DIAGONAL,  (diagonale,  Fr.)  reach- 
ing from  one  angle  to  another;  so  as  to 
divide  a  parallelogram  into  equal  parts. 

Diagonal  movements.  See  Eche- 

DIAMETER,  (diametre,  Fr.)  in  both 
a  military  and  geometrical  sense,  implies 
a  right  line  passing  through  the  center 
of  a  circle,  and  terminating  at  each  side 
by  the  circumference  thereof.  See 

The  impossibility  of  exnressing  the 
exact  proportion  of  the  diameter  of  a 
circle  to  its  circumference,  by  any  re- 
ceived way  of  notation,  and  the  absolute 
necessity  of  having  it  as  near  the  truth 
as  possible,  lias  put  some  of  the  most 
celebrated  men  in  all  ages  upon  endea- 
vouring to  approximate  it.  The  first 
who  attempted  it  with  success  was  the 
celebrated  Van  Cuelen,  a  Dutchman, 
who,  by  the  ancient  method,  though  so 
very  laborious,  carried  it  to  36  decimal 
places:  these  he  ordered  to  be  engiaven 
on  his  tomb-stone,  thinking  he  had  set 
bounds  to  improvement.  However,  the 
indefatigable  Mr.  Abraham  Sharp  carried 
to  75  places  in  decimals:  and  since  that, 
the  learned  Mr.  John  Machin  has  carried 
it  to  100  places,  which  are  as  follows: 

If  the  diameter  of  the  circle  be  1,  the 

.circumference  will  be  3.1415926535,  89 

79323846,  2643383279,  5028841971,  69 

39937510,     5820974944,     5923078164, 

0523620899,  8628034825,  3421170* 
79,  +  of  the  same  parts;  which  is  a 
degree  of  exactness  far  surpassing  all 

But  the  ratios  generally  used  in  the 
practice  of  military  mathematics  are 
these  following.  The  diameter  of  the 
circle  is  to  its  circumference  as  113  is 
to  355  nearly. — The  square  of  the  dia- 
meter is,  to  the  area  of  the  circle,  as 
452  to  355. — The  cube  of  the  diameter 
is,  to  the  solid  content  of  a  sphere,  as 
678  to  355. — The  cubes  of  the  axes  are, 
to  the  solid  contents  of  equi-altitude 
cylinders,  as  452  to  355. — The  solid 
content  of  a  sphere  is,  to  the  circum- 
scribed cylinder,  as  2  to  3 — . 

How  to  find  the  Diameter  of  shot  or 
shells.  For  an  iron  ball,  whose  diameter 
is  given, supposing  a  9-pounder,  which  is 
nearly  4  inches,  say,  the  cube  root  of 
2.0S  of  9  pounds  is,  to  4  inches,  as  the 
cube  root  of  the  given  weight  is  to  the 
diameter  sought.  Or,  if  4  be  divided  bv 
2. 08,  the  cube  root  of  9,  the  quotient 
1.923  will  be  the  diameter  of  a  1-pound 
shot;  which  being  continually  multiplied 
by  the  cube  root  of  the  given  weight, 
gives  the  diameter  required. 

Or  by  logarithms  much  shorter,  thus: 
If  the  logarithm  of  1.923,  which  is 
.20397  9,  be  constantly  added  to  thf 
third  part  of  the  logarithm  of  the  weight, 
the  sum  will  be  the  logarithm  of  the 
diameter.  Suppose  a  shot  to  weigh  24 
pounds:  and  the  given  logarithm  .2839 
79  to  the  third  part  of  460070  of  the 
logarithm  '  1.3802112  of  24,  the  sum 
.7440494  will  be  the  logarithm  of  the 
diameter  of  a  shot  weighing  24  pounds, 
which  is  5.5468  inches. 

If  the  weight  should  be  expressed  by 
a  fraction,  the  rule  is  still  the  same:  for 
instance,  the  diameter  of  a  1^  pound 
bail  or  j,  is  found  by  adding  the  loga- 
rithm .2839793,  found  above,  to  .0586 
97  H  of  the  logarithm  of  f,  the  sum 
.3426764  will  be  the  logarithm  of  the 
diameter  required,  i.  e.  2.2013  inches. 

As  the  diameter  of  the  bore  or  the 
caliber  of  the  piece  is  made  ^  part 
larger  than  that  of  the  shot,  according 
to  the  present  practice,  the  following 
table  is  computed. 

D  I  A 

(     166     ) 

D  I  F 

Diameters  of  the  shots  and  calibers  of  English  guns. 












'     7 




































































































6.90 1 






7  234 





The  numbers  in  the  first  horizontal 
lines  are  units,  and  those  in  the  first 
vertical  column  tens  ;  the  other  numbers 
under  the  one,  and  opposite  to  the  others, 
are  the  respective  diameters  of  shot  and 
calibers.  Thus,  to  find  the  diameter  of 
the  shot,  and  the  caliber  of  a  24  poun- 

der, look  for  the  number  2  on  the  left- 
hand  side,  and  for  4  at  top ;  then  the 
number  5.547,  under  4,  and  opposite 
2,  will  be  the  diameter  of  the  shot,  in 
inches  and  decimals,  and  the  number 
5.824,  under  the  first,  the  caliber  of  a 
24  pounder,  &c. 

Diameters  of  leaden  bullets  from  1  to  39  in  the  pound. 




























.65oj  .637 























The  diameter  of  musket  bore9  dif- 
fers about  l-50th  part  from  that  of  the 
bullet.  The  government  allows  11  bul- 
lets in  the  pound,  for  the  proof  of  mus- 
kets, and  14  in  the  pound,  or  29  in  2 
pounds,  for  service;  17  for  the  proof 
of  carbines,  and  20  for  service;  28  in 
the  pound  for  proof  of  pistols,  and  34 
for  service. 

Diameter  of  powder  measures.  See 
Powber  measures. 

Lu  DIANE,  Fr.  the  Reveillee. 

DICTATOR,  a  magistrate  of  Rome, 
elected  in  times  of  exigence  and  public 
distress,  and  invested  with  absolute  au- 

DIET,  (Diete,  Fr.)  an  assembly  of 
princes  or  estates;  particularly  so  calle4 
in  Germany,  Poland,  and  Sweden. 

DIFFERENCE,  the  sum  paid  by 
an  officer  in  the  British  service,  when  he 
exchanges  from  half  to  full  pay.   It  like- 

D  I  N 

(     16?     ) 

D  I  S 

wise  means  the  regulation  price  between 
an  inferior  and  a  superior  commission. 
Officers  who  retire  upon  half-pay,  and 
take  the  difference,  subject  themselves 
to  many  incidental  disadvantages,  should 
they  wish  to  return  into  active  ser- 

DIFFERENCES  among  officers  of  a 
town,  &c.  (Differences  entre  les  officiers 
d'une  place,  Fr.)  Whenever  any  differ- 
ences, disputes,  &c.  occur  between  the 
staff  officers  of  a  town  and  those  of  a 
garrison,  in  case  they  do  not  come  under 
any  specific  military  code,  all  such  dif- 
ferences must  be  settled  by  the  governor 
or  commandant. 

DIFFERENTIEL,  Fr.  an  epithet 
given  in  geometry  to  that  species  of 
calculation,  whose  object  is  to  ascer- 
tain quantities  infinitely  smail,  and  their 
reciprocal  differences.      See  Integral. 

DIGERER  un  projet,  Fr.  to  weigh 
well  every  thing  which  may  conduce  to 
the  good  success  of  an  enterprize. 

DIGGING.    See  Mining. 

DIGLADIATION,  a  combat  with 

DIGUE,  Fr.    See  Dyke. 

DIGUON,  Fr.  a  staff,  at  the  end  of 
which  is  suspended  a  vane  or  streamer. 
This  term  is  properly  marine. 

DIKE  or  Dyke,  a  channel  to  receive 
water,  also  a  mound  or  dam  to  prevent 

DILAPIDATION,  Fr.  embezzle- 
ment, misapplication  of  public  monies. 

DIMACHJE,  in  ancient  military  af- 
fairs, were  a  kin.d  of  horsemen,  answer- 
ing to  the  dragoons  of  the  moderns. 

DIMICATION.     See  Battle. 

To  DIMINISH  or  increase  the  front 
of  a  battalion,  is  to  adopt  the  column  of 
march  or  manoeuvre  according  to  the 
obstructions  and  difficulties  which  it 
meets  in  advancing.  This  is  one  of 
the  most  important  movements;  and  a 
battalion,  which  does  not  perform  this 
operation  with  the  greatest  exactness 
and  attention,  so  as  not  to  lengthen  out 
in  the  smallest  degree,  is  not  fit  to  move 
in  the  column  of  a  considerable  corps. 

DIMINUE,  Fr.  diminished.  A  term 
used  in  fortification.  See  Angle  dimi- 

DINATOIRE,  Fr.  the  hour,  or  cir- 
cumstance of  dining,  or  going  to  mess. 
Hence  heure  dinatoire,  the  dining  hour,  or 
dinner  time.  The  French  also  say,  heure 
soupatoire,  supper  time ;  and  of  a  very 
late  breakfast  or  dinner — such  as  the 

mess  dinner    at    St.  James's,   Dijenni 
dinatoire,  smpcr  dinatoire. 

DIRECTEUR  G'tncral,  Fr.  a  mili- 
tary post  of  nominal  importance,  which 
was  originally  instituted  by  Louis  XIV. 
This  charge  was  entrusted  to  eight 
lieutenant-generals,  four  to  command 
and  superintend  the  infantry,  and  four 
the  cavalrv. 


DIRECTION,  in  military  mechanics, 
signifies  the  line  or  path  of  a  body  in 
motion,  along  which  it  endeavours  to 
force  its  way,  according  to  the  propelling 
power  that  is  given  to  it. 

Angle  of  Direction,  that  formed  by 
the  lines  of  direction  of  two  conspiring 

Quantity  of  Direction,  a  term  used 
by  military  mathematicians  for  the  pro- 
duct of  the  velocity  of  the  common  cen- 
ter of  gravity  of  a  system  of  bodies,  by 
the  sum  of  their  quantities  of  matter; 
this  is  no  ways  altered  by  any  collisions 
among  the  bodies  themselves. 

DIRECTOR  (directeur,  Fr.)  The 
chief  officer  belonging  to  the  late  corps 
of  Royal  Engineers  in  Ireland  was  so 

DIRECTLY,  in  geometry,  a  term 
used  of  two  lines  which  are  said  to  be 
directly  against  each  other,  when  they 
are  parts  of  the  same  right  line. 

In  mechanics,  a  body  is  said  to 
strike  directly  against  another,  if  it 
strike  in  a  right  line,  perpendicular  to 
the  point  of  contact. 

A  sphere  is  said  to  strike  directly 
against  another,  when  the  line  of  direc- 
tion passes  through  both   their  centers, 

DIRECTORY,  (Directoire,  Fr.)  a  go- 
vernment which  prevailed  in  France 
after  the  death  of  Robespierre ;  also  a 
civil  or  military  tribunal. 

DIRK,  a  kind  of  dagger  used  by  th© 
Highlanders  in  Scotland,  which  they  ge- 
nerally wear  stuck  in  their  belts. 

To  DISALLOW,  in  a  military  sense, 
not  to  admit  charges  which  may  be 
made  against  the  public  by  officers  and 

DISALLOWANCES,  deductions 
made  from  military  estimates,  when  the 
charges  against  the  public  do  not  appear 

To  DISARM,  to  deprive  a  soldier 
of  every  species  of  offensive,  or  defen- 
sive weapon. 

DISARMED,  soldiers  divested  of 
their  arms,  either  by  conquest,  or  in 
consequence  of  some  defection. 

D  I  S 

C     168     ) 

D  I  S 

DISBANDED,  the  soldiers  of  any 
regiment,  who  are  in  a  bodv  dismissed 
from  the  conditions  of  their  mitotan 

DISBARS.    See  Disemuark. 

DISCHARGE,  remission  of  service. 
There  are  three  different  sorts  of  dis- 
charge made  use  of,  according  to  the 
merit  or  demerit  of  the  individual  to 
whom  it  may  be  granted.  See  General 
Regulations  and  Orders,  pages  47,  50, 
187  to  203;  219,  268,  203,823  to  385. 

This  term  is  also  applied  to  the  firing 
of  cannon  or  muskets;  as,  a  discharge 
of  cannon,  or  small  arms. 

DISCIPLINARIAN,  an  officer  wl„> 
pays  particular  regard  to  the  discipline 
of  the  soldiers  under  his  command. 

DISCIPLINE,  in  a  military  sense, 
signifies  the  instruction  and  government 
of  soldiers. 

Military  Discipline,)      By  military 

Military  Constitution.  )  constitution 
is  meant,  the  authoritative  declared  laws 
for  the  guidance  of  all  military  men,  and 
all  military  matters;  and  by  discipline  is 
meant,  the  obedience  to,  and  exercise,  of 
those  laws.  As  health  is  to  the  natural 
body,  so  is  a  sound  military  constitution 
to  the  military  one;  and  as  exercise  is 
to  the  first,  so  is  discipline  to  the  last. 
Bravery  will  perchance  gain  a  battle; 
but  every  one  knows  that  by  discipline 
alone  the  long-disputed  prize  of  a  war 
can  be  ultimately  obtained. 

Discipline  is  the  right  arm  of  a 
general,  and  money  is  his  shield;  with- 
out those  two  ingredients,  it  would  be 
better  to  be  a  d ruin-boy,  or  a  filer,  than 
the  general  of  an  army. 

Marine  Discipline  is  the  training 
up  soldiers  for  sea-service,  in  such  exer- 
cises and  various  positions  as  the  mus- 
ket and  body  may  require;  teaching 
them  likewise  every  manoeuvre  that  can 
be  performed  on  board  ships  of  war  at 
sea,  &c. 

DISCOBOLOS,  (discobole,  IV.)  a 
person  who  threw  the  disk;  an  athletic 
exerciser.  The  range  of  the  discus 
thrown  from  a  vigorous  arm  was  con- 
sidered as  a  measure  which  served  to 
name  a  certain  distance,  the  same  as 
we  say,  within  musket-shot,  or  cannon- 

DISCORD,  (Discorde,  Fr.)  according 
to  heathen  mythology,  an  ill-tempered 
goddess,  whom  Jupiter  turned  out  of 
heaven,  on  account  of  her  continually 
setting   the  gods   at  variance  with   one 

another.  She  was  represented  as  having 
serpents  instead  of  hair,  holding  at 
lighted  torch  in  one  hand,  and  a  snake 
and  dart  in  the  other;  her  complexion 
was  olive  colour,  her  looks  wild,  her 
mouth  foaming  with  rage,  and  her  hands 
stained  with  gore.  Ever  since  she  was 
driven  from  the  heavens,  she  has  re- 
sided on  earth,  and  is  chiefly  visible  in 
courts  and  cabinet  councils.  She  is 
continually  travelling  from  the  one  to 
the  other,  in  order  to  excite  all  sove- 
reigns to  wage  war  against  one  another; 
and  in  the  course  of  her  excursions, 
she  often  disturbs  the  peace  of  private 
individuals.  This  description  is  figura- 
tive, and  ought  to  convince  young  mili- 
tary men,  that  the  slightest  differences 
between  the  members  of  a  corps  may 
become  epidemical,  and  ruin  the  whole 
body.  Discord  among  troops  in  a  gar- 
rison town  may  be  attended  with  fatal 
consequences;  for  the  garrison  are  in- 
terested in  obtaining  the  esteem  and 
attachment  of  the  inhabitants,  whose 
assistance  they  may  chance  to  be  in 
great  need  of,  should  a  long  siege  take 

DISCOVER  MB,  a  scout;  one  who  is 
set  to  descry  the  enemy. 

DISCRETION,  Fr.  discretion.  Se 
rendre  a  discretion,  to  surrender  at  dis- 
cretion, implies  to  throw  one's-self  upon 
the  mercy  of  a  victorious  enemy.  The 
French  likewise  say,  let  solilats  vivent  & 
discretion  dans  un  pays ;  which,  in  fami- 
liar English,  signifies,  soldiers  live  scot* 
free  in  a  country. 

DISCRETION,  (discretion,  Fr.)  Un- 
der this  term  are  comprehended  circum- 
spection, prudence,  wisdom,  and  acti- 
vity; qualities  which  essentially  contri- 
bute to  the  ultimate  success  of  an  un- 

DISCUS,  a  quoit,  made  of  stone,  lead, 
or  some  other  metal,  one  foot  long,  and 
eight  inches  wide.  It  was  used  among 
the  Greeks  and  Romans  at  their  public 
games  and  festivals.  He  who  threw  it 
highest,  or  to  the  greatest  distance,  car- 
ried the  prize.  Discus  was  also  the 
name  of  a  round  shield  which  was  con- 
secrated to  the  memory  of  some  hero, 
and  was  suspended  in  a  temple.  There 
was  one  to  be  seen  at  the  Cabinet  dex 
Antiques  in  Paris,  which  had  been  found 
in  the  Rhone. 

DISEMBODIED.     See  Disbanded. 

To  DISEMBODY,  when  applied  to 
the   British   militia,  signifies   to  disarm 

D  I  S 

(     169     ) 

D  I  S 

that  body,  and  to  dispense  with  their  mi- 
litary services  for  a  stated  period. 

To  DISEMBARK,  (dibarquer,  Fr.) 
to  land  troops  from  any  vessel. 

DISEMBARKATION,  (dibarque- 
ment,  Fr.)  the  disembarking  or  landing 
of  troops. 

To  DISENGAGE,  (degager,  Fr.)  to 
clear  a  column  or  line,  which  may  have 
lost  its  proper  front  by  the  overlapping 
of  any  particular  division,  company,  or 
section,  when  ordered  to  form  up.  To 
do  this,  ground  must  be  taken  to  the 
right  or  left.  It  is,  however,  a  danger- 
ous operation  when  the  army  or  battalion 
gets  into  a  line  of  fire.  In  that  case  the 
files  that  overlap  must  remain  in  the 
rear,  and  fill  up  the  first  openings. 

To  Disengage  is  also  to  extricate 
yourself  and  the  men  you  command  from 
a  critical  situation.  A  battalion,  for  in- 
stance, which  may  have  advanced  too 
far  during  an  action,  and  got  between 
two  fires,  may,  by  an  able  manoeuvre, 
disengage  itself. 

To  Disengage  the  wings  of  a  batta- 
lion. This  is  necessary  when  the  bat- 
talion countermarches  from  its  center, 
and  on  its  center  by  files.  The  battalion 
having  received  the  word  "  by  wings, 
inward  face,"  is  next  ordered  "  by  wings, 
three  side  steps  to  the  right,  march,"  by 
which  the  wings  are  disengaged  from 
each  other.  In  countermarching,  &c 
the  leading  files  must  uniformly  disen- 
gage themselves. 

To  Disengage,  in  fencing,  to  quit 
that  side  of  your  adversary's  blade,  on 
which  you  are  opposed  by  his  guard,  in 
order  to  effect  a  cut  or  thrust  where  an 
opportunity  may  present. 

DISETTE,  Fr.  scarcity.  The  want 
of  some  article  of  the  first  necessity; 
i.  e.  some  article  of  life. 

DISGARNISH,  (degarnir,  Fr.)  to 
take  guns  from  a  fortress. 

DISHONOUR,  (deshonneur,  Fr.)  loss 
of  character  and  reputation. 

DISLOCATION,  Fr.  out  of  joint.  In 
a  military  sense  this  word  signifies  distri- 
bution. Hence  the  dislocation  of  an  army, 
or  the  distribution  of  its  component  parts 
into  cantonments,  camps,  garrisons,  &c. 

DISLODGE,  to  drive  an  enemy  from 
their  post  or  station. 

To  Dislodge  a  camp,  (dicamper,  Fr.) 
to  strike  the  tents,  &c.  and  march  away. 

DISLOYAL,  (d'doyal,  Fr.)  perfidious; 

DISMANTLE,  (dimunteler,  Fr.)  to 

strip  a  town  or  fortress  of  its  outworks. 
The  French  say  likewise,  digarnir. 

To  Dismantle  a  gun,  to  render  it 
unfit  for  use,  by  capsizing  it,  &c. 

To  DISMISS,  to  discard. 

To  Dismiss  the  service,  (congidier, 
Fr.)  to  take  an  officer's  commission,  or 
warrant  from  him. 

DISMISSED.  An  officer  in  the 
British  service  may  be  dismissed  gene- 
rally or  specifically.  When  an  officer  is 
dismissed  generally,  it  is  signified  to  him, 
th  it  his  Majesty  has  not  any  further  oc- 
casion for  his  services.  When  an  officer 
is  dismissed  specifically,  it  is  expressly 
notified,  that  he  is  rendered  incapable  of 
ever  serving  again.  Sometimes,  indeed, 
this  species  of  dismissal  is  attended  with 
public  marks  of  extreme  disgrace  and 
degradation.  In  the  Austrian  service,  a 
colonel  has  been  dismissed  at  the  head 
of  his  regiment,  and  has  had  his  sword 
hroken  before  him,&c.  During  the  war  of 
1793,  the  colonel  of  a  militia  regiment  was 
not  only  rendered  incapable  of  ever  serv- 
ing again,  but  was  also  expelled  thellouse 
of  Commons  for  military  misconduct. 
The  charges  against  him,  together  with 
the  circumstantial  proofs  of  his  guilt,  and 
the  King's  approbation  of  the  sentence, 
were  read  in  the  circle  of  every  regiment 
throughout  Great  Britain,  in  1795;  and 
nothing  hut  a  plea  of  severe  indisposi- 
tion saved  the  culprit  from  having  the 
minutes  publicly  communicated  to  him 
at  the  Horse  Guards. 

DISMOUNTING,  in  a  military  sense, 
is  the  act  of  unhorsing.  Thus,  to  dis- 
mount the  cavalry,  &c.  is  to  make  them 

To  Dismount  cannon,  (d'emonter  un 
canon,  Fr.)  is  to  break  their  carriages, 
wheels,  axle-trees,  or  any  thing  else,  so  as 
to  render  them  unfit  for  service.  It  also 
implies  dismounting  by  the  gin,  &c. 

DISOBEDIENCE  of  orders,  (dho- 
belssance,  Fr.)  any  infraction,  by  neglect, 
or  wilful  omission,  of  general  or  regi- 
mental orders.  It  is  punishable  by  the 
5th  art.  of  the  2d  Sect,  of  the  Articles  of 

To  DISPART,  in  gunnery,  is  to  set  a 
mark  on  the  muzzle-ring,  so  that  it  may 
be  of  an  equal  height  with  the  base- 
ring:  hence  a  line  drawn  between  them, 
will  be  parallel  to  the  axis  of  the  concave 
cylinder,  for  the  gunner  to  take  aim  by 
it,  to  bit  the  mark  he  is  to  fire  at;  for 
the  bore  and  this  imaginary  line  being 
parallel,  the  aim  so  taken  must  be  true. 

D  I  S 

This  exactness  cannot  be  made  use  of  in 
an  engagement,  an'i  but  very  seldom  at 
a  siege;  for  in  those  cases  practice  and 
the  eye  must  be  the  only  guides. 

To  Dispart  «  piece  of  ordnance,  (ca- 
librer  up  canon,  Fr.)  See  Dispart. 
DisPA&T-froiitlet.  Sec  From  let. 
DISPENSATION,  exclusive  privi- 
lege to  do  or  omit  something.  Hence 
a  dispensation  to  receive  half-pay,  to- 
gether with  the  emoluments  of  some 
place  or  office. 

DISPENSE  £age,  Fr.  a  dispensation 
given  on  account  of  old  age. 

To  DISPFRSF,  in  a  military  sense, 
may  be  variously  understood,  In  an  ac- 
tive one,  it  signifies  to  disperse  any  body 
of  men,  arir.ed,  or  unarmed,  who  may 
have  assembled  in  an  illegal,  or  hostile 
manner.  The  cavalry  are  generally  em- 
ployed on  these  occasions. 

To  Disperse  likewise  means  to  break 
suddenly  from  any  particular  order,  in 
line  or  column,  and   to  repair  to  some 
rallying  point.     Hence  to  sound  the  dis- 
perse is  to  give  notice  that  the  battalion, 
or  battalions,  are  to  retreat  from  their 
actual  position,  in  a  loose  and  desultory 
manner,  and  to  reassemble  according  to 
the  natural  line  of  formation;  taking  the 
colours  as  their  central  points  to  dress  by. 
To   Disperse    the  enemy,  (dispcrser 
Vcnnemi,  Fr.)  to  force  him  to  fly  in  vari- 
ous directions.      The   F  ench  also   say, 
dispcrser  des  soldats,  to  separate  soldiers 
and  distribute  them  in  different  quarters. 
DISPLACED.    Officers  in  the  British 
service  are  sometimes  displaced  from  a 
particular  regiment  in  consequence   of 
misconduct  proved  upon  the  minutes  of 
a  general  court-martial;  but  they  are  at 
liberty  to  serve  in  any  other  corps.  The 
power  of  displacing  an  officer  is  vested 
in  the  King  only. 

To  DISPLAY,  (dephnjer,  ctendrc,  Fr.) 
in  a  military  sense,  is  to  extend  the  front 
of  a  column,  and  thereby  bring  it  into 
line.    See  Deploy. 

DISPOSE.  To  dispose  cannon  is  to 
place  it  in  such  a  manner,  that  its  dis- 
charge may  do  the  greatest  mischief. 
Formstance,  to  dispose  cannon  alo/ig  the 
front  of  the  line. 

DISPOSITION,  in  a  general  sense,  is 
the  just  or  proper  placing  of  an  army,  or 
body  of  men, upon  the  most  advantageous 
ground, and  in  the  strongest  situation  for 
a  vigorous  attack,  or  defence. 

Disposiion-  de  guerre,  Fr.  warlike  ar- 
rangement, or  disposition.     Under  this 

C    iro   )  D  I  S 

head  may  be  considered  the  mode  of 
establishing,  combining,  conducting  and 
finally  terminating  a  war,  so  as  to  pro- 
duce success  and  victory. 

Wisdom  and  discretion  in  council 
point  out  the  form  necessary  for  the  first 
establishment  of  a  warlike  enterprize, 
or  disposition,  afford  the  means  of  bring- 
ing it  to  a  conclusion,  and  assimilate  all 
the  various  parts  so  as  to  unite  the  whole. 
The  following  maxims  are  in  the  Me- 
moirs of  General  Montecuculi. 

Deli  berate  leisurely,  execute  promptly. 
Let  the  safety  of  your  army  be  your 
first  object. 

Leave  something  to  chance. 
Take  advantage  of  circumstances. 
Use  all  the   means    i:i   your  power  to 
secure  a  good  reputation. 

The  disposition,  or  arrangement,  of  a 
warlike  enterprize  may  be  universal,  or 

An  universal  disposition,  or  arrange* 
ment,  of  war  implies  every  thing  which 
relates  to  that  system  upon  an  extensive 
scale  ;  such  as  the  combination  of  many 
parts  for  the  ultimate  benefit  of  the 
whole,  &C. 

A  particular  disposition,  or  arrange- 
ment, of  war  signifies  the  detail  of  mi- 
nute objects,  and  the  appropriation  of 
various  parts,  one  with  another,  for  the 
purpose  of  effecting;  a  general  combi- 
nation. This  disposition  (without  which 
the  other  must  prove  abortive)  consists 
in  an  observance  of  the  strictest  dis- 
cipline by  every  individual  that  belongs 
to  a  troop,  or  company.  To  this  end, 
general  officers  should  be  scrupulously 
exact  in  attending  to  the  inspection  of 
particular  corps  ;  specific  instructions 
for  regimental  economy  and  discipline 
should  be  given,  and  the  strictest  regard 
paid  to  the  execution  of  orders. 

Fairedes  Dispositions,  Fr.  to  make 
the  necessary  arrangements  for  a  battle; 
or  to  adopt  such  measures,  that  every 
thing  may  be  in  a  good  state  to  meet  the 

To'  DISPUTE  the  ground,  (disputer 
le  terrein,  Fr.)  to  light  foot  to  foot. 

DISSIPER  une  armec,  Fr.  to  attack 
an  army  in  such  a  manner,  that  the  se- 
veral battalions  are  obliged  to  disperse, 
and  retreat  by  different  routes. 

DISTANCE,  in  military  formation, 
signifies  the  relative  space  which  is  left 
between  men  standing  under  arms  in 
rank,  or  the  interval  which  appears  be- 
tween those  ranks,  &c. 

D  I  S 

(   in   ) 

D  I  V 

Distance  of  files.  Every  soldier  when 
in  his  true  position  under  arms,  shoul- 
dered and  in  rank,  must  just  feel  with 
his  elbow  the  touch  of  his  neighbour 
with  whom  he  dresses;  nor  in  any  situa- 
tion of  movement  in  front  must  he  ever 
relinquish  such  touch,  which  becomes  in 
action  the  principal  direction  for  the 
preservation  of  his  order,  and  each  file 
as  connected  with  its  two  neighbouring 
ones,  must  consider  itself  a  complete 
body,  so  arranged  for  the  purpose  of 
attack,  or  effectual  defence.  Close  files 
must  invariably  constitute  the  formation 
of  all  corps  that  go  into  action.  The 
peculiar  exercise  of  the  light  infantry  is 
the  only  exception.  See  Infantry  Regu- 
lations, p.  75 

of  his  means  of  subsistence,  ammunition, 
Sjq  Spg  A  liOis  Ft 
^  DISTRIBUTION,  (distribution,  Fr.) 
in  a  military  sense,  generally  applies  to 
any  division,  or  allotment,  which  is  made 
for  the  purposes  of  warfare.  Thus  an 
army  may  be  distributed  about  a  coun- 
try. In  a  more  confined  sense  it  means 
the  minute  arrangements  that  are  made 
for  the  interior  economy  of  corps ;  as 
distribution  of  pay, or  subsistance,  distri- 
bution of  allowances,  ccc. 

Distribution  de  plan,  Fr.  the  distri- 
bution, or  division  of  the  several  pieces 
which  compose  the  plan  of  a  building, 
and  which  are  placed  and  proportioned 
according  to  their  different  uses. 

DISTRICT,  in  a  military  sense,  one 

Distance  of  ranks,  open  distances  of  i  of  those  parts  into  which   a  country  is 

ranks  are  two  paces  asunder;  when 
close,  they  are  one  pace:  when  the  body 
is  halted  and  to  fire,  they  are  still  closer 
locked  up.  Close  ranks,  order  or  dis- 
tance, is  the  constant  and  habitual  order 
at  which  the  troops  are  at  all  times 
formed  and  move;  open  ranks,  order, 
or  distance,  is  only  an  occasional  excep- 
tion, made  in  the  situation  of  parade,  or 
in  light  infantry  manoeuvres. 

Distance  of  files  and  ranks  relates  to 
the  trained  soldier;  but  in  the  course  of 
his  tuition,  he  must  be  much  exercised 
at  open  files  and  ranks,  and  acquire 
thereby  independence  and  the  command 
of  his  limbs  and  body. 

Distance  of  the  bastions,\n  fortifica- 
tion, is  the  side  of  the  exterior  polygon. 
See  Fortification. 

Distance  in  fencing.     See  Fencing. 

Distance,  (distance,  Fr.)  is  properly 
the  shortest  hue  between   two  points. 

Line  o/* Distance,  in  perspective,  is  a 
right  line  drawn  from  the  eye  to  the 
principal  point. 

Point  (i/'Distance,  in  perspective,  is 
a  point  in  the  horizontal  line,  at  such 
distance  from  the  principal  point  as  is 
that  of  the  eve  from  the  snme. 

To  DISTINGUISH  one's  self,  (se  dis- 
tinguer,  Fr.)  to  do  some  extraordinary 
feat  of  valour  in  the  field,  or  to  discover 
great  talents  in  the  management  and 
execution  of  an  office,  &c. 

A  DISTINGUISHED  officer,  (officier 
distingue,  Fr.)  a  person  who,  in  his  mili- 
tary capacity,  has  given  proofs  of  extra- 
ordinary skill  and  valour. 

divided,  for  the  convenience  of  com- 
mand, and  to  secure  a  ready  co-opera- 
tion between  distant  bodies  of  armed 
men.  Great  Britain  and  Ireland  are 
divided  into  districts;  each  being  under 
the  immediate  superintendence  of  gene- 
ral officers. 

DITCH.   See  Fortification,  Moat. 

Ditch  of  the  counterscarp,  a  wet  or 
dry  ditch,  which  is  made  under  the  coun- 

DIVAN,  a  particular  private  council 
of  war  among  the  Turks,  held  by  the 
Capiculy  infantry,  in  the  palace  of  the 
Zunizeragazy  in  order  to  discuss  the 
military  operations  of  the  corps,  &c. 
There  is  another  Divan  held  by  the  su- 
preme council  of  the  Grand  Signor,  at 
which  all  the  generals  attend. 

This  term  is  also  applied  to  a  grand 
council,  or  court  of  judicature,  held  in 
each  province  among  the  Turks  and 

DIVERGENT,  >  in    geometry, 

DIVERGING  lines,  S  are  such  lines 
whose  distance  is  continually  increasing. 
Lines  which  converge  one  way,  and 
diverse  the  opposite  way. 

DIVERSION,  (diversion,  Fr.)  in  mi- 
litary history,  is  when  an  enemy  is  at- 
tacked in  one  place  where  he  is  weak 
and  unprovided,  in  order  to  draw  off  his 
forces  from  making  an  irruption  some- 
where else  ;  or  where  an  enemy  is  strong, 
and  by  an  able  manoeuvre  he  is  obliged 
to  detach  part  of  his  forces  to  resist  any 
feint,  or  menacing  attempt  of  his  op- 
ponent.     To  derive  advantage  from  a 

To  DISTRESS  an  enemy,  (mcttre  un  j  diversion,  taken  in  an  extended  accepta- 
ennemi   aux  abois,  Fr.)    to  cut   off  his  j  tion  of  the  term,  it  is  necessary  that  one 

line  of  communication : 

to  deprive  him  j  state  should  have  greater  resources  tba» 
Z  2 

D  I  V 

(     172     ) 

D  O  D 

another;  for  it  would  be  alisurd  to  at- 
tack the  territories  of  another  before 
you  had  seemed  your  own. 

It  is  likewise  requisite,  that  the  coun- 
try you  attack  by  stratagem  or  diversion 
should  be  easy  of  access,  and  the  inva- 
sion you  make  must  l»e  prompt,  vigorous 
nnd  unexpected,  directed  against  a  weak 
and  vulnerable  quarter.  A  little  good 
fortune  is  however  essentia!  to  render  a 
diversion  perfectly  successful,  as  all  the 
ways  and  means  by  which  it  ought  to  be 
made  cannot  he  reduced  to  rule. 

The  most  memorable  instance  of  a 
diversion  well  executed,  which  we  meet 
with  in  history,  was  performed  by  Scipio 
in  Africa,  whilst  Hannibal  carried  the 
warin  to  Italy.  In  1659,  a  diversion,  no 
less  remarkable,  was  practised  by  the 
imperial  and  allied  armies  against  the 

Fuire  Diversion,  Fr.  to  oblige  an 
enemy  to  divide  his  forces:  it  also  signi- 
fies to  draw  off  his  attention. 

DIVIDEND,  (dividends,  Fr.)  is  the 
number  divided  into  equal  parts  l>v  an- 
other number.  In  a  fraction,  the  dividend 
is  called  the  numerator. 

DIVISION,  (division,  Fr.)  a  certain 
proportion  of  an  army  consisting  of 
horse  and  foot  together,  or  of  horse  and 
foot  separately,  which  is  under  the  order 
of  a  brigadier,  or  other  general  officer. 

Division,  (division,  Fr.)  a  certain 
proportion  (U  a  troop  or  company,  which 
is  under  the  command  of  its  respective 
officers.  It  also  means  any  given  num- 
ber which  is  detached  on  military  duty, 
from  an  established  body  of  men  :  hence 
a  division  of  artillery,  wagon-corps, 
pioneers,  &c. 

Divisions  of  a  battalion  are  the  se- 
veral platoons  into  which  a  regiment  or 
battalion  is  divided,  either  in  marching 
or  firing;  each  of  which  is  commanded 
by  an  officer. 

Divisions  of  an  army  are  the  num- 
ber of  brigades  and  squadrons  it  con- 
tains.— The  advance,  the  main  and  the 
rear  guards  are  composed  out  of  the 
several  brigades,  and  inarch  in  front,  in 
the  center,  and  in  the  rear  of  an  army. 
Each  army  has  its  right  wing,  its  center, 
and  its  left  wing.  When  armies  march, 
they  advance  in  column,  that  is,  they 
are  divided  into  several  squadrons  and 
battalions  of  a  given  depth,  successively 
formed  upon  one  another.  If  an  army 
be  drawn  out  or  displayed  in  order  of 
battle,  it  is  usually  divided  into  the  first 

line,  which  constitutes  the  front,  the 
second  line,  which  makes  the  main  body, 
and  the  third  line,  or  reserve. 

DIVINE  service,  in  the  army,  is,  or 
should  be,  performed  every  Sunday.  All 
officers  and  soldiers,  not  having  just  im- 
pediment, shall  diligently  frequent  divine 
service  and  sermons  in  the  places  ap- 
pointed for  the  assembling  of  the  regi- 
ment, troop,  or  company,  to  which  they 
belong:  such  as  wilfully  absent  them- 
selves, or,  being  present,  behave  inde- 
cently or  irreverently,  shall,  if  commis- 
sioned officers,  be  brought  before  a  court- 
martial,  there  to  be  publicly  and  severely 
reprimanded  by  the  president;  if  non- 
commissioned officers  or  soldiers,  every 
person  so  offending,  shall,  for  his  first 
offence,  forfeit  12d.  to  he  deducted  out 
of  his  next  pay;  for  the  second  offence, 
he  shall  not  only  forfeit  12d.  but  be 
laid  in  irons  for  12  hours,  ccc.  Articles 
of  War. 

DOCK.     See  Troussequeue,  Fr. 
DOCKET,  a  small  note  or  bill  con- 
taining the  substance  of  something  writ- 
ten elsewhere  more  largely. 

DOCUMENT,  (document,  Fr.)  pre- 
cept; instruction;  direction;  voucher. 

Death-bed  Document.  Officers  have 
sometimes  delayed  sending  in  their  re- 
signation, or  signing  the  same,  until  their 
lives  have  been  actually  despaired  of; 
in  this  case  even  the  original  purchase 
of  their  commissions  has  not  been  al- 
lowed. The  official  term  is,  a  death-bed 
document  ;  for  a  remarkable  case  see 
Rfgimetitat  Companion,  vol.  iv.  p.  263, 
6th  edit. 

DODECAGON,  in  geometry,  is  a  re- 
gular polygon,  consisting  of  12  equal 
sides  and  angles,  capable  of  being  re- 
gularly fortified  hy  the  same  number  ot 

DODECAHEDRON  is  one  of  the 
platonic  bodies,  or  five  regular  solids, 
and  is  contained  under  12  equal  and  re- 
gular pentagons. 

The  solidity  of  a  dodecahedron  is  found 
by  multiplying  the  area  of  one  of  the 
pentagonal  faces  of  it  by  12;  and  this 
latter  product  by  1-Sd  of  the  distance 
of  the  face  from  the  center  of  the  dode- 
cahedron, which  is  the  same  as  the  cen- 
ter of  the  circumscribing  sphere. 

The  side  of  a  dodecahedron  inscribed 

in  a  sphere,  is  the  greater   part  of  the 

side  of  a  cube  inscribed  in  that  sphere, 

cut  into  extreme  and  mean  proportion. 

If  the  diameter  of  the  sphere  be  1.0000, 


(    175    ) 


the  side  of  a  dodecahedron,  inscribed  in 
it,  will  he  .35682  nearly.. 

All  dodecahedrons  are  similar,  and  are 
to  one  another  as  the  cubes  of  the  sides; 
and  their  surfaces  are  also  similar,  and 
therefore  they  are  as  the  squares  of  their 
sides;  whence  as  .509232  is  to  10.51462, 
so  is  the  square  of  the  side  of  any  dode- 
cahedron to  the  superficies  thereof:  and 
as  .3637  is  to  2.78516,  so  is  the  cube  of 
the  side  of  any  dodecahedron  to  the  soli- 
dity of  it. 

hOG-nuils.     See  Nails. 
DOLLAR,  a  foreign  coin  worth  from 
4s.  to  4s.  6d.,  according  to  the  mint  from 
which  it  is  issued. 

DOLMAN,  DOLIMAN,  a  robe  of 
Thessonica  cloth,  of  which  the  Grand 
Signor  makes  a  present  to  the  janizaries 
on  the  first  day  of  their  Rumuzun,  or 

DOLON,  a  long  hollow  stick,  con- 
taining a  pointed  iron,  which  is  thrown 
at  discretion. 
DOLPHINS.  See  Cannon. 
DOME,  (dome,  Fr.)  in  architecture, 
a  spherical  roof,  or  a  roof  of  a  spherical 
form,  raised  over  the  middle  of  a  build- 
ing, as  a  church,  hall,  pavilion,  vestible, 
staircase,  &c.  by  way  of  crowning. 

Domes  are  what  the  Italians  call  cou- 
polas,  and  we  cupolas;  Vitruvius  calls 
them  tholi. 

DOMMAGE,  Fr.  in  a  general  accep- 
tation of  the  term,  signified,  in  the  old 
French  service,  the  compensation  which 
every  captain,  of  a  troop,  or  company, 
was  obliged  to  make  in  consequence  of 
any  damage  that  their  men  might  have 
done  in  a  town,  or  on  a  march.  If  any 
disagreement  occurred  between  the  of- 
ficers and  inhabitants,  with  respect  to 
the  indemnification,  a  statement  of 
losses  sustained  was  sworn  to  by  the 
latter  before  the  mayor,  or  magistrates 
of  the  place,  who  determined  the  same. 
But  if  the  officers  should  refuse  to  abide 
by  their  decision,  a  remonstrance  was 
drawn  up  and  transmitted  to  the  secre- 
tary at  war,  with  a  copy  of  the  same  to 
the  intendant  of  the  province.  Officers 
have  frequently  been  displaced,  or  de- 
graded, on  this  account.  Hence  the 
term  dommage  is  supposed  to  have  been 
derived  from  the  Latin  words  damnum, 
jactura,  and  signifies  the  loss,  or  priva- 
tion of  a  step. 

DONDANE,  Fr.  a  machine  which 
was  used  by  the  ancients  to  cast  round 
stones  and  pebbles  on  their  enemies. 

DONJON,  Fr.  a  turret;  a  dungeon. 
Donjon,  Fr.  in  fortification,  a  secure 
spot,  generally  bomb-proof,  in  a  place  of 
arms,  or  in  a  citadel,  to  which  the  garri- 
son sometimes  retires,  in  order  to  offer 
terms  of  capitulation. 

Donjon,  Fr.  in  architecture,  a  small 
wooden  pavilion,  which  is.  raised  above 
the  roof  of  a  house,  in  order  to  take  the 
air,  or  to  enjoy  a  fine  view  of  the  coun- 
try, or  adjacent  parts. 

DONNEE,  Fr.  given;  a  term  gene- 
rally used  in  mathematics,  with  respect 
to  any  thing  which  we  suppose  to  be 

DONNER,  Fr.  to  charge  an  enemy, 
to  fire  upon  him. 

Donner,  Fr.  is  to  charge  the  enemy 
as  soon  as  the  signal  for  battle  is  given. 
Thus  it  is  said,  les  troupes  donnerent  iete 
baissee,  the  troops  rushed  headlong. 

Donner  de  t'inquietude  a  Vennemi,  Fr. 
to  inarch  in  various  directions,  and  by 
other  manoeuvres  to  disconcert  an  enemy. 

Donner,  Fr.  This  word  is  used  in 
the  same  sense  as  marcher.  As  donner, 
ou  marchjg  contre  Vennemi. 

DOOSilES,  Ind.  palanqueens  of  a 
simple  c  Obstruction,  for  the  conveyance 
of  the  sick.  On  a  march,  each  company 
of  sepoys  is  allowed  one  dooly,  and  of 
Europeans  ten. 

GO^iSmilituires, Fr.  military  rewards. 

DORMANT,  Fr.  a  sleeper,  or  piece 
of  timber  laid  horizontally  in  wooden 
quays  and  dikes,  in  order  to  keep  fast 
the  extremities  of  the  keys  which  form 
the  assemblage. 

Dormant,  Fr.  also  a  frieze,  or  frame 
at  the  top  of  a  square,  or  arched  door. 

Dormant  de  fer,  Fr.  an  aperture 
made  of  iron  bars,  over  a  wooden  or  iron 
door,  to  give  light. 

DORYPHORI,  the  body  guards  of 
the  Roman  emperors;  they  were  armed 
with  a  pike,  and  were  forced  to  take  a 
particular  oath ;  they  were  held  in  high 
consideration,  and  were  promoted  to  tha 
first  military  ranks. 

DOS,  Fr.  back ;  rear. 

Dos  d'ane,  Fr.  This  term  is  applica-